Saudi Arabian army

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Royal Saudi Land Forces
Royal Saudi Land Forces.png
Seal
Active1745 (as an independent service arm)[1]
Country Saudi Arabia
BranchRoyal Armed Forces (since 1902)
TypeArmy
RoleGround-based warfare
Size256,000 —300,000[2]
Part of
  • MODA (as of Sep 1934)
    GSP (as of Dec 1925)
  • MOW (1773– 1891)
HeadquartersRiyadh
AnniversariesJanuary 13; (116 years ago)
DecorationsOrder of the Battlefield SA.png
WebsiteOfficial Website
Commanders
Chairman of the General Staff
General Fayyadh Al Ruwaili
Commander of Royal Land Forces
Lt. Gen. Fahd al Mutair
Insignia


Chief of General Staff flag of the Saudi Armed Forces.svg
Battle flag
Flag of the Royal Saudi Land Forces.png
A column of M-113 APCs and other military vehicles of the Royal Saudi Land Forces travel along a channel cleared of mines during Operation Desert Storm., Kuwait - 1 March 1991.

The Royal Saudi Land Forces (KSA) (Arabic: القُوَّاتُ البَرِّيَّةُ المَلَكِيَّة السُّـعُودِيَّة‎), also called the Saudi Arabian army (Arabic: الجَيْشُ العَرَبيّ السُّـعُودِيَّ‎ Al-Jaysh Al-Araby al-Saudi), are the largest branch of the Saudi Arabia Armed Forces. The Chief of the Saudi General Staff until 2011 was Field Marshal Saleh Al-Muhaya.[3]

History[edit]

The 20th Brigade of the Royal Saudi Land Forces display a 155 mm (6 in) GCT self-propelled gun, left, and AMX-10P infantry combat vehicles

The modern RSLF has its roots in the first Saudi State, which was formed as early as 1745, and is considered to be the birth year of the Saudi army. As of 13 January 1902 was founded as the Royal Saudi Land Forces, and is the oldest branch of the KSA's military.[1]

Other events that led to an expansion of the Saudi Army were the Arab–Israeli conflict in 1948, the fall of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi in the Iranian Revolution in 1979 and the subsequent fears of possible Shia's actions, and in the last years the first Gulf War in 1990. In the year 2000, Saudi Arabia's government spent billions of dollars to expand the Saudi Forces including the Saudi Army.[citation needed]

A Saudi M60A3 tank being transferred

Saudi Arabia's armed forces suffer severe difficulties due to their over-reliance on foreign contractor support and unwillingness to conduct realistic training.[4] Much very modern equipment is not properly understood or used.

Mohammad bin Salman was appointed Defense Minister when his father,who had been Minister,became King in 2015.[5]

Wars involved[edit]

Saudi Arabian army UH-60 Blackhawk helicopter during Operation Desert Shield.

First Saudi State (1745–1818)[edit]

Saudi State (1818–1891)[edit]

The Unification of Saudi Arabia (1902–1933)[edit]

A Saudi Arabian (HMMWV) with a QCB machine gun mounted on top depart for the seaport of Mogadishu in Somalia

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (1933–present)[edit]

Grand mosque seizure

Structure[edit]

US Marines training members of the Saudi Arabian Army

The combat strength of the Saudi Army consists of 4 Armoured, 5 Mechanized, 2 Light Infantry (1 Royal Guards, 1 Special Forces) Brigades. The Saudi Army deployed the 12th Armoured Brigade and 6th Mechanized Brigade at King Faisal Military City in the Tabuk area. It deployed the 4th Armoured Brigade, and 11th Mechanized Brigade at King Abdul Aziz Military City in the Khamis Mushayt area. It deployed the 20th Mechanized Brigade and 8th Mechanized Brigade at King Khalid Military City near Hafr al Batin. The 10th Mechanized Brigade is deployed at Sharawrah, which is near the border with Yemen and about 150 kilometers from Zamak.[8]

