Saunders Lewis

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Saunders Lewis
Saunders Lewis as an army officer in 1916
President of Plaid Cymru
In office
1926–1939
Preceded byLewis Valentine
Succeeded byJohn Edward Daniel
Personal details
Born
John Saunders Lewis

15 October 1893
Wallasey, Cheshire, England
Died1 September 1985(1985-09-01) (aged 91)
Cardiff, Wales
Political partyPlaid Cymru
Spouse
Margaret Gilcriest
(m. 1924; died 1984)
Children1
Alma materUniversity of Liverpool

Saunders Lewis (born John Saunders Lewis; 15 October 1893 – 1 September 1985) was a Welsh politician, poet, dramatist, Medievalist, and literary critic. He has been described by Jan Morris as, "the most passionate of twentieth century Welsh patriots",[1] and as being, "one of the few twentieth century writers in Welsh with a European reputation, but for many Welshmen [he was] chiefly the keeper of the national conscience."[2]

As a vocal supporter of Welsh independence, Lewis was also a co-founder of Plaid Genedlaethol Cymru (The National Party of Wales), later known as Plaid Cymru. Lewis is usually acknowledged as one of the most prominent figures of 20th century Welsh-language literature. In 1970, Lewis was nominated for a Nobel Prize in Literature. Lewis was voted the tenth greatest Welsh hero in the '100 Welsh Heroes' poll, released on St. David's Day 2004.[3]

Early life[edit]

John Saunders Lewis was born into a Welsh-speaking family in Wallasey in the Wirral, Cheshire, in the north-west of England, on 15 October 1893. He was the second of three sons of Rev. Dr. Lodwig Lewis (1859–1933), a Calvinistic Methodist minister, and his wife Mary Margaret (née Thomas, 1862–1900). When was only six years old, Lewis's mother died and his unmarried maternal "Aunt Ellen" (Ellen Elizabeth Thomas) moved into the manse and helped to raise him.[4]

Jan Morris has described Liverpool as the closest there is to a metropolis for the people of North Wales.[5] During a television interview with Aneirin Talfan Davies, Lewis later recalled that this was also true during his childhood, as in and around Liverpool, "there were around about a hundred thousand Welsh-speaking Welsh people... So I was not born in English-speaking England... but into a society that was completely Welsh and Welsh-speaking."[6]

Even though his father was a scholar, "who liked solitude and study", and possessed a very large library of Welsh literature, the only Welsh-language books that Saunders Lewis read while growing up were Bishop Morgan's Bible, the hymnbook, and Sunday school commentaries.[7]

Lewis attended prestigious English-speaking Liscard High School for Boys[8] where he was bullied at first, due to the fact that what little English he could speak, "was full of Welsh words." In time, however, Lewis became, "a typical product of the English education system." He became editor of the The Liscard High School Magazine and often visited the Wallasey Public Library, where he read contemporary English literature and, as a teenager, was enthusiastic when he discovered the recent poetry and prose writings, which were often rooted in Irish folklore and mythology, by Irish nationalists William Butler Yeats, John Millington Synge, and Padraic Colum.[9]

Lewis later recalled that through these writers, "I came for the first time to understand what patriotism meant and the spirit of the nation meant. And I soon began to think that things like those , which had seized hold of them in Ireland, were the things I should seize hold of in Wales."[10]

Lewis' earliest attempts at writing poems were in English and were inspired by William Wordsworth, Walter Pater, John Wesley and the King James Bible.[11]

Personal life[edit]

After entering Liverpool University to study English literature in 1911, Lewis is believed to have first met fellow student Margaret Gilcriest, a Roman Catholic from County Wicklow and staunch believer in Irish political and cultural nationalism, in December 1913.[12] Lewis and Gilcriest shared an enthusiasm for literature and in their subsequent courtship by letters, all of which have since been published, there are references to the writings of Dora Sigerson, Katherine Tynan, James Clarence Mangan, Alice Meynell, Emily Lawless, Thomas Kettle, Daniel Corkery, and James Joyce.[13]

First World War[edit]

When the First World War broke out, an idealistic Lewis, feeling inspired by the Aesthete philosophy of Walter Pater to, "savour this experience of life-energy at the utmost", enlisted in the 3rd Battalion, King's Liverpool Regiment on 4 September 1914. British Army records describe Lewis at the time as five-feet and three inches in height, weighing just over seven and a half stone, and as having red hair and grey eyes.[14]

In April 1915, Lewis applied for a commission with the South Wales Borderers and was promoted to full lieutenant in February 1916. The following summer, he was deployed to active service on the Western Front.[15]

