Saturated fat and cardiovascular disease
Most medical, scientific, heart-health, governmental, and professional authorities agree that saturated fat is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including the World Health Organization, the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Medicine, the American Dietetic Association, the Dietitians of Canada, the British Dietetic Association, the American Heart Association, the British Heart Foundation, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, the World Heart Federation, the British National Health Service, the United States Food and Drug Administration, and the European Food Safety Authority. All of these organizations recommend restricting consumption of saturated fats to reduce that risk.
However, some meta-analyses of clinical trials and cohort studies have provided evidence against the recommendation for reduced intake of saturated fat, including one critique by scientists and one by a trade association.
- 1 History
- 2 Systematic reviews
- 3 Views
- 3.1 Mainstream opinion
- 3.2 Editorial, commentary and conference findings
- 4 See also
- 5 References
Cholesterol and cardiovascular disease
The initial connection between arteriosclerosis and dietary cholesterol is attributed to the Russian pathologist Nikolay Anichkov, prior to World War I. Dutch physician Cornelis de Langen noted the correlation between nutritional cholesterol intake and incidence of gallstones in Javanese people in 1916. de Langen showed that the traditional Javanese diet, poor in cholesterol and other lipids, was associated with a low level of blood cholesterol and low incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), while the prevalence of CVD in Europeans living in Java on a Western diet was higher. Since de Langen published his results only in Dutch, his work remained unknown to most of the international scientific community until the 1940s and 1950s.
Saturated fat and cardiovascular disease
The hypothesis that saturated fat has a detrimental effect on human health gained prominence in the 1950s as a result of the work of Ancel Keys, a US nutritional scientist. At that time in the USA, the incidence of heart disease was rapidly increasing, for reasons that were not clear. Keys postulated a correlation between circulating cholesterol levels and cardiovascular disease, and initiated a study of Minnesota businessmen (the first prospective study of CVD).
Keys presented his diet-lipid-heart disease hypothesis at a 1955 expert meeting of the World Health Organization in Geneva. In response to criticism at the conference, he set out to conduct the years-long Seven Countries Study. Ancel Keys joined the nutrition committee of the American Heart Association (AHA) and successfully promulgated his idea such that in 1961, with the result that the AHA became the first group anywhere in the world to advise cutting back on saturated fat (and dietary cholesterol) to prevent heart disease. This historic recommendation was reported on the cover of Time Magazine in that same year.
Summary table of data
|Systematic review||Relationship between cardiovascular disease and saturated fatty acids (SFA)|
|American Heart Association: Presidential Advisory on Dietary Fats and Cardiovascular Disease||"Randomized controlled trials that lowered intake of dietary saturated fat and replaced it with polyunsaturated vegetable oil reduced cardiovascular disease by about 30%, similar to the reduction achieved by statin treatment."|
|Hamley, 2017||This review found no effect of saturated fats, when replaced by vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), on total mortality or cardiovascular mortality. "Available evidence from adequately controlled randomised controlled trials suggest replacing SFA with mostly n-6 PUFA is unlikely to reduce CHD events, CHD mortality or total mortality. The suggestion of benefits reported in earlier meta-analyses is due to the inclusion of inadequately controlled trials. These findings have implications for current dietary recommendations."|
|Hooper, 2015||This review found that reducing saturated fats, particularly by replacing them with unsaturated fats, reduced the risk of cardiovascular events by 14%, but no benefit to reducing total fat. There was no effect of saturated fats on total or cardiovascular mortality. "The findings are suggestive of a small but potentially important reduction in cardiovascular risk on modification of dietary fat, but not reduction of total fat, in longer trials. Lifestyle advice to all those at risk of cardiovascular disease and to lower risk population groups, should continue to include permanent reduction of dietary saturated fat and partial replacement by unsaturates."|
|Ramsden, 2016||"Available evidence from randomized controlled trials shows that replacement of saturated fat with linoleic acid effectively lowers serum cholesterol but does not support the hypothesis that this translates to a lower risk of death from coronary heart disease or all causes."|
|de Souza, 2015||"Saturated fats are not associated with all cause mortality, CVD, CHD, ischemic stroke, or type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is heterogeneous with methodological limitations."|
|Schwab, 2014||"there was convincing evidence that partial replacement of SFA [saturated fat] with PUFA [polyunsaturated fat] decreases the risk of CVD, especially in men."|