Despite the addition of a number of units and increased mobility achieved during the 1970s and 1980s, the army's personnel complement has expanded only moderately since a major buildup was launched in the late 1960s. The army has been chronically understrength, in the case of some units by an estimated 30 to 50 percent. These shortages have been aggravated by a relaxed policy that permitted considerable absenteeism and by a serious problem of retaining experienced technicians and noncommissioned officers (NCOs). The continued existence of a separate national guard also limited the pool of potential army recruits.[8]

Armor

  • 4th (King Khaled) Armoured Brigade
  • 6th (King Fah'd) Armoured Brigade
  • 7th (Prince Sultan) Armoured Brigade
  • 8th (King Fah'd) Armoured Brigade
  • 10th (King Faisal) Armoured Brigade
  • 12th (Khalid ibn al-Walid) Armoured Brigade

A typical Saudi armoured brigade has an armoured reconnaissance company, three tank battalions with 35 tanks each, a mechanized infantry battalion with AIFVs/APCs, and an artillery battalion with 18 self-propelled guns. It also has an army aviation company, an engineer company, a logistic battalion, a field workshop, and a medical company.[9]

Mechanized

  • 11th Mechanized Brigade
  • 12th Mechanized Brigade
  • 13th Mechanized Brigade
  • 14th Mechanized Brigade
  • 20th Mechanized Brigade

A typical Saudi mechanized brigade has an armoured reconnaissance company, one tank battalion with 40 tanks, three mechanized infantry battalions with AIFVs/APCs, and an artillery battalion with 18 self-propelled guns. It also has an army aviation company, an engineer company, a logistic battalion, a field workshop, and a medical company. It has 24 anti-tank guided weapons launchers and four mortar sections with a total of eight 81 mm (3 in) mortars.[9]

Infantry

  • 16th (King Saud) Light motorized infantry brigade
  • 17th (Abu Bakr Assiddeeq) Light motorized infantry brigade
  • 18th (King Abdullah) Light motorized infantry brigade
  • 19th (?Umar ibn Al-Khatt?b) Light motorized infantry brigade

Each infantry brigade consists of three motorized battalions, an artillery battalion, and a support battalion. Army brigades should not be confused with Saudi Arabian National Guard brigades.

Airborne Units and Special Security Forces

  • The 1st Airborne Brigade
    • 4th Airborne Battalion
    • 5th Airborne Battalion
  • 64th Special Forces Brigade
    • 85th Special Forces Battalion

The Airborne Brigade is normally deployed near Tabuk. The Airborne Brigade has two parachute battalions and three Special Forces companies. Saudi Arabia is expanding its Special Forces and improving their equipment and training to help deal with the threat of terrorism. The Special Forces have been turned into independent fighting units to help deal with terrorists, and report directly to Prince Sultan.

Artillery Battalions

  • five artillery battalions
    • 14th FA (Towed, 155) Battalion
    • 15th FA (MLRS) Battalion
    • 18th Missile (MLRS) Battalion

Aviation

  • 1st Aviation Group
  • 2nd Aviation Group
  • 3rd Aviation Group
  • 4th Aviation Group

The separate Royal Guard Regiment consists of four light infantry battalions.

Saudi Arabian Army Structure (click to enlarge).

Main equipment[edit]

Note that figures below do not include war losses due to the ongoing conflict in Yemen.

