Scandium chloride

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Scandium(III) chloride
Scandium(III) chloride
Crystals of scandium(III) chloride hexahydrate
Names
IUPAC name
Scandium(III) chloride
Other names
scandium chloride
scandium trichloride
Identifiers
10361-84-9
ChemSpider 74528 YesY
Jmol 3D model Interactive image
PubChem 82586
RTECS number VQ8925000
UNII 53PH22NTYW YesY
Properties
ScCl3
Molar mass 151.31 g/mol
Appearance grayish-white crystals
Density 2.39 g/mL, solid
Melting point 960 °C (1,760 °F; 1,230 K)[1]
63 °C (hexahydrate)
soluble
Solubility in other solvents insoluble in EtOH
Hazards
Main hazards irritant
Safety data sheet External MSDS
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., water Health code 1: Exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury. E.g., turpentine Reactivity (yellow): no hazard code Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
3980 mg/kg (mouse, oral)
Related compounds
Related compounds
scandium(III) fluoride
scandium(III) nitrate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
YesY verify (what is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Scandium(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula ScCl3. It is a white, high-melting ionic compound, which is deliquescent and highly water-soluble.[2] Scandium(III) chloride is mainly of interest in the research laboratory. Both the anhydrous form and hexahydrate (ScCl3•6H2O) are commercially available.

Chemical and physical properties[edit]

ScCl3 crystallises in the layered BiI3 motif, which features octahedral scandium centres.[3] Monomeric ScCl3 is the predominant species in the vapour phase at 900 K, the dimer Sc2Cl6 accounts for approximately 8%.[4] The electron diffraction spectrum indicates that the monomer is planar and the dimer has two bridging Cl atoms each Sc being 4 coordinate.[4]

Reactions[edit]

ScCl3 dissolves in water to give [Sc(H2O)6]3+ ions.[citation needed] In fact, samples of ScCl3 converts to this hexahydrate upon exposure to air. The structure of the hexahydrate is trans-[ScCl2(H2O)4]Cl·2H2O.[5] With the less basic ligand tetrahydrofuran, ScCl3 yields the adduct ScCl3(THF)3 as white crystals. This THF-soluble complex is used in the synthesis of organoscandium compounds.[6] ScCl3 has been converted to its dodecyl sulfate salt, which has been investigated as a "Lewis acid-surfactant combined catalyst" (LASC) in aldol-like reactions.

Reduction[edit]

Scandium(III) chloride was used by Fischer et al. who first prepared metallic scandium by electrolysis of a eutectic melt of scandium(III) chloride and other salts at 700-800 °C.[7]

ScCl3 reacts with scandium metal to give a number of chlorides where scandium has an oxidation state <+3, ScCl, Sc7Cl10, Sc2Cl3, Sc5Cl8 and Sc7Cl12.[2][8] For example, reduction of ScCl3 with scandium metal in the presence of caesium chloride gives the compound CsScCl3 which contain linear chains of composition ScIICl3, containing ScIICl6 octahedra sharing faces.[9]

Uses[edit]

Scandium(III) chloride is found in some halide lamps, optical fibers, electronic ceramics, and lasers.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Frederikse, H.P.R.; Lide, David R. (1998). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (78th Edition)
  2. ^ a b Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-08-037941-9. 
  3. ^ Crystal Structure of ScCl3 Refined from Powder Neutron Diffraction Data, Fjellvåg, H., Karen, P., Acta Chemica Scandinavica, 48, 294-297, doi:10.3891/acta.chem.scand.48-0294
  4. ^ a b Haaland A., Martinsen K-G, Shorokhov D.J, Girichev G.V., Sokolov V.I, J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans., 1998, 2787 - 2792, doi:10.1039/a803339k
  5. ^ The Rare Earth Elements, Fundamentals and Applications David A. Atwood, 2012, John Wiley & Sons Inc, ISBN 9781119950974
  6. ^ Manzer, L. E., "Tetrahydrofuran Complexes of Selected Early Transition Metals", Inorganic Syntheses, 1982, volume 21, page 135-40.doi:10.1002/9780470132524.ch31
  7. ^ Fischer, Werner; Brünger, Karl; Grieneisen, Hans (1937). "Über das metallische Scandium". Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie. 231 (1-2): 54–62. doi:10.1002/zaac.19372310107. 
  8. ^ Corbett, J.D. (1981). "Extended metal-metal bonding in halides of the early transition metals". Acc. Chem. Res. 14: 239–246. doi:10.1021/ar00068a003. 
  9. ^ Meyer, Gerd.; Corbett, John D. (1981). "Reduced ternary halides of scandium: RbScX3 (X = chlorine, bromine) and CsScX3 (X = chlorine, bromine, iodine)". Inorganic Chemistry. 20 (8): 2627–2631. doi:10.1021/ic50222a047. ISSN 0020-1669. 
  10. ^ Metal Suppliers Online. (2000). Scandium Chloride