During the war, Lewis read the series of novels The Cult of the Self (French: Le Culte du moi) by the French writer Maurice Barrès. Barrès, a French nationalist, heavily influenced Lewis' growing sense of his own Welsh nationalism.[16] Furthermore, according to Jelle Krol, Lewis, "discovered the importance of his Welsh roots during his service in France."[17]

In April 1917, Lt. Lewis was severely wounded in action in the left leg and thigh near Gonnelieu, with, "the calf of the leg nearly blown away",[18] as part of the Battle of Cambrai.[16] Afterwards, Lewis needed more than a year to convalesce, during which his younger brother, Ludwig Lewis, was killed in action on 7 July 1917. Although Lewis desperately wanted to visit and help comfort their grieving father at Swansea, his own battlefield injuries were still far too severe to permit him to travel.[19]

Return to Wales[edit]

After his return from the trenches, Lewis entered the literary field by arguing that three conditions needed to be met for Welsh literature to become truly meaningful. Firstly, "a more professional attitude to Welsh drama". Secondly, the reestablishment of a direct link between Welsh culture with that of mainland Europe, and particularly with French culture, and, lastly, a more continual religious and cultural exploration of pre-Reformation Wales by Welsh writers and intellectuals.[17]

In 1922, he was appointed as lecturer in Welsh literature at the University College of Wales, Swansea. During his time at Swansea he produced some of his most significant works of literary criticism: A School of Welsh Augustans (1924), Williams Pantycelyn (1927), and Braslun o hanes llenyddiaeth Gymraeg [cy] (An outline history of Welsh literature) (1932).[20] He continued in this post until his dismissal for a political act of arson at Penyberth, Gwynedd, in 1936.[21]

Founding Plaid Cymru[edit]

Discussions of the need for a "Welsh party" had been conducted since the 19th century.[22] With the generation or so before 1922 there "had been a marked growth in the constitutional recognition of the Welsh nation", wrote historian John Davies.[23] By 1924 there were people in Wales "eager to make their nationality the focus of Welsh politics".[24] Lewis's experiences in World War I, and his sympathy for the cause of Irish independence, brought him to Welsh nationalism. [citation needed] He was an advocate for Welsh independence[25]

In 1924, Lewis founded Y Mudiad Cymreig ("The Welsh Movement") with a small group of fellow nationalists. The group met secretly for the first time in Penarth on 7 January 1924.[26] The group continued to meet in secret throughout 1924 and began drawing up a set of aims and policies intended to "rescue Wales from political and cultural oblivion".

At around the same time as Lewis formed Y Mudiad Cymreig, another group of nationalists formed Byddin Ymreolwyr Cymru ("The Welsh Home Rule Army") in Caernarfon.[27] The group was led by Huw Robert Jones, who made contact with Lewis in early 1925 and proposed to form a new political party.[26]

A plaque was inaugurated to mark the 75th anniversary of Plaid Cymru's founding meeting in 2000, on the building where the meeting took place in Pwllheli.

Lewis met with Jones, Lewis Valentine, Moses Griffith, Fred Jones and D. Edmund Williams in a café called Maes Gwyn[27] during the 1925 National Eisteddfod in Pwllheli, Gwynedd, with the aim of establishing a "Welsh party".[24] They founded Plaid Genedlaethol Cymru ("National Party of Wales"), on 5 August 1925.[28] The principal aim of the party would be to foster a Welsh-speaking Wales.[29] To this end it was agreed that party business be conducted in Welsh, and that members sever all links with other British parties.[29] Lewis insisted on these principles before he would agree to the Pwllheli conference.

According to the 1911 census, out of a population of just under 2.5 million, 43.5% of the total population of Wales spoke Welsh as a primary language.[30] This was a decrease from the 1891 census with 54.4% speaking Welsh out of a population of 1.5 million.[31] With these pre-requisites, Lewis condemned "'Welsh nationalism' as it had hitherto existed, a nationalism characterized by inter-party conferences, an obsession with Westminster and a willingness to accept a subservient position for the Welsh language", wrote Davies.[29] It may be because of these strict positions that the party failed to attract politicians of experience in its early years.[29] However, the party's members believed its founding was an achievement in itself; "merely by existing, the party was a declaration of the distinctiveness of Wales", wrote Davies.[29]

The Lewis Doctrine 1926–1939[edit]

During the inter-war years, Plaid Genedlaethol Cymru was most successful as a social and educational pressure group rather than as a political party.[32] For Saunders Lewis, party president 1926 to 1939, "the chief aim of the party [is] to 'take away from the Welsh their sense of inferiority ... to remove from our beloved country the mark and shame of conquest.'" Lewis sought to cast Welshness into a new context, wrote Davies.[32]