Infantry weapons[edit]

Small arms[edit]

Model Image Origin Type Caliber Notes
Handguns
Browning Hi-Power Flickr - ~Steve Z~ - 1971 Browning Hi Power 4.jpg  Belgium Handgun 9×19mm Parabellum
SIG Sauer P226 SIG P226 img 1624.jpg   Switzerland Handgun 9×19mm Parabellum
Glock ARMS & Hunting 2012 exhibition (474-23).jpg  Austria Handgun 9×19mm Parabellum
Submachine guns
FN P90 FN-P90 2.jpg  Belgium Submachine gun FN 5.7×28mm
Heckler & Koch MP5 Heckler Koch MP5.jpg  Germany Submachine gun 9×19mm Parabellum Manufactured by Military Industries Corporation. MP5A2, MP5A3 & MP5K variants.[10]
Rifles
Heckler & Koch HK33 HK33A2 Flickr (yet another finn).jpg  West Germany Assault Rifle 5.56×45mm NATO HK33E variant.[11]
Heckler & Koch G36 G36 Select-Fire Carbine.JPEG  Germany
 Saudi Arabia
Assault Rifle 5.56×45mm NATO Manufactured by Military Industries Corporation[12]
FN SCAR-H Scar H Standard.jpg  Belgium
 United States
Battle Rifle 7.62×51mm NATO Used by Airborne Units and Special Security Forces in the Royal Saudi Land Forces.[13][14]
M4 carbine PEO M4 Carbine RAS M68 CCO.jpg  United States Carbine 5.56×45mm NATO Special forces only.
Heckler & Koch G3 DCB Shooting G3 pictures.jpg  West Germany
 Saudi Arabia
Battle Rifle 7.62×51mm NATO Standard Issue Rifle of Saudi Arabian Army. Manufactured by Military Industries Corporation[15]
M16A2 rifle M16A2 Rifle with M203 Grenade Launcher (7414627064).jpg  United States Assault Rifle 5.56×45mm NATO
FN F2000 FN F2000S.JPG  Belgium Bullpup assault rifle 5.56×45mm NATO The Saudi Arabian National Guard purchased 55,000 rifles in 2005.[16][17]
Steyr AUG
AUG A1 HBAR
Steyr-AUG.jpeg
Steyr AUG A3.jpg
 Austria Assault Rifle 5.56×45mm NATO Standard assault rifle of the Saudi Arabian Army since 2009. [18][19]
AK-103 AK-103 Assault Rifle.JPG  Russia Assault Rifle 7.62×39mm Used by Airborne Units and Special Security Forces in the Royal Saudi Land Forces.[20][21] A license to produce AK-103 rifles was granted to Saudi Arabia in 2017.[22][23][24]
PM md. 63/65[25] PMmd.1963.jpg  Romania Assault Rifle 7.62×39mm Reserved.
Machine guns
Heckler & Koch MG4 H&KMG4.jpg  Germany Light machine gun 5.56×45mm NATO Standard light machine gun of the Saudi Arabian army.
Rheinmetall MG3 BundeswehrMG3.jpg  West Germany General-purpose machine gun 7.62×51mm NATO Standard general-purpose machine gun of the Saudi Arabian army.
FN Minimi FN MINIMI Standard Right.jpg  Belgium Squad automatic weapon 5.56×45mm NATO
FN MAG FN MAG.jpg  Belgium General-purpose machine gun 7.62×51mm NATO
Vektor SS-77 24- Saudi Border Guards Machine Gun (My Trip To Al-Jenadriyah 32).jpg  South Africa General-purpose machine gun

5.56×45mm NATO

M2 Browning Machine gun M2 1.jpg  United States Heavy machine gun 12.7×99mm NATO Standard heavy machine gun of the Saudi Arabian army
Sniper rifles
Accuracy International AWM Bundeswehr-Technik 01 (RaBoe).jpg  United Kingdom Sniper Rifle .300 Winchester Magnum
Heckler & Koch PSG1 PSG-1 rifle museum 2014.jpg  Germany Sniper rifle 7.62×51mm NATO
M107/M107A1 M82rifle.jpg  United States Anti-materiel rifle 12.7×99mm NATO
AWP (Arctic Warfare Police) Mk.13 MOD 5 sniper rifle.jpg  United Kingdom Sniper Rifle 7.62×51mm NATO
Robar RC-50 Robar RC-50 anti material sniper rifle.JPG  United States Anti-material sniper rifle 12.7 × 99 mm NATO
Steyr SSG 69 Steyr SSG 69.jpg  Austria Sniper rifle 7.62×51mm NATO

