Saud bin Abdul-Aziz bin Muhammad bin Saud

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Saud bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud
Saud bin Abdul-Aziz bin Muhammad al Saud
Abdullah ibn Saud
Noble familyHouse of Saud
Flag of the First Saudi State

Imam Saud al Kabeer bin Abdul-Aziz bin Muhammad bin Saud (Arabic: سعود الكبير بن عبد العزيز بن محمد آل سعود‎) (d. 1814) ruled the First Saudi State from 1803 to 1814. During his rule, Saud annexed Mecca and Medina from the Ottoman Empire.[1]


The House of Saud extended its rule beyond the Najd and into the Hijaz which culminated with the capture of Makkah and Madinah. Saud's reign was a period of religious cleansing in Arabia. During his reign, attacks on shrines in Iraq continued. The new Saudis cleansed the Kaaba in Mecca and destroyed the tombs of numerous men in Madinah. This was in accordance with the Wahhabi desire to return Islam to its simple beginnings. The forces of Saud also felt that they were emulating the example of Muhammad who smashed idols when he retook Mecca.

This religious cleansing did not sit well with other Muslims though. Many other Muslims found the actions to be extreme, and were stunned that the holy cities had been taken so easily. The Ottoman Empire did not want to relent control over the cities to local tribesmen. The Ottomans could not retake the cities on their own though as the bulk of their forces was tied up in Europe. Muhammad Ali, the viceroy of Egypt, was assigned to recapture the Arabian territories. One of his sons, commanding the Egyptian troops, succeeded in conquering the Hijaz in 1812.


  1. ^ Khatab, Sayed (2011). Understanding Islamic Fundamentalism: The Theological and Ideological Basis of Al-Qa'ida's Political Tactics. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9789774164996. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
Preceded by
Abdul-Aziz bin Muhammad bin Saud
Imam of First Saudi State
Succeeded by
Abdullah bin Saud