Lewis wished to demonstrate how Welsh heritage was linked as one of the 'founders' of European civilization.[32] Lewis, a self-described "strong monarchist", wrote "Civilization is more than an abstraction. It must have a local habitation and name. Here its name is Wales."[32][33] Additionally, Lewis strove for the stability, educational and cultural advancement, and economic prosperity of local communities in Y Fro Gymraeg. He also denounced both laissez faire capitalism and Marxism, and instead promoted what he called perchentyaeth: (lit. "[[distributing property among the masses"), based on the traditional ideologies of both Distributism and Christian democracy.[32]

Broadcasting[edit]

Saunders Lewis perceived the early development of BBC radio broadcasting in Wales (which was almost entirely in English) as serious threat to his aim of arresting the decline of the Welsh language (then down to 36%) and turning Wales back into a 100% Welsh-speaking nation. At the same time he also recognised that if he could exert influence and pressure on the BBC, the Corporation could become a useful tool to serve Plaid Cymru's political ends. In 1929 he declared it would soon be necessary to arrange for "thousands of Welshmen to be prosecuted for refusing to pay for English programmes".[34] The following year Lewis was commissioned by E.R. Appleton, Director of the BBC's Cardiff radio station, (who had banned broadcasting in Welsh) to broadcast a talk which would "explain Welsh Nationalism". On vetting the script, which advocated political nationalism in preference to "cultural nationalism", Appleton decided it was too controversial and inflammatory to be broadcast.[35] In October 1933 the University of Wales Council, which had been lobbying for more Welsh-language broadcasting, appointed a ten-man council to press the case with the BBC. It included David Lloyd George, William George, W. J. Gruffydd and Saunders Lewis – who was continuing to incense the BBC by publicly alleging it was "seeking the destruction of the Welsh language". The University Committee, which was described by BBC Director General John Reith as "the most unpleasant and unreliable people with whom it has been my misfortune to deal" gained ever more influence on the BBC in Wales not least in the selection of BBC staff – a function delegated to the committee by the corporation. As newspapers of the time noted, appointees seemed primarily drawn from the families of the Welsh-speaking elite including "the son of a professor of Welsh and the offspring of three archdruids".[36] Saunders Lewis's assiduous campaigning over the years was to succeed in cementing an ongoing Plaid Cymru influence within the BBC. When the BBC's Welsh Advisory Council was eventually established in 1946, although half its members were Labour, several Plaid Cymru supporters were appointed including Saunders Lewis's successor as Plaid Cymru president, Gwynfor Evans.[35]

Tân yn Llŷn 1936[edit]

Welsh nationalism was ignited in 1936 when the UK Government settled on establishing an RAF training camp and aerodrome at Penyberth[37] on the Llŷn Peninsula in Gwynedd. The events surrounding the protest, known as Tân yn Llŷn ("Fire in Llŷn"), helped define Plaid Genedlaethol Cymru.[38] The UK Government settled on Llŷn as the site for its training camp after similar proposed sites in Northumberland and Dorset met with protests.[39]

However, UK Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin refused to hear the case against building this 'bombing school' in Wales, despite a deputation representing 500,000 Welsh protesters.[39] Protest against the project was summed up by Lewis when he wrote that the UK Government was intent upon turning one of the "essential homes of Welsh culture, idiom, and literature" into a place for promoting a barbaric method of warfare.[39] Construction of this military academy began exactly 400 years after the first Act of Union annexing Wales into England.[39]

On 8 September 1936, the building was set on fire and in the investigations which followed Saunders Lewis, Lewis Valentine, and D. J. Williams claimed responsibility.[39] They were tried at Caernarfon, where the jury failed to agree on a verdict. The case was then sent to be retried at the Old Bailey in London, where "the Three" were convicted, and sentenced to nine months imprisonment. On their release from Wormwood Scrubs, they were greeted as heroes by 15,000 Welsh people at a pavilion in Caernarfon.[39]

Llosgi'r Ysgol Fomio: "The Burning of the Bombing School"

Many Welsh people were angered by the judge's scornful treatment of the Welsh language, by the decision to move the trial to London, and by the decision of University College, Swansea, to dismiss Lewis from his post before he had been found guilty.[38] Dafydd Glyn Jones wrote of the fire that it was "the first time in five centuries that Wales struck back at England with a measure of violence... To the Welsh people, who had long ceased to believe that they had it in them, it was a profound shock."[38]

However, despite the acclaim the events of Tân yn Llŷn generated, by 1938 Lewis's concept of perchentyaeth ("home ownership") had been firmly rejected as not a fundamental tenet of the party. In 1939 Lewis resigned as Plaid Genedlaethol Cymru president, saying that Wales was not ready to accept the leadership of a Roman Catholic.[38]

Although Lewis was the son and grandson of prominent Welsh Calvinistic Methodist ministers, he had converted to Roman Catholicism in 1932.

