The tomb of Muhammad Shah at Lodi Gardens, New Delhi.
|•||Established||28 May 1414|
|•||Disestablished||19 April 1451|
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|History of India|
This family claimed to be Sayyids, or descendants of Muhammad. The central authority of the Delhi Sultanate had been fatally weakened by the successive invasion of Timur and his sack of Delhi in 1398. After a period of chaos, when no central authority prevailed, the Sayyids gained power at Delhi. Their 37-year period of dominance witnessed the rule of four different members of the dynasty.
The dynasty was established by Khizr Khan, deputised by Timur to be the governor of Multan (Punjab). Khizr Khan took Delhi from Daulat Khan Lodi on May 28, 1414 and founded the Sayyid dynasty. But he did not take up the title of sultan and nominally, continued to be a Rayat-i-Ala (vassal) of the Timurids, initially of Timur and after his death, his successor Shah Rukh, grandson of Timur. Khizer Khan was succeeded by his son Mubarrak Khan after his death on May 20, 1421, who styled himself as Muizz-ud-Din Mubarak Shah in his coins. A detailed account of his reign is available in the Tarikh-i-Mubarak Shahi written by Yahya-bin-Ahmad Sirhindi. After the death of Mubarak Shah, his nephew Muhammad Khan ascended the throne and styled himself as Sultan Muhammad Shah. Just before his death, he called his son Ala-ud-Din from Badaun and nominated him as his successor.
The last ruler of this dynasty, Ala-ud-Din Alam Shah voluntarily abdicated the throne of the Delhi sulatanate in favour of Bahlul Khan Lodi on April 19, 1451 and left for Badaun. He continued to live there till his death in 1478.
Khizr Khan was the governor of Multan under Firuz Shah Tughlaq. When Timur invaded India, Khizr Khan joined him. Timur appointed him the governor of Multan, Lahore. He then conquered the city of Delhi and started the rule of the Sayyids in 1414. He was ruling in name of Timur. He could not assume an independent position in all respects. As a mark of recognition of the suzerainty of the Mongols, the name of the Mongol ruler (Shah Rukh) was recited in the khutba but as an interesting innovation, the name of khizr khan was also attached to it. But strangely enough the name of Mongol ruler was not inscribed on the coins and the name of old Tughlaq sultan continued on the currency. No coins are known in the name of Khizr Khan.
Mubarak Shah was, the son of Khizr Khan. He came to the throne in 1421. He was a man of great vision, but the nobles were against him and kept revolting.
Muhammad Shah was a nephew of Mubarak Shah. He ruled from 1434-1443.
Ala-ud-din Alam Shah
- "Arabic and Persian Epigraphical Studies - Archaeological Survey of India". Asi.nic.in. Retrieved 2010-11-14.
- Mahajan, V.D. (1991, reprint 2007). History of Medieval India, Part I, New Delhi: S. Chand, ISBN 81-219-0364-5, p.237
- Mahajan, V.D. (1991, reprint 2007). History of Medieval India, Part I, Now Delhi: S. Chand, ISBN 81-219-0364-5, p.244
- Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 122–123. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
- Nizami, K.A. (1970, reprint 2006) A Comprehensive History of India, Vol-V, Part-1, People Publishing House, ISBN 81-7007-158-5, p.631
- Encyclopædia Britannica - Sayyid Dynasty
- Muhammad Ahmad
- Coin Gallery - Sayyid Dynasty
- [ Sayyid Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah (Arabic: محمد أحمد المهدي) (August 12, 1844 – June 22, 1885) was a religious leader of the Samaniyya order in Sudan who, on June 29, 1881, proclaimed himself the Mahdi (or Madhi), the messianic redeemer of the Islamic faith.]