Sazan (definite Albanian form: Sazani; Italian: Saseno, Ancient Greek: Σάσων) is a uninhabited island and the largest island in Albania. It is strategically located between the Strait of Otranto and the entrance to the Bay of Vlorë, forming the border between the Adriatic and Ionian Sea. It has a total area of 5.7 km2 (2.2 sq mi), with no civil population.
In addition to being the largest island in country, it is a military facility and sometimes in clear weather it may be seen by eye from the coast of Salento, Italy. More than half of the island's surrounding marine area forms part of the Karaburun-Sazan National Marine Park.. In 2014, the Regina Blu ferry was established by a Radhime-based hotel owner making trips to Karaburun Peninsula and Sazan Island while stopping along the secluded beaches. The island was open to the public in July 2015.
The island was known as Sason (Greek: Σάσων) in antiquity and was already mentioned by Polybius in a military episode taking place in 215 BC. Part of the Roman and Byzantine empires, it was captured by the Anjou of Naples in 1279, and was held by Albanian lords in the 14th century, often under the protection of Venice. The Ottoman Turks captured it around 1400, but it belonged to the Venetians by 1696. From then on, it follows the fate of the Ionian Islands, which were eventually given to Britain in 1815 as an autonomous republic under British protection.
In 1864 the island was ceded to Greece with the rest of the Ionian Islands, but not occupied, coming under de facto Ottoman control. It was not until the First Balkan War in 1912 that Greece landed soldiers on the island and formally claimed it. After the end of the Second Balkan War in 1913, Italy and Austria-Hungary pressed Greece to evacuate the southern part of modern Albania. Finding the island too unimportant to risk war with Italy, Greece evacuated it.
Italy in turn occupied it on 30 October 1914, and established a military commander on the island. This was later ratified on 26 April 1915 by the secret Treaty of London. After World War I, Albania formally ceded the island to Italy on 2 September 1920 as part of the Albano-Italian protocol. The island was part of Italy from 1920 until World War II: it was administratively part of Lagosta, inside the Italian Province of Zara. In those years the Italian authorities built a lighthouse and some naval fortifications, and populated the island with a few families of fishermen relocated from Apulia. The island was united to the Italian Governatorate of Dalmatia in 1941 during World War II and ceded to Albania on 10 February 1947, under the post-war peace treaty with Italy.
During the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Albania relied heavily on the Soviet Union. During that time, the Soviets built a Submarine Base on the island, as well as a Chemical/Biological weapons plant. To this day, many Soviet-era gas masks still can be found scattered around the valley of the island.
The island now is uninhabited but there is a small Italo-Albanian naval base, used mainly to counter contraband between southern Italy and Albania. In 2010, the island's surrounding sea waters, and those of adjacent Karaburun Peninsula were proclaimed a National Marine Park by the Albanian government.
Sazan is the largest island in Albania and the country's westernmost point. It is strategically located at the informal junction line of the Adriatic and Ionian Sea, as the formal line is located further south according to international scientific bodies. The island has a length of 4.8 km (3.0 mi) and a width of 2.7 km (1.7 mi), with a surface area of 5.7 km2 (2.2 sq mi).
The island has three high points, the highest being 337 m (1,106 ft) above sea level, in the north of the island. It has a coastline of about 15 km (9.3 mi). Along its western shore there are cliffs descending up to 40 meters underwater. Sazan has a climate unusual in Albania due to its maritime location. It is not Mediterranean but rather subtropical on account of its warm winters and hot summers. The climate and vegetation resemble those of the south of Crete, Tunisia and even parts of Egypt. The flora is different from that of the rest of Albania in that it is subtropical. A small tornado or watersprout was spotted along the coast coming inland in August 2002. Capes of the Island include the Cape of Shenkoll, Cape of Kallam, Cape of Jug, Cape of Pellumba, and Cape of Pulbardha.
|Climate data for Sazan (1991-2010)|
|Average high °C (°F)||16.3
|Average low °C (°F)||10.2
|Average precipitation days||10||9||7||6||4||3||1||2||4||7||10||11||74|
|Source: METEOALB Weather Station|
Sazan Island contains 7 species of amphibians of which 3 are rare species. The island contains 15 species of reptiles of which 13 are rare species. Some of these amphibian and reptile species include the:
The Vipera ammodytes is found on the mainland nearby but is absent from Sazan Island. The absence of this viper until presents a high scientific interest because it proves the formation and separation of the island before this species appeared.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sazan.|
- List of Lights, Pub. 113: The West Coasts of Europe and Africa, the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and Azovskoye More (Sea of Azov) (PDF). List of Lights. United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. 2015.
- "Albania". The Lighthouse Directory. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
- "Management Plan for National Marine Park Karaburun-Sazan" (PDF). mcpa.iwlearn.org. p. 10.
The total area of National Park Karaburun-Sazan is 12,570.82 ha, with marine area near Karaburuni having 9,848.95 ha and marine area near Sazani island having 2,721.87 ha.
- "FOTOLAJM/ Anija e parë turistike me 119 turistë mbërriti në Sazan". 26 July 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2016.
- Sk (24 March 2009). "The island of Sazan (Saseno, Σασων)". pyrroulas. Retrieved 2 July 2016.
- Olinto Mileta. Popolazioni dell'Istria, Fiume, Zara e Dalmazia 1850-2002. ediz. A.D.E.S. Trieste, 2005
- Cooperation between Italy and Albania (in Italian)
- http://www.tornadoit.org/lefoto28.htm Trombe marine e tornado sull'isola di Saseno (Albania) nell'agosto 2002, Tornadoit.org