Schöningen spears

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
One of the spears

The Schöningen spears are a set of ten wooden weapons from the Palaeolithic Age that were excavated between 1994 and 1999 from the 'Spear Horizon' in the open-cast lignite mine in Schöningen, Helmstedt district, Germany. They were found together with animal bones and stone and bone tools.[1][2][3][4] The excavations took place under the management of Hartmut Thieme of the Lower Saxony State Service for Cultural Heritage (NLD).

Shaft section

The age of the spears, originally assessed as being between 380,000 and 400,000 years old,[5][6][7][8] was estimated from their stratigraphic position, "sandwiched between deposits of the Elsterian and Saalian glaciations, and situated within a well-studied sedimentary sequence."[9] However, more recently, thermoluminescence dating of heated flints in a deposit beneath that which contained the spears date the spears to between 337,000 and 300,000 years old, placing them at the end of the interglacial Marine Isotope Stage 9.[10][11] The Schöningen spears thus postdate the earlier fragmented Clacton spear point, attributed to Marine Isotope Stage 11,[12][13] but remain the oldest complete wooden weapons.

To date, hominin remains have not been discovered from the Schöningen Pleistocene deposits, and therefore the species that crafted and used the wooden weapons and other tools at Schöningen remains uncertain. The most likely candidates are Homo heidelbergensis. or early Neanderthals.[14][15] The spears provide clear evidence of the importance of wood as a material for Palaeolithic tools, and also further support the practice of hunting by Middle Pleistocene humans.

Discovery and location[edit]

Excavation site
The littoral zone of a lake

The site of the 'Spear Horizon' (Schöningen 13 II, sedimentary sequence 4) is one of 20 Palaeolithic archaeological sites discovered during excavations that from 1994 through to the present day.[16]

The 60 by 50 m (200 by 160 ft) excavation base that was excluded from coal mining represents a small segment of a former littoral zone. This zone was visited over millennia, between the Elster- and Saale ice ages, by humans and animals alike. The pedestal displays five massive layered sediment packages that were created by varying levels of the lake and silting-up processes.

The find horizon was preserved through rapid sedimentation of a lakeshore which itself resulted from the retreat of the Elsterian ice sheet.[17] Due to water-logged conditions, the organic materials are exceptionally well preserved and include not only the well-known wooden spears but also other botanical remains including two double-pointed sticks interpreted as possible 'throwing sticks', alongside fragments of wood, fruits, seeds, and pollen.[18][19][20] The tools and animal remains are primarily confined to a 10 m wide belt, consisting of the former lakeshore.[21] The archaeological layers beneath 13 II-4 have been the objective of ongoing research excavation by the DFG (German Research Association) since 2010. A southern extension of Schöningen 13 II-4 has been excavated since 2011.[22]

The site was originally interpreted by the initial excavator, Hartmut Thieme, as a single mass hunting event. According to his scenario, the thick reeds at the lake shore gave the hunters cover, from where the horses, trapped between the hunters and the lake, were culled with accurate spear throws. Because there are bones of young animals among the horse bones, he concluded that the hunt took place in autumn. Furthermore, he saw evidence of ritualistic activity, because the spears were left behind.[23] Subsequent research on the horse remains have demonstrated that in fact the prey died in different seasons,[24][25] showing the site was revisited repeatedly by humans.

Many of the archaeological remains, including most of the spears, are on display at the Forschungsmuseum in Schöningen. Analysis of the spears and other wooden remains from Schöningen 13 II-4 are currently the focus of a DFG funded research project led by Professor Thomas Terberger and Professor Holger Militz.

Description and function[edit]

A spear in situ

Most of the spears were made using trunks of slow-growing spruce trees, except for spear IV, which is made from pine. The complete spears vary in length from 1.84 to 2.53 m (6.04 to 8.30 ft), with diameters ranging from 29 to 47 mm (1.14 to 1.85 in).[26] The wooden finds were exposed to sedimentary pressure, and there are varying degrees of deformation.

The spears were debarked and have evidence of working traces at both ends, demonstrating that they were shaped to be double pointed.[27] One exception is Spear VI, which does not appear to taper at the back. The points of the spears made use of the bases of trees, which is harder wood, while the soft inner pith is offset from the tip.[28] These features suggest an awareness of the properties of wood, and the design in such a way as to maximise the hardness of wood.

Like today’s tournament javelins, the greatest diameter and therefore likely the centre of gravity is located in the front third of the shaft of at least some of the spears.[29] In addition, most of the spears, with the exception of Spear VI, taper at both the front and the back, which may assist flight aerodynamics. This led many to suggest that they may have been designed as thrown spears, similar to a modern javelin.

