Saudi Arabian Army
|Royal Saudi Land Forces|
|Founded||13 January, 1902|
|Country||Kingdom of Saudi Arabia|
|Allegiance||Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques|
|Size||300,000 Active (Sep 2012)
255,000 Reserve and
National Guard (May 2013)
total: 555,000 soldiers
KSA Department of Defense (1934–)
|Motto(s)||"God is the greatest"|
|Chief of Army Staff||General Eid bin Awad Al-Shalawi|
Flag of The Saudi Arabian Army
The Saudi Arabian Army (KSA) (Arabic: الـجيش الـعربي الـسعودي), also called Royal Saudi Land Forces (Arabic: القوات الـبرية الـملكية الـسعودية), is the largest branch of the Saudi Armed Forces. The total number of active troops is estimated to be 300,000. The Chief of the Saudi General Staff until 2011 was Field Marshal Saleh Al-Muhaya.
- 1 History
- 2 Structure
- 3 Officers
- 4 Enlisted Ranks
- 5 Main equipment
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
1902 is considered to be the birth year of the Saudi Army, as the modern Saudi Arabia have been Unified and founded as a single state. After the discovery of oil and the meeting between King Abdulaziz and the American President Franklin D. Roosevelt on February 14, 1945, the Americans became the new major ally of Saudi Arabia.
Other events that led to an expansion of the Saudi Army were the Arab–Israeli conflict in 1948, the fall of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi in the Iranian Revolution in 1979 and the subsequent fears of possible Shia's actions and in the last years the first Gulf War in 1990. In the year 2000, Saudi Arabia's government spent billions of dollars to expand the Saudi Forces including the Saudi Army.
Wars involving Saudi Army:
- The Unification of Saudi Arabia (1902–1933).
- 1948 Arab–Israeli War more than 3,000 Saudi Troops participated in combat against Israel.
- 1967 RSLF deployed over 20,000 troops in Jordan.
- 1969 Al-Wadiah War. South Yemeni Forces invaded Al-Wadiah, a Saudi Town, but later were defeated by the Saudi Army.
- 1973 during the Yom Kippur War Saudi Arabia, along with other Persian Gulf nations, protested American intervention by raising oil prices and sent over 3,000 Saudi soldiers from the troops stationed in Jordan to fight on the Syrian frontline.
- Gulf War (1990–1991) Together with the allied forces, Saudi Armed Forces and SANG took a major part in the Battle of Khafji and the Liberation of Kuwait.
- 2007–2010 Houthi Insurgency. Yemeni Houthis attacked southern Saudi Arabia and were defeated later by the Saudi army.
- 2015 Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen at the request of the Yemeni president to drive away Houthi rebels allied with the deposed Ali Abdullah Saleh Yemeni Civil War (2015)
The combat strength of the Saudi Army consists of 3 armoured brigades, 5 mechanized infantry brigades, three light motorized rifle brigades, and one airborne brigade. It also has five independent artillery battalions and an aviation command. The Saudi Army deployed the 12th Armoured Brigade and 6th Mechanized Brigade at King Faisal Military City in the Tabuk area. It deployed the 4th Armoured Brigade, and 11th Mechanized Brigade at King Abdul Aziz Military City in the Khamis Mushayt area. It deployed the 20th Mechanized Brigade and 8th Mechanized Brigade at King Khalid Military City near Hafr al Batin. The 10th Mechanized Brigade is deployed at Sharawrah, which is near the border with Yemen and about 150 kilometers from Zamak.
Despite the addition of a number of units and increased mobility achieved during the 1970s and 1980s, the army's personnel complement has expanded only moderately since a major buildup was launched in the late 1960s. The army has been chronically understrength, in the case of some units by an estimated 30 to 50 percent. These shortages have been aggravated by a relaxed policy that permitted considerable absenteeism and by a serious problem of retaining experienced technicians and noncommissioned officers (NCOs). The continued existence of a separate national guard also limited the pool of potential army recruits.