Second World War[edit]

Lewis maintained a strict neutrality in his writings through his column Cwrs y Byd in Y Faner. It was his attempt at an unbiased interpretation of the causes and events of the war.[40]

Outside of the party's initial position on the war, party members were free to choose for themselves their level of support for the war effort. Plaid Genedlaethol Cymru was officially neutral regarding involvement the Second World War, which Lewis and other leaders considered a continuation of the First World War. Central to the neutrality policy was the idea that Wales, as a nation, had the right to decide independently on its attitude towards war,[41] and the rejection of other nations to force Welshmen to serve in their armed forces.[41] With this challenging and revolutionary policy Lewis hoped a significant number of Welshmen would refuse to join the British Army.[40]

Lewis and other party members were attempting to strengthen loyalty to the Welsh nation "over the loyalty to the British State".[41] Lewis argued "The only proof that the Welsh nation exists is that there are some who act as if it did exist."[40]

However, most party members who claimed conscientious objection status did so in the context of their moral and religious beliefs, rather than on political policy.[40] Of these almost all were exempt from military service. About 24 party members made politics their sole grounds for exemption, of whom 12 received prison sentences.[40] For Lewis, those who objected proved that the assimilation of Wales was "being withstood, even under the most extreme pressures".[40]

University of Wales by-election, 1943[edit]

Prior to 1950, universities could elect and return representatives to the House of Commons. The University of Wales seat had become vacant when the constituency's Liberal Member of Parliament, Ernest Evans, had been appointed a county court judge in 1942. Lewis was selected to contest the seat for Plaid Cymru in the ensuing 1943 University of Wales by-election.

His opponent was former Plaid Genedlaethol Cymru Deputy Vice-president Dr William John Gruffydd. Gruffydd had been voicing doubts about Lewis's ideas since 1933,[42] and by 1943 he had left Plaid Cymru and joined the Liberal Party. His other opponent, independent candidate Alun Talfan Davies, was another former member of Plaid Genedlaethol Cymru who would later become Chairman of the Welsh Liberal Party.

The "brilliant but wayward" Gruffydd was a favorite with Welsh-speaking intellectuals and drew 52.3% of the vote, to Lewis's 22.5%.[42]

The election effectively split the Welsh-speaking intelligentsia, and left Lewis embittered with politics, leading him to retreat from direct political involvement.[43] However the experience proved invaluable for Plaid Cymru, as "for the first time they were taken seriously as a political force."[43] The by-election campaign led directly to "considerable growth" in the party's membership.[43]

Tynged yr Iaith and the 1961 census[edit]

In 1962 Lewis gave a radio speech entitled Tynged yr iaith ("The Fate of the Language") in which he predicted the complete extinction of the Welsh language by 2000 unless immediate action was taken.[44]

Lewis's radio speech was in response to the 1961 census, which showed a decrease in the percentage of Welsh speakers from 36% in 1931 to 26%, of the population of about 2.5 million.[45] In the census the counties of Merionethshire (Meirionnydd), Anglesey (Ynys Môn), Carmarthenshire (Sir Gaerfyrddin), and Caernarfonshire averaged a 75% proportion of Welsh speakers, with the most significant decreases in the counties of Glamorgan, Flint, and Pembroke.[45][46]

Assuming, "a gloomy sepulchral tone", Lewis argued that the Welsh language was, "driven into a corner, ready to be thrown, like a worthless rag, on the dung heap." The responsibility for this lay, according to Lewis, less in the hands of the British civil service bureaucracy than with the timidity and indifference of the Welsh-speaking people themselves. As he had fully intended it to do, Lewis' lecture immediately touched a raw nerve.[44]

While Lewis' had wished to shame Plaid Cymru into more direct action promoting a Welsh language revival, his speech instead led to the formation of Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg (Welsh Language Society) later that year at a Plaid Cymru summer school held in Pontardawe in Glamorgan.[47] The foundation of Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg allowed Plaid Cymru to focus on electoral politics, while the Cymdeithas launched a campaign of civil disobedience aimed at the State's policy of coercive Anglicisation.[48]

According to Marcus Tanner, "For the first time, the British government was forced to recognise the existence of a substantial non-Anglophone culture, and to rethink attitudes that had been set in stone since Henry VIII's so-called Acts of Union. The new, more conciliatory attitude began under Labour, but continued under the Conservatives."[49]

Responding to escalating demands for devolution in the United Kingdom, in 1964 the Labour Government established the Welsh Office (Welsh: Swyddfa Gymreig) and the post of Secretary of State for Wales. The Welsh Language Bill of 1967 granted Welsh equal status to English in the legal system. Further legislation belatedly granted century-old demands for Welsh-medium education.[49]

Nobel nominee[edit]

In 1970, Lewis was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature. His literary works include plays, poetry, novels and essays. He wrote mostly in Welsh, but he also wrote some works in English. By the time of his death in 1985 some rated him as amongst the most celebrated of Welsh writers.

