Scandoromani language

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Scandoromani
Rodi
Rom(m)ani; Romani rakripa
Native to Norway
Native speakers
ca. 100–150  (2014)[1]
Speakers mostly elderly. More people speak Swedish with some Roma vocabulary.[1]
Official status
Official language in
recognised minority language in
 Norway (1993)
 Sweden (1999)
Language codes
ISO 639-3 Variously:
rmg – Traveller Norwegian
rmu – Tavringer Romani (Sweden)
rmd – Traveller Danish
Glottolog trav1236  (Norwegian)[2]
tavr1235  (Swedish)[3]
trav1237  (Danish)[4]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Scandoromani (Swedish: romani, Norwegian: romani, Scandoromani: romani rakripa[5] alt. tavringens rakripa[6][7]), also known as Tavringer Romani[8] and the Tattare language,[9] is a North Germanic based Para-Romani. It is spoken by the Scandinavian Travellers, a Romani minority community, in Norway (ca. 100–150 elderly speakers),[1] and formerly in Sweden and Denmark.

"Scandoromani" is a term coined by academics. In Sweden, Scandoromani is referred to as resande rommani (Traveller Romani) or svensk rommani (Swedish Romani), while in Norway the same language is known as norsk romani (Norwegian Romani).

Like Angloromani in Britain and Caló (Spanish Romani) in Spain, Scandoromani draws upon a (now extinct) vocabulary of inflected Romani. Much of the original Romani grammar, however, has been lost to the users, and they now communicate in Swedish or Norwegian grammar.

There is no standarised form of Scandoromani, so variations exist in vocabulary, pronunciation, and usage, depending on the speaker. In print, Scanodromani words are often written with Swedish (S) or Norwegian (N) letters (ä, æ, ø, å) and letter combinations to represent Romani sounds, e.g., tj- (/ɕ/) or kj- (/ç/ alt. //) to represent the Romani č // and čh /tʃʰ/. Some examples of Scandoromani variant spellings are: tjuro[10] (S) / kjuro[6] (N) 'knife'; gräj[10] (S) / grei[6] (N) 'horse'.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Carling et al., 2014, Scandoromani: Remnants of a Mixed Language. Leiden: Brill.
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Traveller Norwegian". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Tavringer Romani". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  4. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Traveller Danish". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  5. ^ Cf. Romani rakripa
  6. ^ a b c Karlsen, Ludvig. "Tavringens Rakripa: Romanifolkets Ordbok" (in Norwegian and Scandoromani). Landsorganisasjonen for Romanifolket. Retrieved 18 November 2008.  [dead link]
  7. ^ A recent suggestion apparently backed by the Swedish Language Council is to call the language Svedo romani (i.e. "Swedish Romani").[1] This usage, however, is not widely documented amongst Scandoromani speakers.
  8. ^ Ethnologue Romani, Tavringer
  9. ^ LLOW Language Server - Tavringer Romani
  10. ^ a b Resande Folkets Riksorganisation (2006). Ordlista i resandespråket romani (in Swedish and Scandoromani) (2nd ed.). Malmö: Föreningen Resande Folkets Riksorganisation. ISBN 91-631-9668-9. 

Suggested further reading[edit]

External links[edit]