|Chowdhury, 2014||"Current evidence does not clearly support cardiovascular guidelines that encourage high consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids and low consumption of total saturated fats."|
|Farvid, 2014||"In prospective observational studies, dietary LA [linolenic acid] intake is inversely associated with CHD [coronary heart disease] risk in a dose-response manner. These data provide support for current recommendations to replace saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat for primary prevention of CHD."|
|Ramsden, 2010||Replacing saturated fats with mixed omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids n-3/n-6 PUFA diets lowered the risk of non-fatal heart attack and death from cardiovascular disease by 22%, while there was a non-significant trend of a 13% increased risk when omega-6 fatty acids alone were substituted. "Advice to specifically increase n-6 PUFA intake, based on mixed n-3/n-6 RCT data, is unlikely to provide the intended benefits, and may actually increase the risks of CHD and death."|
|Jakobsen, 2009||This is the sole individual participant data meta-analysis of the observational studies. Pooled data found that for every substitution of 5% of dietary energy from SFA with PUFAs reduced the risk of coronary events by 13%, and coronary deaths was by 26%, whereas replacing 5% of energy intake from SFAs with carbohydrates increased the risk of coronary events by 7%, with a non-significant trend of an increase in coronary deaths. Monounsaturated fatty acid intake was not associated with coronary outcomes.|
A 2017 systematic review focusing on adequately controlled randomized controlled trials concluded that replacing saturated fats with mostly n-6 polyunsaturated fats is unlikely to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) events, CHD mortality or total mortality. The 2017 review showed that inadequately controlled trials (e.g., failing to control for other lifestyle factors) that were included in earlier meta-analyses explain the prior results.
A 2017 systematic review by the American Heart Association recommended that decreasing saturated fat intake and increasing consumption of monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats could lower risk of cardiovascular disease by about 30%.
A 2015 systematic review also found no association between saturated fat consumption and risk of heart disease, stroke, diabetes, or death.
A 2015 systematic review of randomized control trials by the Cochrane Library found that reducing saturated fat intake resulted in a 17% reduction in cardiovascular events, and that replacing saturated fats with cis unsaturated fats in particular is beneficial. It concluded: "Lifestyle advice to all those at risk of cardiovascular disease and to lower risk population groups should continue to include permanent reduction of dietary saturated fat and partial replacement by unsaturated fats."
A 2014 systematic review looking at observational studies of dietary intake of fatty acids, observational studies of measured fatty acid levels in the blood, and intervention studies of polyunsaturated fat supplementation concluded that the findings ″do not support cardiovascular guidelines that promote high consumption of long-chain omega-3 and omega-6 and polyunsaturated fatty acids and suggest reduced consumption of total saturated fatty acids.″ Researchers acknowledged that despite their results, further research is necessary, especially in people who are initially healthy. Until the picture becomes clearer, experts recommend people stick to the current guidelines on fat consumption. Indeed, Nita Forouhi, one of the coauthors of the meta-analysis, stated to the BBC that headlines proclaiming that "butter is back" are "an oversimplification, we never said that" and noted that the study was not able to distinguish between the differing effects of reducing saturated fat intake depending on what foods were used in substitute. "While that research is going on I don't think we should just go changing everything. It's too premature to give the public the impression that they have a licence, based on this preliminary research, which is exciting but not yet definitive, to say butter is back."
Moreover, Walter Willett warned that the conclusions of the meta-analysis are seriously misleading, contains major errors and omissions, and should be retracted. In response to the Chowdhury review, Willett et al. commented:
- ″The meta-analysis of dietary fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease by Chowdhury et al. contains multiple errors and omissions, and the conclusions are seriously misleading, particularly the lack of association with N-6 polyunsaturated fat. For example, two of the six studies included in the analysis of N-6 polyunsaturated fat were wrong. The relative risks for Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Study (KIHD) were retrieved incorrectly and said to be above 1.0. However, in the 20-year follow-up of the NHS the relative risk for highest vs lowest quintile was 0.77 (95 percent CI: 0.62, 0.95); ptrend = 0.01 (the authors seem to have used the RR for N-3 alpha-linolenic acid from a paper on sudden cardiac death), and in the KIHD the relative risk was 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21-0.71) (the origin of the number used in the meta-analysis is unclear). Also, relevant data from other studies were not included.
