Sayyid dynasty

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Sayyid dynasty
1414–1451
The tomb of Muhammad Shah at Lodi Gardens, New Delhi.
Capital Delhi
Languages Persian (official)[1]
Religion Islam
Government Sultanate
Sultan
 •  1414–1421 Khizr Khan
 •  1421-1434 Mubarak Shah
 •  1434-1445 Muhammad Shah
 •  1445-1451 Ala-ud-Din Shah
History
 •  Established 28 May 1414
 •  Disestablished 19 April 1451
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Tughlaq dynasty
Lodi dynasty
Today part of  India
 Pakistan

The Sayyid dynasty was the fourth dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate, with four rulers ruling from 1414 to 1451. Founded by a former governor of Multan, they succeeded the Tughlaq dynasty and ruled the sultanate until they were displaced by the Lodi dynasty. Members of the dynasty derived their title, Sayyid, or the descendants of the Prophet Muhammad, based on the claim that they belonged to the Prophet's lineage through his daughter Fatima, and son-in-law and cousin Ali.

History[edit]

Following the 1398 Sack of Delhi, Amir Timur appointed the Sayyids as the governors of Delhi. Their dynasty was established by Sayyid Khizr Khan, deputised by Timur to be the governor of Multan (Punjab). Khizr Khan captured Delhi from Daulat Khan Lodi on May 28, 1414 thereby establishing the Sayyid dynasty. Khizr Khan did not take up the title of Sultan and nominally, continued to be a Rayat-i-Ala (vassal) of the Timurids - initially that of Timur, and later his grandson Shah Rukh.[2]

Khizr Khan was succeeded by his son Sayyid Mubarak Shah after his death on May 20, 1421. Mubarak Shah referred to himself as Muizz-ud-Din Mubarak Shah on his coins. A detailed account of his reign is available in the Tarikh-i-Mubarak Shahi written by Yahya-bin-Ahmad Sirhindi. After the death of Mubarak Shah, his nephew, Muhammad Shah ascended the throne and styled himself as Sultan Muhammad Shah. Just before his death, he called his son Sayyid Ala-ud-Din Shah from Badaun, and nominated him as successor.

The last ruler of the Sayyids, Ala-ud-Din, voluntarily abdicated the throne of the Delhi Sultanate in favour of Bahlul Khan Lodi on April 19, 1451, and left for Badaun, where he in 1478.[3]

Kings[edit]

Khizr Khan[edit]

Billon Tanka of Khizr Khan INO Firoz Shah Tughlaq

Khizr Khan was the governor of Multan under Firuz Shah Tughlaq. When Timur invaded India, Khizr Khan a sayyid from Multan joined him. Timur appointed him the governor of Multan and Lahore. He then conquered the city of Delhi and started the rule of the Sayyids in 1414. He was ruling in name of Timur. He could not assume an independent position in all respects. As a mark of recognition of the suzerainty of the Mongols, the name of the Mongol ruler (Shah Rukh) was recited in the khutba but as an interesting innovation, the name of Khizr Khan was also attached to it. But strangely enough the name of Mongol ruler was not inscribed on the coins and the name of old Tughlaq sultan continued on the currency. No coins are known in the name of Khizr Khan.[4]

Mubarak Shah[edit]

Double falus of Mubarak Shah

Mubarak Shah was the son of Khizr Khan. He came to the throne in 1421. He was a man of great vision, but the nobles were against him and kept revolting.

Muhammad Shah[edit]

Muhammad Shah was a nephew of Mubarak Shah. He ruled from 1434-1445.

Ala-ud-din Alam Shah[edit]

Billon Tanka of 80 rati of Alam Shah

Alam Shah was a weak ruler. In 1451 he surrendered Delhi to Bahlul Lodi and went to Budaun where he spent rest of his life.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Arabic and Persian Epigraphical Studies - Archaeological Survey of India". Asi.nic.in. Retrieved 2010-11-14. 
  2. ^ Mahajan, V.D. (1991, reprint 2007). History of Medieval India, Part I, New Delhi: S. Chand, ISBN 81-219-0364-5, p.237
  3. ^ Mahajan, V.D. (1991, reprint 2007). History of Medieval India, Part I, Now Delhi: S. Chand, ISBN 81-219-0364-5, p.244
  4. ^ Nizami, K.A. (1970, reprint 2006) A Comprehensive History of India, Vol-V, Part-1, People Publishing House, ISBN 81-7007-158-5, p.631

External links[edit]