Experimental research using experienced athletes to throw replicas of Spear II show that the spears are capable of being thrown at distances of at leat 15–20 m, and are similar in weight and balance to javelins.[30][31][32] However, Spear VI, which does not taper at the back and also has a natural kink, is interpreted as a thrusting spear,[33] and replicas of Spear II have also been experimentally tested as thrusting spears.[34] Ethnographically, wooden spears were used as both thrusting and throwing spears.[35] Together the evidence suggests that the Schöningen spears most likely had multiple uses including for self-defence against dangerous predators such as saber-toothed cats, with whom the humans shared the landscape.[36]

Other discoveries[edit]

In addition to the spears and double-pointed sticks, a charred wooden stick made of spruce and measuring 87.7 by 3.6 cm was also found at Schöningen 13 II-4, and is interpreted as a possible skewer.[37] Hundreds of additional wooden fragments from the site are the subject of ongoing research by a multidisciplinary team.

Also among the finds are the so-called 'clamp shafts', excavated from locality Schöningen 12b, a site that formed earlier than Schöningen 13 II-4. These tools were made from the extremely hard wooden branch-bases of the European silver fir. They are noticeably worked and may have been used as handles for stone tools.[38]

As of 2015, around 1500 stone tools and over 12,000 animal bones were found.[39] The stone tools comprise denticulates, some bifacially worked tools, retouched flakes and scrapers, but there are no handaxes or handaxe thinning flakes.[40] As such the stone tools are interpreted as late Lower Palaeolithic in nature. The majority of animal bones with signs of butchery belong to an extinct species of horse (Equus mosbachensis). Also present are red deer and large bovids.[41][42] Marks on the bones suggest that the humans had first access to the carcasses, and that carnivores such as wolves and sabre-tooth cats accessed the bones later. Marks from stone tools suggest that humans worked together to butcher their prey.[43] Bone tools have also been discovered in the 'Spear Horizon', and are suggested to have been used for knapping flint and for breaking open other bones for marrow.[44]

Thanks to excellent preservation conditions, there are many finds of small animals, among them small mammals, fish, mollusks and insects. Together with the carpological remains, they enable a detailed reconstruction of the climate and the environment, and show that the site of 13 II formed towards the end of the interglacial.[45]

Significance[edit]

Nine of the spears are made of spruce (Picea abies) wood
Associated bone fossils

The spears and the place of discovery revolutionized the picture of the cultural and social development of early humans. Previously, Middle Pleistocene hominins, whether Homo heidelbergensis or early Neanderthals, were regarded as simple beings without language who acquired meat by scavenging other carnivore kills or natural deaths. The spears and their correlated finds are evidence of complex technological skills and are the first direct evidence that these humans hunted their prey. The large and swift prey that the Schöningen humans butchered suggests that their technologies and hunting strategies were sophisticated, that they had complex social structures, and had developed some form of communication (language ability). The Schöningen humans therefore likely had cognitive skills such as anticipatory planning, thinking, and acting, some of which had only previously been attributed to modern humans.[46][47] In addition, the spears have played a major role in debates about the origins of throwing.

Since 2010, the excavations on top of the excavation base continued in the framework of a project by the Lower Saxony State Service for Cultural Heritage in Hannover and the Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, Department of Early Prehistory and Quaternary Ecology of the Institute of Pre- and Protohistory and Mediaeval Archaeology, supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Association). Numerous cooperation partners domestic and abroad have been involved in the anaysis of the excavations and material culture: Lower Saxony State Office for Heritage, University of Tübingen, Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (paleontology), Leuphana University Lüneburg (palynologie), Senckenberg Research Institute and Nature Museum in Frankfurt am Main, Leibniz University Hannover (geology), Institute for Quaternary Lumbers Langnau (wood anatomy), Romano-Germanic Central Museum Mainz and others.

In 2009, Lower Saxony allocated public funds from the increased funds for the economy package II for the construction of a research and development centre. The Forschungsmuseum is close to the place of discovery and is devoted to the inter-disciplinary research of the Schöningen excavations and Pleistocene archaeology, and presents the original finds in an experience-orientated, modern exhibition. The transparent research and laboratory area as well as an interactive visitor’s laboratory link the areas “research” and “museum”. A 24 hectare outdoor area presents typical plant communities of the interglacial. The space is also an educational venue. The building contractor was the town of Schöningen. Responsible for the conception and contextual planning was the Lower Saxony State Service of Cultural Heritage. The centre was opened at the beginning of 2013.