- Further, the authors did not mention a pooled analysis of the primary data from prospective studies, in which a significant inverse association between intake of polyunsaturated fat (the large majority being the N-6 linoleic acid) and risk of CHD was found. Also, in this analysis, substitution of polyunsaturated fat for saturated fat was associated with lower risk of CHD. Chowdhury et al. also failed to point out that most of the monounsaturated fat consumed in their studies was from red meat and dairy sources, and the findings do not necessarily apply to consumption in the form of nuts, olive oil, and other plant sources. Thus, the conclusions of Chowdhury et al. regarding the type of fat being unimportant are seriously misleading and should be disregarded.″
The 2009 European Society of Cardiology Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine states that, in cohort studies, the positive relationship between fat intake and CVDs was linked to their saturated fatty acid content.
2007's Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation states that large epidemiological studies have shown consistent associations between the intake of saturated fatty acids and CHD mortality.
According to the 2007 Critical Pathways in Cardiovascular Medicine, substituting unsaturated fat for saturated fat may lower LDL cholesterol without simultaneously lowering HDL cholesterol. This dietary principle partly underlies the Mediterranean style of diet, which has been associated with reduced cardiovascular event rates in two randomized controlled trials.
The 2003 second edition of Evidence-based Cardiology in 'PartII: Prevention of cardiovascular diseases' recommends a low intake of SFA, less than 7% of daily calories, and intake of foods rich in myristic and palmitic acids should be especially reduced. The recommendation was evaluated to be supported by the best grade of available evidence.
Position statements and guidelines of major health organizations
In 2003 a World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) expert consultation report concluded: "intake of saturated fatty acids is directly related to cardiovascular risk. The traditional target is to restrict the intake of saturated fatty acids to less than 10%, of daily energy intake and less than 7% for high-risk groups. If populations are consuming less than 10%, they should not increase that level of intake. Within these limits, intake of foods rich in myristic and palmitic acids should be replaced by fats with a lower content of these particular fatty acids. In developing countries, however, where energy intake for some population groups may be inadequate, energy expenditure is high and body fat stores are low (BMI <18.5 kg/m2). The amount and quality of fat supply has to be considered keeping in mind the need to meet energy requirements. Specific sources of saturated fat, such as coconut and palm oil, provide low-cost energy and may be an important source of energy for the poor."
In its 2007 guidelines, the European Society of Cardiology states that there are strong, consistent, and graded relationships between saturated fat intake, blood cholesterol levels, and the mass occurrence of cardiovascular disease. The relationships are accepted as causal.
The Mayo Clinic considers saturated fats potentially harmful and monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats potentially helpful. It references the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 and recommends reducing foods rich in saturated fat and emphasizing options with more monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats.
The 2007 position statement of the American Dietetic Association and the Dieticians of Canada holds that epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between the intake of saturated fatty acid and the incidence of coronary heart disease.
The Harvard School of Public Health holds that saturated fats should be replaced with cis monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, but that they should not be replaced with refined carbohydrates.
The Canadian Heart and Stroke Foundation assesses that consumption of saturated fat raises LDL levels, which are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Similar positions are held by the American Heart Association, the British Heart Foundation, the National Heart Foundation of Australia, the National Heart Foundation of New Zealand, and the World Heart Federation. The Irish Heart Foundation states that saturated fats can raise LDL cholesterol and increase the chance of developing heart disease or stroke.
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 produced by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, says the human body makes more than enough saturated fats to meet its needs and does not require more from dietary sources. It says higher levels of saturated fats are associated with higher levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein "bad" cholesterol and recommends reduced saturated fat intake. The guidelines are based on the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC) report that incorporated the results of the review of 12 studies from 2004 to 2009 conducted by the Nutrition Evidence Library (NEL), part of the Evidence Analysis Library Division of the USDA's Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion. The NEL concluded that there was "strong" evidence that dietary saturated fats increased serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol and increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
Editorial, commentary and conference findings
A 2010 debate at the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics's 93rd conference stated: "Regarding saturated fat, the key point agreed upon by the panel and scientific community at large was that researchers agree that replacing saturated fat with healthy polyunsaturated fats is beneficial for health and cardiovascular disease." Recommendations for dieticians emphasized using mono- and polyunsaturated fats whenever possible, avoiding trans fats. Further, "The evidence against saturated fat may not be as strong as dietary guidelines have interpreted [it is clear] that PUFAs (especially) and MUFAs are healthy fats", and that while there is room for saturated fats within the diet, but "[they] should not be viewed as good for you".