Grenade, rocket, anti-tank, and missile systems[edit]

Model Image Origin Type Caliber Notes
Grenade launchers
M203 PEO M203A2 Grenade Launcher.jpg  United States Grenade launcher 40×46mm SR
AGS-30 AGS-30 maks2009.jpg  Russia Automatic grenade launcher 40×46mm Manufactured by Saudi Arabian Military Industries[26][27]
Portable anti-tank weapons
C90-CR (M3) C-90.jpg  Spain Rocket-propelled grenade 90mm
9M133 Kornet Kornet-E (1).jpg  Russia
 Saudi Arabia
Anti-tank guided missile Tandem HEAT Manufactured by Saudi Arabian Military Industries[26][27][28]
FGM-148 Javelin FGM-148 Javelin (5160721562).jpg  United States Medium-range Anti-tank guided missile 127mm Standard infantry AT weapon. 20 launchers and 150 missiles[29]
MBT LAW Pansarvärnsrobot 57 aka MTB LAW.jpg  United Kingdom
 Sweden
Short-range anti-tank missile system 150mm In service with Royal Saudi Land Forces.
RBS 56B BILL 2 Panzerabwehrlenkwaffe (25955577025).jpg  Sweden SACLOS Anti-tank missile 127mm
Raybolt  South Korea Anti-tank missile
Mounted anti-tank weapons
HOT Long Range Anti-tank Weapon HOT 3 - ILA2002-clean.jpg  France Anti-tank Missile Tandem charge HEAT HOT and HOT-2 delivered in 1989 and 1997 for use on AMX-10.
AGM-114 Hellfire Lockheed Martin Longbow Hellfire.jpg  United States Anti-tank missile High-explosive anti-tank (HEAT) Used on AH-64D and AH-6s
BGM-71 TOW
BGM-71C ITOW
BGM-71D TOW-2
BGM-71E TOW-2A
USMC-100918-M-2021D-002.jpg  United States Anti-tank missile 150mm Standard Issue to Saudi Arabian Army.

Mortars[edit]

Model Image Origin Type Caliber Notes
M224 mortar 60mm mortar round being launch (crop).jpg  United States Lightweight mortar 60mm
Brandt Mle CM60A1 CM60A1 mortar Gendarmerie.jpg  France Gun-mortar 60mm
2R2M 120MM M327 120mm Mortar.jpg  United States
 France
Heavy mortar 120mm Used On M113 APC.
MO-120-RT-61 120mm Mor120.jpg  France Heavy mortar 120mm
M30 mortar M30 mortar schematic.gif  United States Heavy mortar 106mm

Vehicles[edit]

Tanks[edit]

Model Image Origin Variant Quantity Details
M1 Abrams Mounted Soldier System (MSS).jpg  United States M1A2S 422 Saudi Arabia bought 373 M1A2 tanks,[30] with further 69 more M1A2S tanks ordered on 8 January 2013 and delivered by 31 July 2014.[31] Later Saudi Arabia decided to upgrade all of M1A2 variants to M1A2S configuration. 153 M1A2S on order since Aug 9, 2016[30] 20 were lost in Yemen[32]
M60 Patton M60 A3 (7527994088).jpg  United States M60A3 390[33] 1,300 were acquired
AMX-30 French AMX-30 Desert Storm.jpg  France AMX-30SA 250 In reserve

Infantry fighting vehicles and Armored personnel carriers[edit]