Literary activity[edit]

Lewis was above all a dramatist. His notable plays include Blodeuwedd (The woman of flowers) (1923–25, revised 1948), Buchedd Garmon (The life of Germanus) (radio play, 1936), Siwan (1956), Gymerwch chi sigarét? (Will you have a cigarette?) (1956), Brad (Treachery) (1958), Esther (1960), and Cymru fydd (Tomorrow's Wales) (1967). He also translated Samuel Beckett's En attendant Godot from French into Welsh. His plays drew upon a wide range of material and covered a range of subject matter including Welsh mythology and history, as well as the Christian Bible, although he also wrote plays set in contemporary Wales.

Lewis' use of poetic forms in the Welsh language included both the use of traditional strict metre forms in cynghanedd such as cywyddau and awdlau as well as the Sicilian School's sonnet form, "a variety of other rhyming stanzas", and "full breathed free verse", which were derived from poetry in other languages.[50]

Following his conversion to the Catholic Church, Lewis also wrote many works of Christian poetry inspired by his new faith. These included poems about the Real Presence in the Blessed Sacrament, a poem that sympathetically describes St. Joseph's crisis of faith, about the traumatic but purgatorial sense of loss experienced by St. Mary Magdalen after the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ, and about attending the Tridentine Mass on Christmas Day.[51]

Lewis wrote the libretto for Arwel Hughes's opera Serch yw'r doctor (Love's the doctor), based on Molière's L'Amour médecin (first performance 1960 by Welsh National Opera).[52]

He published two novels, Monica (1930) and Merch Gwern Hywel (The daughter of Gwern Hywel) (1964) and two collections of poems as well as numerous articles and essays in various newspapers, magazines and journals. These articles have been collected into volumes including: Canlyn Arthur (Following Arthur) (1938), Ysgrifau dydd Mercher (Wednesday essays) (1945), Meistri'r canrifoedd (Masters of the centuries) (1973), Meistri a'u crefft (Masters and their craft) (1981) and Ati ŵyr ifainc (Go to it, young men) (1986).

Honorary doctorate and demand for Latin mass[edit]

In March 1983, at the age of 89, Saunders Lewis was made an honorary Doctor of Letters of the University of Wales at a ceremony specially conducted at his home in Penarth. The Catholic Herald, reporting the honour, noted that in the previous year Lewis had made a plea for Mass to be said in Latin in Wales rather than in the "foreign language of English", which he pointed out was "a later arrival".[53]

Legacy[edit]

Lewis's legacy remains a controversial one. With regard to both the Far Left and the Far Right, Lewis' simultaneously anti-Marxist and anti-colonialist interpretation of Welsh history has often been the target of attacks.

Particularly controversial was his belief, as expressed in Braslun o Hanes Llenyddiaeth Gymraeg, a 1932 outline of the history of Welsh-language literature, that the Edwardian conquest of Wales was less damaging to Welsh culture and literature in the long run than was the Protestant Reformation, which was forcibly imposed upon the population as a whole through the Caesaropapism of King Henry VIII. This was because, according to Lewis, Welsh-language literature and culture were not only cut off by State interference from their recent religious past, but also from the literary and cultural influences of the rest of Europe.[54]

This was why Lewis urged Welsh-language writers as early as 1919 to both translate and draw influence from literature in other European languages, rather than, as he had once done, reading and emulating only modern literature in English.

Without mentioning Pope Gregory XI or his 1373 "règle d'idiom", command for the Catholic clergy to both learn and communicate with their flocks in the local vernacular,[55] Lewis believed that the coercive Anglicisation of the Welsh people began under King Henry VIII and commented, "it was this materialistic and pagan triumph that destroyed our Wales."[56]

For example, historian John Davies writes that, "in a notable article", Saunders Lewis argued that the Welsh bards of the Medieval era, "were expressing in their poetry a love for a stable, deep-rooted civilization." Lewis added that the bards "were the leading upholders of the belief that a hierarchical social structure, 'the heritage and tradition of an ancient aristocracy', were the necessary precondition of civilized life and that there were deep philosophical roots to this belief."[57]

By arguing, however, that there was more to the praise poetry composed by Medieval Welsh bards in honour of the Welsh nobility than mere insincere flattery, Lewis received accusations from Welsh Leftists of having "elitist" views.

