Sayyida al Hurra
Sayyida al Hurra, (Arabic: السيدة الحرة), real name Lalla Aicha bint Ali ibn Rashid al-Alami, Hakimat Titwan, (1485 - July 14, 1561), was a queen of Tétouan in 1515-1542 and a pirate queen in the early 16th century. She is considered to be "one of the most important female figures of the Islamic West in the modern age".
The life of Sayyida al Hurra can be understood within geopolitical and religious contexts. The Ottomans had just captured Constantinople in 1453 marking the end of the Byzantine Empire. She was two years old when the Portuguese started their colonial conquest by capturing some ports at the western coast of Morocco starting the year 1487. A few years later, Granada was falling into the hands of the Catholic Monarchs (los Reyes Católicos) Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon and with that, forced conversions of Muslims in Spain followed.
Allied with the Turkish corsair Barbarossa of Algiers, al Hurra controlled the western Mediterranean Sea while Barbarossa controlled the eastern. She was also prefect of Tétouan. In 1515 she became the last person in Islamic history to legitimately hold the title of al Hurra (Queen) following the death of her husband, who ruled Tétouan. She later married the Berber King of Morocco, Ahmed al-Wattasi, but refused to leave Tétouan to do so. This marriage marks the only time in Moroccan history a King married away from the capital, Fez.
Sayyida al Hurra was born around 1485 (Hijri around 890) to a prominent Muslim family, the Banu Rashid. She is a descendant of Sharif Abd as-Salam al-Alami, who is a descendant of Hasan ibn Ali. She fled with her family to Morocco when Ferdinand and Isabella conquered the Muslim kingdom of Granada in 1492, at the end of the Reconquista and settled in Chefchaouen.
Sayyida's childhood was happy and secure, yet clouded by constant reminders of the forced exile from Granada. She was married at 16 to a man 30 years her senior, a friend of her father and refounder and governor of the city of Tétouan, himself an Andalusian Moorish refugee, Ali al-Mandri, to whom she was promised when she was still a child. Some sources state she was married to al-Mandri's son, al-Mandri II.
As Governor of Tétouan
An intelligent woman, she learned much assisting her husband in his business affairs. She was a de facto vice-governor with her husband entrusting her the reins of power each trip he made outside the city. When the latter died in 1515, the population, who had become accustomed to seeing her exercise power, accepted her as a governor of Tétouan, giving her the title of al-Hurra. Spanish and Portuguese sources describe al-Hurra as "their partner in the diplomatic game". Some historians believe that the unusual "degree of acceptance of al Hurra as a ruler" could be attributed to "Andalusian familiarity with female inheriting power from monarch families in Spain such as Isabella I of Castile. Others believe that al Hurra succeeded as governor because she was "the undisputed leader of pirates of the western Mediterranean".
In 1541, she accepted a marriage proposal from Ahmed al-Wattasi, a Sultan of the Moroccan Wattasid dynasty, who traveled from Fez to Tétouan to marry her. Her marriage with him was the only recorded instance a Moroccan king married outside of his capital. This was because she was not ready to give up her role as queen of Tétouan or even to leave the city for the marriage ceremony, forcing al-Wattasi to come to her. It is believed that Sayyida insisted on this to show everybody that she was not going to give up governing Tétouan even though married to the Sultan.
Sayyida al Hurra lived a life of adventure and romance. She concurrently appointed her brother Moulay Ibrahim as vizier to Ahmed al-Wattasi, Sultan of Fez, and this made the Rashids positioned themselves as major players in the effort to unify Morocco against the fast-growing powers of Spain and Portugal.
As a corsair
Sayyida could neither forget nor forgive the humiliation of being forced to flee Granada. In her wish to avenge herself on the "Christian enemy", she turned to piracy. She made contact with Barbarossa of Algiers. Piracy provided a quick income, "booty and ransom for captives", and also helped to keep alive the dream of returning to Andalusia. She was well respected by Christians as a queen who had power over the Mediterranean Sea. She also was the one with whom one had to negotiate the release of Portuguese and Spanish captives. For example, in The Forgotten Queens of Islam Fatima Mernissi mentions Spanish historical documents of 1540 according to which there were negotiations "between the Spaniards and Sayyida al-Hurra" after a successful pirating operation in Gibraltar in which the pirates took "much booty and many prisoners".
After she had ruled as governor for 30 years, her son-in-law Muhammad al-Hassan al-Mandri overthrew her in October 1542. According to the Yemen Times, "She was stripped of her property and power." Accepting her fate, she retired to Chefchaouen, where she lived nearly 20 years more, until July 14, 1561.
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