Model Image Origin Variant Quantity Details
M2 Bradley 3rd Infantry Division M2A2.jpg  United States M2A2 400[33] Principal IFV of the Saudi Army.[34]
AMX-10P AMX-10-IMG 1468.jpg  France 293[33] 500[35] were bought from France in 1974; most are now stored as a reserve.
M113 M113A1-latrun-1.jpg  United States Many 3,112 [34]
Al-Masmak  Saudi Arabia 5,331 x[36][37][38]
HMMWV Saudi Arabian Humvee.jpg  United States Various configurations 1500
Oshkosh M-ATV M153 CROWS mounted on a U.S. Army M-ATV.jpg  United States Many 1859 Saudi Arabia began negotiations for an order for an undisclosed number of M-ATVs Saudi Arabia received an estimated 1859
URO VAMTAC Urovesa Vamtac Armored.png  Spain 30 [39]
Didgori Medevac Didgori Medevac with Saudi Arabia camouflage.jpg  Georgia Armored medical evacuation vehicle 100+ Saudi Arabia ordered 100+ Didgori Medevac from Georgia in 2016.
CUCV II[40] 1984 M1009 CUCV.jpg  United States 200+

Artillery and missile systems[edit]

Model Image Origin Type Variant Quantity Details
M270 MLRS (Multiple Launch Rocket System) Vehicles at Camp Bastion, Afghanistan MOD 45148148.jpg  United States MRL 270mm 50
Astros II MLRS Avibras ASTROS-II SS-30.JPEG  Brazil MRL 127mm SS-30 72
PLZ-45 PLZ45155mm Howitzer.jpg  China Self-propelled howitzer 155mm 54[41]
M109 howitzer Two Egyptian M-109 howitzers.JPEG  United States Self-propelled howitzer 155mm M109A5
M109A2
M109A1
600[42]
AMX-GCT AuF1 of Saudi Arabia.JPEG  France Self-propelled howitzer 155mm 51
M198 howitzer 4-14 Marines in Fallujah.jpg  United States Towed howitzer 155mm 144
FH-70 FH 70 155mm gun (6065127314).jpg  United Kingdom Towed howitzer 155mm 40
M114 howitzer USArmy M114 howitzer.jpg  United States Towed howitzer 155mm M114A1 534 All are stored in reserve.
M102 howitzer M102 howitzer.jpg  United States Towed howitzer 105mm 300[34]
M101 howitzer M101-105mm-howitzer-camp-pendleton-20050326.jpg  United States Towed howitzer 105mm M101A1 800 All are stored in reserve.

Army aviation[edit]

Model Image Origin Type Variant Quantity Details
AH-64 Apache Westland apache wah-64d longbow zj206 arp.jpg  United States Attack Helicopter AH-64D 94 A further 29 AH-64D Longbow III requested for more than $1.2bn.
Boeing AH-6 SAS 2010 Boeing AH-6.JPG  United States Armed scout helicopter 0 36 on order for Saudi Arabian National Guard
Bell 406 OH-58D 2.jpg  United States Scout helicopter Bell 406CS 13
Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk UH-60L - Oregon Army National Guard-01.jpg  United States Transport helicopter UH-60L 37 A further 24 UH-60L requested for $350m.
Sikorsky S-70 040327-pb-firehawk-17-16.jpg  United States Medevac helicopter S-70A1L 8
Boeing CH-47F Chinook CH-47, Camp Humphrey, 2008, Mar. 1.jpg  United States Cargo helicopter CH-47F 48 Ordered in December 2016.
Aeryon Scout[43]  Canada Miniature UAV 10
Saqr,2,3,4[44]  Saudi Arabia Unmanned aerial vehicle ? ?
CAIG Wing Loong[45][46] Wing Loong.jpg  China MALE
UCAV
Pterodactyl
Wing Loong II
300[47]
Denel Dynamics Seeker[48][49] A Seeker 400 drone, manufactured by South African company Denel Dynamics, flies over Cape Town Stadium..jpg  South Africa
 Saudi Arabia[50]
UCAV Seeker 400 ?
EMT Luna X-2000[51] LUNA UAV.jpg  Germany
 Saudi Arabia[52]
Unmanned aerial vehicle ? ?
Selex ES Falco[53] Salon du Bourget 20090619 227.jpg  Italy Unmanned aerial vehicle ? ?
  • (Anti-Air systems belong to Air Defense Force)