Lewis' opposition to the Welsh nobility, however, was not for being an elite social class, but for abandoning both noblesse oblige and their traditional role as the Welsh people's natural leaders by becoming Anglicised during the 17th and 18th centuries. Even worse, in Lewis's eyes, and was the Anglo-Welsh gentry's of the era's widespread practices of both rackrenting and political bossism, which was enforced by threats to evict tenants who voted independently of how they were ordered. Lewis wrote that during the era, "The gentry betrayed their birthright, behaved like rich bourgeois and denied... the civilisation which they boasted they were cherishing."[58]

Lewis' vocal belief that a Welsh language revival, Christian democracy, rural landscape conservation, and an Irish-style Land War of direct action tactics against the landowning gentry were preferable causes for the Welsh nationalist movement to embrace than Socialism have also attracted considerable criticism, both during Lewis' lifetime and since his death.

Despite his statements to the contrary, Lewis' allegedly "condescending attitude towards some aspects of the Nonconformist, radical and pacifist traditions of Wales", also drew extremely harsh criticism from fellow Welsh nationalists such as D. J. Davies, a Marxist Plaid Cymru member.[32]

Lewis, however, always insisted that his conversion to Catholicism did not keep him from understanding the sensibilities of Nonconformist Welsh nationalists. He also praised what he saw as the positive roles that Methodism and Calvinism had played in preserving Welsh-language literature and culture against the linguistic imperialism favoured by the Anglo-Welsh gentry and the Established Church.[59] Even so, many Welsh nationalist Protestants sharply opposed Lewis' enthusiasm for Medieval studies and were outraged by his defense of the similar historical role once played by the Catholic Church in Wales.

D.J. Davies, who opposed Lewis' calls for a Welsh language revival, called instead for engaging the English-speaking South Wales valleys. Davies also pointed towards Left Wing political parties in Scandinavia as a model for Plaid Cymru to emulate, and was accordingly far more interested in the "economic implications" of Welsh self-determination, ans sharply opposed Lewis' calls for cultural nationalism.[60]

Left wing historian Geraint H. Jenkins has written:- "..Lewis was a cold fish. His reedy voice, bow tie, cerebral style and aristocratic contempt for the proletariat were hardly endearing qualities in a political leader, and his conversion to Catholicism lost him the sympathy of fervent Nonconformists. Heavily influenced by the discourse of right-wing French theorists, this profoundly authoritarian figure developed a grand strategy, such as it was, based on the deindustrialization of Wales. Such a scheme was both impractical and unpopular. It caused grave embarrassment to his socialist colleague D. J. Davies, a progressive economist who, writing with force and passion, showed a much better grasp of the economic realities of the time and greater sensitivity towards the plight of working people.[61]

While it was D. J. Davies's ideology which was adopted by Plaid Cymru after the Second World War, it was Lewis's "brilliance and charismatic appeal" which was firmly associated with Plaid Genedlaethol Cymru in the 1930s.[39] For the remainder of his life, however, Saunders Lewis continued to remain an ideological thorn in the side of the Far Left leadership of the very political party he had helped to found.

During the post-World War II battles between Plaid Cymru and the Labour Party over political control of South Wales, a hostile 1946 portrait mocked Saunders Lewis for thinking himself to be the "Masaryk of Wales" and that both the United Kingdom and the very concept of Britishness would one day to collapse similarly to the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918. The same writer then sarcastically feigned sympathy for Plaid Cymru, a political party which was allegedly burdened by, "bitterness and hate and the (possibly unintentional) air of physical superiority with which only too many of its members have regarded the bulk of their countrymen."[44]

During the 1990s, in the midst of a debate over the Government of Wales Act 1998, Saunders Lewis was also accused in the House of Commons of having praised Adolf Hitler in 1936 with the words, "At once he fulfilled his promise — a promise which was greatly mocked by the London papers months before that — to completely abolish the financial strength of the Jews in the economic life of Germany."[62]

In 2001, former Plaid Cymru President Dafydd Elis-Thomas accused Saunders Lewis during a television documentary of being, "lousy as a politician, lousy as a writer, but a good Catholic".[63]

In contrast, however, Marcus Tanner, while researching in his 2004 book The Last of the Celts visited the decaying English-speaking industrial towns, which D.J. Davies once saw as Plaid Cymru's future. Pointing out that they were both dominated for decades by Far Left political machines, leading to Soviet-inspired concrete architecture, political corruption, and skyrocketing unemployment, Tanner compared South Wales to the many other decaying and disillusioned industrial towns behind the former Iron Curtain after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.[64]

In the same book, Tanner credited the famous 1961 radio lecture by Saunders Lewis with being the primary reason why the Welsh language was, as of 2004, the only one of the Celtic languages that was neither dead or critically endangered.[65]

Lewis' legacy is also reflected by the fact that, even in traditionally English-speaking Welsh colliery and industrial cities, Welsh-medium education is increasingly used as a means of both cultural and language revival.