A 2010 review found that the risk of coronary heart disease is reduced when saturated fatty acids are replaced with polyunsaturated fatty acids, but there was no clear benefit in replacing saturated fatty acids with carbohydrates or monounsaturated fatty acids.
A 2009 review found that the best evidence showed reduced intake of saturated fat decreased the risk for coronary heart disease.
Another 2009 review found that epidemiological evidence suggested a negative influence on vascular function from saturated fat, but that the experimental evidence did not support this convincingly.
Opinion contradictory to the mainstream
A 2009 scientific conference reported that despite the contribution of dairy products to the saturated fatty acid intake of the diet, there was no clear evidence that dairy food consumption is consistently associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease.
The 2010 U.S. Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee report was criticized for the "use of an incomplete body of relevant science; inaccurately representing, interpreting, or summarizing the literature; and drawing conclusions and/or making recommendations that do not reflect the limitations or controversies in the science", stating that the evidence associating dietary saturated fat with increased risk of cardiovascular disease is inconclusive.
A 2010 meta-analysis concluded that no evidence exists that dietary saturated fat is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, but this conclusion was disputed, and the authors of the meta-analysis themselves later noted: "A critical question is what macronutrient should be used to replace saturated fat. ... Epidemiologic studies and randomized clinical trials have provided consistent evidence that replacing saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat, but not carbohydrates, is beneficial for coronary heart disease."
An opinion editorial of US dietary guidelines – which recommended lower intake of saturated fat – summarized systematic reviews and meta-analyses, suggesting effects on the incidence of cardiovascular diseases by reducing dietary saturated fat were insignificant. The critique itself drew demands for retraction by more than 180 scientists, and consequently was twice corrected.
- Diet and heart disease
- Fast food
- French paradox
- Healthy diet
- Junk food
- Lipid hypothesis
- Low-carbohydrate diet
- Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation (2003). Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases (WHO technical report series 916) (PDF). World Health Organization. pp. 81–94. ISBN 92-4-120916-X. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 July 2015. Retrieved 2011-03-11.
- Food and Nutrition Board (2005). "10: Dietary Fats: Total Fat and Fatty Acids". Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. p. 422. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
- Kris-Etherton, PM; Innis, S; American Dietetic, Association; Dietitians Of, Canada (September 2007). "Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Dietary Fatty Acids" (PDF). Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 107 (9): 1599–1611 . doi:10.1016/j.jada.2007.07.024. PMID 17936958. Retrieved 2011-03-18.
- "Food Fact Sheet - Cholesterol" (PDF). British Dietetic Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 1, 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
- Sacks, Frank M.; Lichtenstein, Alice H.; Wu, Jason H.Y.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Creager, Mark A.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Miller, Michael; Rimm, Eric B.; Rudel, Lawrence L.; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Stone, Neil J.; Van Horn, Linda V. (15 June 2017). "Dietary Fats and Cardiovascular Disease: A Presidential Advisory From the American Heart Association" (PDF). Circulation. 136: CIR.0000000000000510. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000510.
- "Fats explained". Retrieved 2012-05-03.
- "Dietary fats, oils and cholesterol". Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
- "Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors". Retrieved 2012-05-03.
- "Eat less saturated fat". National Health Service. Retrieved 2012-05-03.
- "Nutrition Facts at a Glance - Nutrients: Saturated Fat". Food and Drug Administration. 2009-12-22. Archived from the original on September 17, 2011. Retrieved 2012-05-03.
- "Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol". European Food Safety Authority. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
- Siri-Tarino, Patty W.; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B.; Krauss, Ronald M. (March 2010). "Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 91 (3): 535–46. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.27725. PMC 2824152. PMID 20071648.
- Hamley, Steven (19 May 2017). "The effect of replacing saturated fat with mostly n-6 polyunsaturated fat on coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials" (PDF). Nutrition Journal. 16: 30. doi:10.1186/s12937-017-0254-5. PMC 5437600. PMID 28526025.