Royal Saudi Land Forces ranks[edit]

Land officer corps[edit]

Equivalent
NATO Code
OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) & Student officer
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia
(Edit)
No equivalent Fariq Awwal Fariq Liwa Amid Aqid Muqaddam Raid Naqib Mulazim Awwal Mulazim 08.RSA-OC.svg
General
(فريق أول)
Lieutenant
general
(فريق)
Major
general
(لواء)
Brigadier
(عميد)
Colonel
(عقيد)
Lieutenant
colonel
(مقدم)
Major
(رائد)
Captain
(نقيب)
First
lieutenant
(ملازم أول)
Second
lieutenant
(ملازم)
Officer cadet

Land enlisted corps[edit]

Junior enlisted Non-commissioned officers (NCOs) Warrant officers (WOs)
Private
(Pte)
First class private
(Pfc)
Corporal
(Cpl)
Vice sergeant
(VSgt)
Sergeant
(Sgt)
Staff sergeant
(SSgt)
Warrant officer
(WO)
E-1/2 E-3 E-4 E-5/6 E-7 E-8 E-9
No chevron
(Arabic: جندي Jundi‎)
One chevron
(Arabic: جندي أول Jundi Awaal‎)
Two chevrons
(Arabic: عريف Areef‎)
Three chevrons
(Arabic: وكيل رقيب Wakil Raqib‎)
Four chevrons
(Arabic: رقيب Raqib‎)
Four chevrons with stripe
(Arabic: رقيب أول Raqib Awaal‎)
stripe
(Arabic: رئيس رقباء Rais Ruquba‎)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wynbrandt, James (2004). A Brief History of Saudi Arabia (1st ed.). p. 353. Retrieved Oct 10, 2016.
  2. ^ "Political Regimes in the Arab World: Society and the Exercise of Power".
  3. ^ Pike, John. "Royal Saudi Land Forces". www.globalsecurity.org.
  4. ^ Pollack, Arabs at War
  5. ^ "The $2 Trillion Project to Get Saudi Arabia's Economy Off Oil".
  6. ^ Edgar O'Ballance. No victor, no vanquished: The Yom Kippur War (1979 ed.). Barrie & Jenkins Publishing. pp. 28&mdash, 370. ISBN 978-0-214-20670-2.
  7. ^ Asher, Dani (2014). Inside Israel's Northern Command: The Yom Kippur War on the Syrian Border. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. pp. 415–418. ISBN 978-0813167374.
  8. ^ a b Pike, John. "Royal Saudi Land Forces". www.globalsecurity.org.
  9. ^ a b "Accéder Google Francais".
  10. ^ "MP5 Sub Machine Gun". mic.org.sa. Archived from the original on 2012-12-25. Retrieved 2017-04-25.
  11. ^ Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN 978-0-7106-2869-5.
  12. ^ "Rifle G36". mic.org.sa. Retrieved 2017-04-25.
  13. ^ "إسماعيل خوجة 🇸🇦 on Twitter".
  14. ^ "إسماعيل خوجة 🇸🇦 on Twitter".
  15. ^ "G3 Semi-Automatic Rifle". mic.org.sa. Retrieved 2017-04-25.
  16. ^ Kemp, Ian (2009). "A New 5.56mm Generation or a Changing of the Guard?" (PDF). Asian Military Review. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-07. Retrieved 2010-04-18.
  17. ^ Daniel Watters. "The 5.56×45mm: 2006". Archived from the original on 2011-08-07. Retrieved 2009-05-23.
  18. ^ Kokalis, Peter (February 1985). "STEYR AUG; This Bullpup's No Dog". Soldier of Fortune magazine. Retrieved 2009-11-17.
  19. ^ "Steyr Mannlicher US: Our History". Steyrarms.com. Archived from the original on 12 December 2009. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
  20. ^ "How an AK-103 Works". allinallnews. November 3, 2015.
  21. ^ "Saudi special forces operator in Yemen and armed with Russian AK 103". mighty_earth.
  22. ^ "Saudi Arabia to Start Licensed Manufacturing of AK-103 Rifles". Retrieved 10 October 2017.