For this and many other reasons, Saunders Lewis was overwhelmingly voted by the Welsh people as their 10th greatest national hero in the '100 Welsh Heroes' poll, the results of which was released on St. David's Day, 2004.[3]

Further reading[edit]

  • Lewis, Saunders (1997) [1930]. Monica. Translated by Stephens, Meic. Bridgend: Seren. ISBN 1-85411-195-7.
  • Lewis, Saunders (1985–2002), The Plays of Saunders Lewis, 4 vols, translated by Joseph P. Clancy. ISBN 0-9540569-4-9, ISBN 0-7154-0648-5, 0954056957, 0715406523.
  • Lewis, Saunders (1993), Selected Poems, translated by Joseph P. Clancy. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. ISBN 0-7083-1194-6.

Electoral record[edit]

Lewis contested the University of Wales Constituency on two occasions, once in the general election of 1931;

General election 1931: University of Wales
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Ernest Evans 2,229 75.4 +11.9
Plaid Cymru Saunders Lewis 914 24.6 N/A
Majority 1,315 50.8 +12.2
Turnout 3,143
Liberal hold Swing N/A

and again in the University of Wales by-election of 1943.

25–29 January 1943 by-election: University of Wales
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal William John Gruffydd 3,098 52.3 -9.0
Plaid Cymru Saunders Lewis 1,330 22.5 N/A
Independent Alun Talfan Davies 755 12.8 N/A
Independent Labour Evan Davies 634 10.7 N/A
Independent Labour N.L. Evans 101 1.7 N/A
Majority 1,768 29.8 +7.2
Turnout 5,918 53.4 -9.0
Registered electors 11,079
Liberal hold Swing N/A