- Ramsden, Christopher E; Zamora, Daisy; Majchrzak-Hong, Sharon; Faurot, Keturah R.; Broste, Steven K.; Frantz, Robert P.; Davis, John M.; Ringel, Amit; Suchindran, Chirayath M.; Hibbeln, Joseph R (2016). "Re-evaluation of the traditional diet-heart hypothesis: analysis of recovered data from Minnesota Coronary Experiment (1968-73)". The BMJ. 353: i1246. doi:10.1136/bmj.i1246. PMC 4836695. PMID 27071971.
- de Souza, Russell J.; Mente, Andrew; Maroleanu, Adriana; Cozma, Adrian I.; Ha, Vanessa; Kishibe, Teruko; Uleryk, Elizabeth; Budylowski, Patrick; Schünemann, Holger; Beyene, Joseph; Anand, Sonia S. (2015). "Intake of saturated and trans unsaturated fatty acids and risk of all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes: Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies". The BMJ. 351: h3978. doi:10.1136/bmj.h3978. PMC 4532752. PMID 26268692.
- Chowdhury, Rajiv; et al. (18 March 2014). "Association of Dietary, Circulating, and Supplement Fatty Acids With Coronary Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". Annals of Internal Medicine. 160 (6): 398–406. doi:10.7326/M13-1788. PMID 24723079.
- Temple, Norman J. (2018-01-04). "Fat, Sugar, Whole Grains and Heart Disease: 50 Years of Confusion". Nutrients. 10 (1). doi:10.3390/nu10010039. ISSN 2072-6643. PMC 5793267. PMID 29300309.
- Hite, Adele H.; Feinman, Richard David; Guzman, Gabriel E.; Satin, Morton; Schoenfeld, Pamela A.; Wood, Richard J. (2010). "In the face of contradictory evidence: Report of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Committee". Nutrition. 26 (10): 915–24. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2010.08.012. PMID 20888548.
- Mente, Andrew. "New evidence reveals that saturated fat does not increase the risk of cardiovascular disease". Dairy Nutrition. Dairy Farmers of Canada. Retrieved 18 March 2011.
- Steinberg, Daniel (21 April 2004). "Thematic review series: The Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis. An interpretive history of the cholesterol controversy: Part I". Journal of Lipid Research. 45 (9): 1583–1593. doi:10.1194/jlr.R400003-JLR200. PMID 15102877.
- Blackburn, Henry (2012). "20th-Century "Medical Marco Polos" in the Origins of Preventive Cardiology and Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology". The American Journal of Cardiology. 109 (5): 756–767. doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2011.10.038.
- de Langen, Cornelis (1916). "Cholesterine-stofwisseling en rassenpathologie". Geneeskundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch-Indie (in Dutch). 56: 1–34.
- Teicholz, Nina (6 May 2014). "The Questionable Link Between Saturated Fat and Heart Disease". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
- Keys, Ancel; Taylor, Henry Longstreet; Blackburn, Henry; Brozek, Josef; Anderson, Joseph T.; Simonson, Ernst (1 September 1963). "Coronary Heart Disease among Minnesota Business and Professional Men Followed Fifteen Years". Circulation. 28 (3): 381–95. doi:10.1161/01.cir.28.3.381. PMID 14059458.
- Famous Polemics on Diet-Heart Theory. Henry Blackburn, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota. http://www.epi.umn.edu/cvdepi/essay.asp?id=33 accessed 18th March 2014
- Keys, Ancel (1980). Seven Countries: A Multivariate Analysis of Death and Coronary Heart Disease. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-80237-3.
- "Dietary Fat and Its Relation to Heart Attacks and Strokes". JAMA. 175 (5): 389–391. 4 February 1961. doi:10.1001/jama.1961.63040050001011. PMID 14447694.
- "TIME Magazine Cover: Ancel Keys". TIME.com. 13 January 1961. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
- Hooper, Lee; Summerbell, Carolyn D.; Thompson, Rachel; Sills, Deirdre; Roberts, Felicia G.; Moore, Helen J.; Smith, George Davey (April 2016). "Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease" (PDF). Sao Paulo Medical Journal. 134 (2): 182–3. doi:10.1590/1516-3180.20161342T1. PMID 27224282.