  23. ^ "РФ и Саудовская Аравия подписали меморандум о покупке и локализации продукции ВПК". TASS. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
  24. ^ "Saudi Arabia to produce Russian Kalashnikovs under new deal". rt.com. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  25. ^ https://sites.google.com/site/worldinventory/wiw_me_saudiarabia.0
  26. ^ a b Russia, Today. "Russia confirms sale of S-400 missile systems to Saudi Arabia". Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  27. ^ a b 360, Jane's. "Saudi Arabia and Russia sign S-400 MOU". Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  28. ^ "Russia confirms sale of S-400 missile systems to Saudi Arabia".
  29. ^ "Kingdom of Saudi Arabia – JAVELIN Missiles | The Official Home of the Defense Security Cooperation Agency". Dsca.mil. 2010-11-18. Retrieved 2017-05-30.
  30. ^ a b "The 2006 Saudi Shopping Spree: $2.9B to Upgrade M1 Abrams Tank Fleet". DefenseIndustryDaily.com. 4 January 2011. Archived from the original on October 25, 2006. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  31. ^ "Saudi Arabia Orders 69 More M1A2S Abrams Heavy Tanks". Deagel.com, 8 January 2013.
  32. ^ https://www.defenseone.com/business/2016/08/us-tank-deal-exposes-saudi-losses-yemen-war/130623/
  33. ^ a b c "Royal Saudi Land Forces Equipment". Global Security. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
  34. ^ a b c Military Balance 2005- page 135
  35. ^ Cite error: The named reference History was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  36. ^ "Al-Masmak Masmak Nyoka Mk2 MRAP Mine Resistant Armored Personnel Carrier technical data sheet - Army Recognition - Army Recognition". Retrieved 25 December 2014.
  37. ^ "Saudi Al-Masmak Achieves the Highest Protection Level Recorded for MRAP". Retrieved 25 December 2014.
  38. ^ https://www.armyrecognition.com/saudi_arabia_army_wheeled_armoured_vehicles_uk/al-masmak_masmak_nyoka_mk2_mrap_apc_mine_resistant_armored_personnel_carrier_technical_data_sheet.html
  39. ^ Administrator. "30 VAMTAC's to Saudi Arabia". Retrieved 25 December 2014.
  40. ^ "Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicle: CUCV II". Olive-drab.com. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  41. ^ "Artillery: Chinese Guns Conquer Arabia". www.strategypage.com.
  42. ^ "Trade Registers". armstrade.sipri.org. Retrieved 2018-08-02.
  43. ^ "picture of Saudi Army with Aeryon Scout".
  44. ^ [1]
  45. ^ Fischer Junior, Richard. "Kazakhstan purchases two Chinese Wing-Loong UCAVs" (7 June 2016). IHS Jane's 360. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  46. ^ Atherton, Kelsey (22 June 2016). "Chinese-made drone crashes in Pakistan". Popular Science. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  47. ^ "??300?????????????????".
  48. ^ "After Obama snub, Saudis tap up South Africa for armed drone" (2 April 2013). the Commentator.
  49. ^ Gertz, Bill (2 April 2013). "Saudi Arabia buying South African armed drone". Free Beacon.
  50. ^ "Riyadh's secret armed drone programme". Intelligence Online. 2013-03-27.
  51. ^ Amnesty International. "Der Kunde ist K?nig" (in German). Retrieved 2012-04-05.
  52. ^ Lake, Jon. "Saudi Arabia shows Luna [IDX15D4]" (26 February 2015). janes.
  53. ^ "Falco Gains Mystery Customer as EVO Prepped for Flight".

External links[edit]