|Townsend's mole range|
It is found in open lowland and wooded areas with moist soils along the Pacific coast from southwestern British Columbia to northwestern California. This animal's total range in Canada is estimated to be 20 km² (7.7 sq mi). Townsend's mole is classified as Least Concern by the IUCN, however in Canada it is considered an endangered species.
This animal has velvety black fur, a pointed snout and a short, thick, nearly hairless tail. It is about 21 cm (8.3 in) in length including a 4 cm (1.6 in) tail, and weighs about 138 grams (4.9 oz). Its front paws are broad and spade-shaped, specialized for digging; the rear paws are smaller. It has 44 teeth. Its ears are not visible and it has small eyes. It is similar in appearance to the smaller coast mole.
This animal is mainly solitary except during mating in late winter. The female has a litter of two to four young in a deep underground burrow.
- Hutterer, R. (2005). Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., eds. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 302. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
- Hammerson, G. & Cannings, S. (2008). "Scapanus townsendii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
- "Species at Risk Public Registry: Townsend's Mole".
- Bachman 1839, p. 58.
- Carraway, Alexander & Verts 1993, p. 6.
- Bachman, John (1839). "Description of several new species of American quadruped". Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 8 (60): 57–74. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
- Carraway, Leslie N.; Alexander, Lois F.; Verts, B. J. (23 April 1993). "Scapanus townsendii" (PDF). Mammalian Species. 434: 1–7. doi:10.2307/3504286. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
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