- Schwab, Ursula; Lauritzen, Lotte; Tholstrup, Tine; Haldorssoni, Thorhallur; Riserus, Ulf; Uusitupa, Matti; Becker, Wulf (10 July 2014). "Effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on cardiometabolic risk factors and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer: a systematic review". Food & Nutrition Research. 58: 25145. doi:10.3402/fnr.v58.25145. PMC 4095759. PMID 25045347.
- Farvid, Maryam S.; Ding, Ming; Pan, An; Sun, Qi; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Willett, Walter C.; Hu, Frank B. (28 October 2014). "Dietary Linoleic Acid and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort StudiesCLINICAL PERSPECTIVE" (PDF). Circulation. 130 (18): 1568–1578. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.010236. PMC 4334131. PMID 25161045.
- Ramsden CE, Hibbeln JR, Majchrzak SF, Davis JM (December 2010). "n-6 fatty acid-specific and mixed polyunsaturate dietary interventions have different effects on CHD risk: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials". Br J Nutr. 104 (11): 1586–600. doi:10.1017/S0007114510004010. PMID 21118617. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
- Jakobsen MU, O'Reilly EJ, Heitmann BL, Pereira MA, Bälter K, Fraser GE, Goldbourt U, Hallmans G, Knekt P, Liu S, Pietinen P, Spiegelman D, Stevens J, Virtamo J, Willett WC, Ascherio A (May 2009). "Major types of dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: a pooled analysis of 11 cohort studies". Am J Clin Nutr. 85 (5): 1425–32. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2008.27124. PMC 2676998. PMID 19211817. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
- Hamley, Steven (May 2017). "The effect of replacing saturated fat with mostly n-6 polyunsaturated fat on coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials" (PDF). Nutrition Journal. 16 (1): 30. doi:10.1186/s12937-017-0254-5. PMC 5437600. PMID 28526025.
- Hooper, Lee; Martin, Nicole; Abdelhamid, Asmaa; Smith, George Davey (10 June 2015). "Reduction in saturated fat intake for cardiovascular disease". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (6): CD011737. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD011737. PMID 26068959.
- Chowdhury R, Warnakula S, Kunutsor S, Crowe F, Ward HA, Johnson L, Franco OH, Butterworth AS, Forouhi NG, Thompson SG, Khaw KT, Mozaffarian D, Danesh J, Di Angelantonio E (2014). "Association of dietary, circulating, and supplement fatty acids with coronary risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Ann. Intern. Med. 160 (6): 398–406. doi:10.7326/M13-1788. PMID 24723079.
- "Saturated fats and heart disease link 'unproven'". NHI Choices. March 18, 2014.
- Gallagher, James (6 January 2016). "Diet debate: Is butter back and is sat fat good?". BBC News. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
- Willett, Walter; Sacks, Frank; Stampfer, Meir (19 March 2014). "Dietary fat and heart disease study is seriously misleading". Harvard School of Public Health.
- Camm, John; Luscher, Thomas; Serruys, Patrick (2009). The European Society of Cardiology Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. Blackwell Publishing. p. 257. ISBN 978-0-19-957285-4.
- Perk, J; et al. (2007). Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation. Springer-Verlag London Limited. p. 184. ISBN 978-1-84628-462-5.
- Cannon, Christopher; O'Gara, Patrick (2007). Critical Pathways in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2nd Edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 243.
- Yusuf, Salim; Cairns, John A.; Camm, A. John; Fallen, Ernest L.; Gersh, Bernard J. (2002). Evidence-Based Cardiology (Second ed.). BMJ Books. p. 320. ISBN 0-7279-1699-8.
- European Society of Cardiology; Atar; Borch-Johnsen; Boysen; Burell; Cifkova; Dallongeville; De Backer; Ebrahim; Gjelsvik; Herrmann-Lingen; Hoes; Humphries; Knapton; Perk; Priori; Pyorala; Reiner; Ruilope; Sans-Menendez; Scholte Op Reimer; Weissberg; Wood; Yarnell; Zamorano; Walma; Fitzgerald; Cooney; Dudina; European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Committee for Practice Guidelines (CPG) (2007). "European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: executive summary" (PDF). European Heart Journal. 28 (19): 2375–2414. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehm316. PMID 17726041.
- "Dietary fats: Know which types to choose". Mayo Clinic. 2 February 2016.