- 4th (King Khaled) Armoured Brigade
- 6th (King Fah'd) Armoured Brigade
- 7th (Prince Sultan)Armoured Brigade
- 8th (King Fah'd)Armoured Brigade
- 10th (King Faisal)Armoured Brigade
A typical Saudi armoured brigade has an armoured reconnaissance company, three tank battalions with 42 tanks each, a mechanized infantry battalion with 54 AIFVs/APCs, and an artillery battalion with 18 self-propelled guns. It also has an army aviation company, an engineer company, a logistic battalion, a field workshop, and a medical company.
- 11th Mechanized Brigade
- 12th Mechanized Brigade
- 13th Mechanized Brigade
- 14th Mechanized Brigade
- 20th Mechanized Brigade
A typical Saudi mechanized brigade has an armoured reconnaissance company, one tank battalion with 42 tanks, three mechanized infantry battalions with 54 AIFVs/APCs each, and an artillery battalion with 18 self-propelled guns. It also has an army aviation company, an engineer company, a logistic battalion, a field workshop, and a medical company. It has 24 anti-tank guided weapons launchers and four mortar sections with a total of eight 81 mm (3 in) mortars.
- 16th (king saud)Light motorized infantry brigade
- 17th ( Abu Bakr Assiddeeq)Light motorized infantry brigade
- 18th (King Abdullah)Light motorized infantry brigade
- 19th (ʿUmar ibn Al-Khattāb)Light motorized infantry brigade
Each infantry brigade consists of three motorized battalions, an artillery battalion, and a support battalion. Army brigades should not be confused with Saudi Arabian National Guard brigades.
- The 1st Airborne Brigade
- 4th Airborne Battalion
- 5th Airborne Battalion
The Airborne Brigade is normally deployed near Tabuk. The Airborne Brigade has two parachute battalions and three Special Forces companies. Saudi Arabia is expanding its Special Forces and improving their equipment and training to help deal with the threat of terrorism. The Special Forces have been turned into independent fighting units to help deal with terrorists, and report directly to Prince Sultan.
- five artillery battalions
The separate Royal Guard Regiment consists of four light infantry battalions.
|Lieutenant||First Lieutenant||Captain||Major||Lieutenant Colonel||Colonel||Brigadier General||Major General||Lieutenant General||General|
|Private||Private First Class||Corporal||Vice Sergeant||Sergeant||Sergeant First Class||Master Sergeant|
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Grenade, rocket, anti-tank, and missile systems
|M203||Single shot grenade launcher||United States|
|FGM-148 Javelin||Anti-tank guided missile||United States|
|Swingfire||Anti-tank guided missile||United Kingdom|
|Vickers Vigilant||Anti-tank missile||500||United Kingdom|
|M47 Dragon||Anti-tank missile||4,692||United States|
|AGM-114 Hellfire||Anti-tank guided missile||2,954||United States|
|HOT||Anti-tank guided missile||3,500|| France
|HOT 2||Anti-tank guided missile||249|| France
|Bill 2||SACLOS Anti-tank missile||200||Sweden|
|SS.11||Anti-tank guided missile||2,000||France|
|BGM-71 TOW||Anti-tank guided missile||10,738||United States|
|BGM-71C ITOW||Anti-tank guided missile||2,538||United States|
|BGM-71D TOW-2||Anti-tank guided missile||6,210||United States|
|BGM-71E TOW-2A||Anti-tank guided missile||5,131||United States|
|M224 Mortar||Mortar||N/A||N/A||United States|
|Brandt 60mm LR Gun-mortar||Mortar||N/A||N/A||France|
|M30 107 mm Mortar||Mortar||N/A||United States|
|M1 Abrams||United States||M1A2S||442||Saudi Arabia bought 373 M1A2 tanks, with further 69 more M1A2S tanks ordered on 8 January 2013 and delivered by 31 July 2014. Later Saudi Arabia decided to upgrade all of M1A2 variants to M1A2S configuration.|
|M60 Patton||United States||M60A3||450||485 were acquired, currently in reserve. Some were destroyed by Houtis in Yemen.|
|AMX-30||France||145||250 were bought between 1973–1974. Now it serves as a reserve tank of frontier guards. Saudi Arabia has been retiring AMX-30 from the stock by selling it to numerous other countries. Many of the AMX-30's were put in store immediately upon arrival in Saudi Arabia and have seen almost no use.|
|M2 Bradley||United States||M2A2||400||Principal IFV of the Saudi Army.|