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jan Morris (1984), The Matter of Wales: Epic Views of a Small Country, Oxford University Press. Page 352.
  2. ^ Jan Morris (1984), The Matter of Wales: Epic Views of a Small Country, Oxford University Press. Page 132.
  3. ^ a b Bevan is ultimate Welsh hero extracted 12-04-07
  4. ^ Jelle Krol (2020), Minority Language Writers in the Wake of World War One: A Case Study of Four European Authors, Palgrave. Pages 76-87.
  5. ^ Jan Morris (1984), The Matter of Wales: Epic Views of a Small Country, Oxford University Press. Page 352.
  6. ^ Jelle Krol (2020), Minority Language Writers in the Wake of World War One: A Case Study of Four European Authors, Palgrave. Page 87.
  7. ^ Jelle Krol (2020), Minority Language Writers in the Wake of World War One: A Case Study of Four European Authors, Palgrave. Page 88.
  8. ^ Chapman, T. Robin (2014). "Lewis, John Saunders". Dictionary of Welsh Biography. National Library of Wales. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
  9. ^ Jelle Krol (2020), Minority Language Writers in the Wake of World War One: A Case Study of Four European Authors, Palgrave. Page 87-88.
  10. ^ Jelle Krol (2020), Minority Language Writers in the Wake of World War One: A Case Study of Four European Authors, Palgrave. Page 88.
  11. ^ Jelle Krol (2020), Minority Language Writers in the Wake of World War One: A Case Study of Four European Authors, Palgrave. Page 88.
  12. ^ Jelle Krol (2020), Minority Language Writers in the Wake of World War One: A Case Study of Four European Authors, Palgrave. Page 88.
  13. ^ Jelle Krol (2020), Minority Language Writers in the Wake of World War One: A Case Study of Four European Authors, Palgrave. Page 89.
  14. ^ Jelle Krol (2020), Minority Language Writers in the Wake of World War One: A Case Study of Four European Authors, Palgrave. Page 89.
  15. ^ Jelle Krol (2020), Minority Language Writers in the Wake of World War One: A Case Study of Four European Authors, Palgrave. Page 89.
  16. ^ a b Williams, Gwyn A. (1993). "Saunders Lewis: Alien Face In The Mirror". Writing On The Line. Channel 4.
  17. ^ a b Jelle Krol (2020), Minority Language Writers in the Wake of World War One: A Case Study of Four European Authors, Palgrave. Page 75.
  18. ^ Jelle Krol (2020), Minority Language Writers in the Wake of World War One: A Case Study of Four European Authors, Palgrave. Page 89.
  19. ^ Jelle Krol (2020), Minority Language Writers in the Wake of World War One: A Case Study of Four European Authors, Palgrave. Page 89.
  20. ^ Kendall, Tim (22 February 2007). The Oxford Handbook of British and Irish War Poetry. OUP Oxford. p. 342. ISBN 978-0-19-928266-1.
  21. ^ "BBC - Saunders Lewis". BBC.
  22. ^ Davies (1994a), pp. 415, 454
  23. ^ Davies (1994a), p. 544
  24. ^ a b Davies (1994a), p. 547
  25. ^ Davies (1994a), p. 547
  26. ^ a b "Penarth's Secret Role in Welsh History". Plaid Cymru Penarth. 5 December 2013.
  27. ^ a b "Site of Plaid Cymru's founding, Pwllheli". History Points.
  28. ^ Morgan (2002), p. 206
  29. ^ a b c d e Davies (1994a), p. 548
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  31. ^ "BBCWales history extracted 12-03-07". Archived from the original on 9 June 2008.
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  33. ^ "Royal plans to beat nationalism". BBC News. 8 March 2005. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
  34. ^ Manchester Guardian 1 August 1929
  35. ^ a b Davies (1994b)
  36. ^ Davies (1994b), pp. 70–71
  37. ^ RAF Penrhos
  38. ^ a b c d Davies (1994a), p. 593
  39. ^ a b c d e f g Davies (1994a), p. 592
  40. ^ a b c d e f Davies (1994a), p. 599
  41. ^ a b c Davies (1994a), p. 598
  42. ^ a b Davies (1994a), p. 610
  43. ^ a b c Davies (1994a), p. 611
  44. ^ a b c Marcus Tanner (2004), The Last of the Celts, Yale University Press. Page 212.
  45. ^ a b "BBCWales History extracted 12-03-07". Archived from the original on 9 June 2008.
  46. ^ "BBCWales History extracted 12-03-07". Archived from the original on 9 June 2008.
  47. ^ Morgan (2002)
  48. ^ Marcus Tanner (2004), The Last of the Celts, Yale University Press. Pages 212-213.
  49. ^ a b Marcus Tanner (2004), The Last of the Celts, Yale University Press. Page 213.
  50. ^ Translated by Joseph P. Clancy (1993), Saunders Lewis: Selected Poems, University of Wales Press. Pages ix-x.
  51. ^ Translated by Joseph P. Clancy (1993), Saunders Lewis: Selected Poems, University of Wales Press. Page ix.
  52. ^ "Serch yw'r Doctor (Love's the Doctor)". Opening Night! Opera & Oratorio Premieres. Stanford University Library. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
  53. ^ The Catholic Herald 4 March 1983
  54. ^ Jelle Krol (2020), Minority Language Writers in the Wake of World War One: A Case Study of Four European Authors, Palgrave. Pages 102-103.
  55. ^ Jelle Krol (2020), Minority Language Writers in the Wake of World War One: A Case Study of Four European Authors, Palgrave. Page 219.
  56. ^ Jelle Krol (2020), Minority Language Writers in the Wake of World War One: A Case Study of Four European Authors, Palgrave. Page 103.
  57. ^ John Davies (1993), A History of Wales, Penguin Books. Pages 210–211.
  58. ^ Jan Morris (1984), The Matter of Wales: Epic Views of a Small Country, Oxford University Press. Pages 233-234.
  59. ^ Jelle Krol (2020), Minority Language Writers in the Wake of World War One: A Case Study of Four European Authors, Palgrave. Pages 100-102.
  60. ^ Davies (1994a), pp. 591–592
  61. ^ Jenkins (2007)
  62. ^ United Kingdom Parliament: Debate on Government of Wales Act 1998. Retrieved 31 August 2006.
  63. ^ "Plaid founder blasted". WalesOnline. 26 March 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2016.
  64. ^ Marcus Tanner (2004), The Last of the Celts, Yale University Press. Pages 186-218.
  65. ^ Marcus Tanner (2004), The Last of the Celts, Yale University Press. Pages 212-217.

Sources[edit]

  • Griffiths, Bruce (1989), Saunders Lewis. Writers of Wales series. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. ISBN 0-7083-1049-4.
  • Jones, Alun R. & Gwyn Thomas (Eds.) (1973), Presenting Saunders Lewis. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. ISBN 0-7083-0852-X.
  • Jones, Harri Pritchard (1991), Saunders Lewis: A Presentation of His Work. Illinois: Templegate. ISBN 0-87243-187-8.
  • 'Lewis, Saunders (1893–1985)'. In Meic Stephens (Ed.) (1998), The New Companion to the Literature of Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. ISBN 0-7083-1383-3.
  • Chapman, T. Robin (2006), Un Bywyd o Blith Nifer: Cofiant Saunders Lewis. Llandysul: Gomer. ISBN 1-84323-709-1 (in Welsh; the only complete biography).

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

Party political offices
Preceded by
New position
Vice President of Plaid Cymru
1925–1926
Succeeded by
?
Preceded by President of Plaid Cymru
1926–1939
Succeeded by