- Mead, A.; et al. (December 2006). "Dietetic guidelines on food and nutrition in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease – evidence from systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (second update, January 2006)". Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics (published 10 November 2016). 19 (6): 401–419. doi:10.1111/j.1365-277X.2006.00726.x. PMID 17105538.
- "Fats and Cholesterol". Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
- "Dietary fats, oils and cholesterol". Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "'Reduce saturated fat' urges Heart Foundation after major review" (PDF). National Heart Foundation of Australia. Retrieved 2014-12-24.
- "Is butter good for you?". The National Heart Foundation of New Zealand. 2017. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "Cholesterol". Irish Heart Foundation. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (December 2010). Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 (7th Edition). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
- USDA Nutrition Evidence Library. (2010). What is the effect of saturated fat intake on increased risk of cardiovascular disease or type 2 diabetes?. Retrieved March 13, 2011.
- Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. (June 14, 2010). Part D. Section 3: Fatty Acids and Cholesterol Archived 2011-03-17 at the Wayback Machine.. Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.
- Zelman, K. (2011). "The Great Fat Debate: A Closer Look at the Controversy—Questioning the Validity of Age-Old Dietary Guidance" (PDF). Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 111 (5): 655–658. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2011.03.026. PMID 21515106.
- Astrup, A; Dyerberg, J.; Elwood, P.; Hermansen, K.; Hu, F. B.; Jakobsen, M. U.; Kok, F. J.; Krauss, R. M.; Lecerf, J. M.; et al. (January 2011). "The role of reducing intakes of saturated fat in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: where does the evidence stand in 2010?". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 93 (4): 684–688. doi:10.3945/ajcn.110.004622. PMC 3138219. PMID 21270379.
- Lottenberg AMP (July 2009). "Importancia da gordura alimentar na prevencao e no controle de disturbios metabolicos e da doenca cardiovascular" [Importance of the dietary fat on the prevention and control of metabolic disturbances and cardiovascular disease]. Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia (in Portuguese). 53 (5): 595–607. doi:10.1590/S0004-27302009000500012. ISSN 0004-2730. PMID 19768250.
- Hall WL (June 2009). "Dietary saturated and unsaturated fats as determinants of blood pressure and vascular function". Nutrition Research Reviews. 22 (1): 18–38. doi:10.1017/S095442240925846X. PMID 19243668.
- German, J. Bruce; et al. (June 2009). "A reappraisal of the impact of dairy foods and milk fat on cardiovascular disease risk" (PDF). European Journal of Nutrition. 48 (4): 191–203. doi:10.1007/s00394-009-0002-5. PMC 2695872. PMID 19259609.
- Stamler, Jeremiah (3 February 2010). "Diet-heart: a problematic revisit". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 91 (3): 497–99. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2010.29216. PMID 20130097.
The authors are inaccurate in concluding that 'there are few epidemiologic or clinical trial data to support a benefit of replacing saturated fat with carbohydrate
- Siri-Tarino, Patty W.; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B.; Krauss, Ronald M. (November 2010). "Saturated Fatty Acids and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: Modulation by Replacement Nutrients". Current Atherosclerosis Reports. 12 (6): 384–90. doi:10.1007/s11883-010-0131-6. PMC 2943062. PMID 20711693. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
- Teicholz N (2015). "The scientific report guiding the US dietary guidelines: Is it scientific?". BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.). 355: i6061. doi:10.1136/bmj.h4962. PMID 27913380.
expanded in book: Nina Teicholz (2015). The Big Fat Surprise: Why Butter, Meat and Cheese Belong in a Healthy Diet. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1451624434.
- "Letter Requesting BMJ to Retract "Investigation"". Washington, DC: Center for Science in the Public Interest. 5 November 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2018.
- Liebman, Bonnie (17 December 2015). "Request for retraction: The scientific report guiding the US dietary guidelines: is it scientific?". BMJ. 351: h4962. doi:10.1136/bmj.h4962. PMID 27913380.
- "Corrections (1): The scientific report guiding the US dietary guidelines: is it scientific?". BMJ. 351: h5686. 23 October 2015. doi:10.1136/bmj.h5686.
- "Corrections (2): The scientific report guiding the US dietary guidelines: is it scientific?". BMJ. 355: i6061. 2 December 2016. doi:10.1136/bmj.i6061.