|AMX-10P||France||500||500 were bought from France in 1974; most are now stored as a reserve.|
|M113||United States / Turkey||Many||1,112||364 had been upgraded in Turkey.|
|TPz Fuchs||West Germany||NBC reconnaissance
|HMMWV||United States||various configurations||15,000+|
|Oshkosh M-ATV||United States||Many||450||Saudi Arabia began negotiations for an order for an undisclosed number of M-ATVs Saudi Arabia received an estimated 450|
|Didgori Medevac||Georgia||Medical APC||100 |
|CUCV II||United States||2,000+|
Artillery and missile systems
|M270||United States||MRL 270mm||50|
|Astros II MLRS||Brazil||MRL 127mm||SS-30||72|
|PLZ-45||People's Republic of China||Self-propelled howitzer 155mm||54|
|M109 howitzer||United States||Self-propelled howitzer 155mm||M109A5
|AMX-GCT||France||Self-propelled howitzer 155mm||51|
|M198 howitzer||United States||Towed Howitzer 155mm||42|
|FH-70||United Kingdom||Towed Howitzer 155mm||40|
|M114 howitzer||United States||Towed Howitzer 155mm||M114A1||50||All are stored in reserve.|
|M102 howitzer||United States||Towed Howitzer 105mm||140|
|M101 howitzer||United States||Towed Howitzer 105mm||M101A1||100||All are stored in reserve.|
|AH-64 Apache||United States||Attack Helicopter||AH-64D||92||A further 29 AH-64D Longbow III requested for more than $1,200m.|
|Boeing AH-6||United States||Armed Scout Helicopter||0||36 on order for Saudi Arabian National Guard|
|Bell 406||United States||Scout Helicopter||Bell 406CS||13|
|Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk||United States||Transport Helicopter||UH-60L||37||A further 24 UH-60L requested for $350m.|
|Sikorsky S-70||United States||Medevac Helicopter||S-70A1L||8|
|Boeing CH-47 Chinook||United States||Cargo Helicopter||?||?|
|Aeryon Scout||Canada||Miniature UAV||10|
|Saqr,2,3,4||Saudi Arabia||Miniature UAV||?||?|
- (Anti-Air systems belong to Air Defense Force)
- Military of Saudi Arabia
- Royal Saudi Air Force
- Royal Saudi Navy
- Royal Saudi Air Defense
- Royal Saudi Strategic Missile Force
- Saudi Arabian National Guard
- Saudi Royal Guard Regiment
- King Khalid Military City
- Saudi Arabia
- Hertog, Steffen (2007). "Shaping the Saudi state: Human agency's shifting role in the rentier state formation" (PDF). International Journal Middle East Studies. 39: 539–563. doi:10.1017/S0020743807071073. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
- "Political Regimes in the Arab World: Society and the Exercise of Power". September 4, 2012.
- "Saudi Arabia spends 25% of its budget on its military — here's what it has for the money". www.uk.businessinsider.com.
- "Saudi King Salman cements hold on power". aljazeera.net. 30 January 2015. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- "Political Regimes in the Arab World: Society and the Exercise of Power". September 4, 2012.
- Royal Saudi Land Forces
- "The 2006 Saudi Shopping Spree: $2.9B to Upgrade M1 Abrams Tank Fleet". DefenseIndustryDaily.com. 4 January 2011. Archived from the original on October 25, 2006. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
- "Saudi Arabia Orders 69 More M1A2S Abrams Heavy Tanks". Deagel.com, 8 January 2013.
- "Royal Saudi Land Force Equipment". Global Security. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- "American Alliance Policy in the Middle East". Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- Cite error: The named reference
Historywas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- "Al-Masmak Masmak Nyoka Mk2 MRAP Mine Resistant Armored Personnel Carrier technical data sheet - Army Recognition - Army Recognition". Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- "Saudi Al-Masmak Achieves the Highest Protection Level Recorded for MRAP". Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- "- " "". Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- Administrator. "30 VAMTAC's to Saudi Arabia". Retrieved 25 December 2014.
- "Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicle: CUCV II". Olive-drab.com. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
- Chinese Guns Conquer Arabia
- "picture of Saudi Army with Aeryon Scout".