Debates[edit]

Archaeologists at the University of Tübingen have questioned some of the initial interpretations of the site.[48] Isotope analysis and wear patterns on the horse teeth show a wide variety of habitat and diet amongst the animals, indicating that the faunal assemblage accumulated in many small events, rather than one large slaughter.[49]

Sediment analysis shows that the red colour previously thought to be a result of hearths and burning are actually iron compounds forming as the lake levels dropped in recent times.[50] Lake algae, sponges, and small crustaceans found in the sediments led to a suggestion that the spears were never used on dry land and that the deposit had always been submerged.[51] In that scenario, the horses may have been hunted in shallow water rather than at the lake edge. As yet the hunting strategies and depositional circumstances of the spears remain unresolved.

A further debate has centred around whether Schöningen humans were capable of powerful and accurate throws, and whether their wooden spears were effective as distance weapons.[52][53]

Similar finds[edit]

Wooden spears from the Palaeolithic are rare discoveries. Well-preserved finds include the ca. 400,000 year old broken Clacton Spear from Clacton-on-Sea (England),[54] and the wooden spear from Lehringen (Germany), which is around 120,000 years old.[55] Other finds such as those from Bad Cannstatt (Germany/Baden-Wuerttemberg) and Bilzingsleben are debatable as their preservation was poor.[56][57][58] Later examples of possible wooden spears made by Homo sapiens include those from Monte Verde (Chile), and Wyrie Swamp (Australia).[59]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Thieme, Hartmut (February 1997). "Lower Palaeolithic hunting spears from Germany". Nature. 385 (6619): 807–810. doi:10.1038/385807a0. ISSN 1476-4687.
  2. ^ Schoch, Werner H.; Bigga, Gerlinde; Böhner, Utz; Richter, Pascale; Terberger, Thomas (December 2015). "New insights on the wooden weapons from the Paleolithic site of Schöningen". Journal of Human Evolution. 89: 214–225. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2015.08.004.
  3. ^ Van Kolfschoten, Thijs; Parfitt, Simon A.; Serangeli, Jordi; Bello, Silvia M. (December 2015). "Lower Paleolithic bone tools from the 'Spear Horizon' at Schöningen (Germany)". Journal of Human Evolution. 89: 226–263. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2015.09.012.
  4. ^ Serangeli, Jordi; Conard, Nicholas J. (December 2015). "The behavioral and cultural stratigraphic contexts of the lithic assemblages from Schöningen". Journal of Human Evolution. 89: 287–297. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2015.07.004.
  5. ^ Hartmut Thieme, Reinhard Maier (Hrsg.): Archäologische Ausgrabungen im Braunkohlentagebau Schöningen. Landkreis Helmstedt, Hannover 1995.
  6. ^ Hartmut Thieme: Die ältesten Speere der Welt – Fundplätze der frühen Altsteinzeit im Tagebau Schöningen. In: Archäologisches Nachrichtenblatt 10, 2005, S. 409-417.
  7. ^ Michael Baales, Olaf Jöris: Zur Altersstellung der Schöninger Speere. In: J. Burdukiewicz u. a. (Hrsg.): Erkenntnisjäger. Kultur und Umwelt des frühen Menschen. Veröffentlichungen des Landesamtes für Archäologie Sachsen-Anhalt 57, 2003 (Festschrift Dietrich Mania), S. 281-288.
  8. ^ O. Jöris: Aus einer anderen Welt – Europa zur Zeit des Neandertalers. In: N. J. Conard u. a. (Hrsg.): Vom Neandertaler zum modernen Menschen. Ausstellungskatalog Blaubeuren 2005, S. 47-70.
  9. ^ Thieme, H. 1997: Lower Paleolithic hunting spears from Germany. Nature 385(27), 807-810.
  10. ^ Richter, D. and M. Krbetschek. 2015: The age of the Lower Paleolithic occupation at Schöningen. Journal of Human Evolution 89, 46-56.
  11. ^ Guido Kleinhubbert (April 20, 2020). "Vogelkiller aus der Steinzeit". SPIEGEL Akademie. Retrieved April 23, 2020.
  12. ^ Allington-Jones, L (2015). "The Clacton Spear - The Last One Hundred Years". Archaeological Journal. 172 (2): 273–296.
  13. ^ Milks, Annemieke (2018). Lethal Threshold: The Evolutionary Implications of Middle Pleistocene Wooden Spears. https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10045809/1/MILKS%20PhD%20Final.compressed%20no%203%20party.pdf: UCL.CS1 maint: location (link)
  14. ^ Roebroeks, Wil; Soressi, Marie (2016-06-07). "Neandertals revised". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 113 (23): 6372–6379. doi:10.1073/pnas.1521269113. PMC 4988603. PMID 27274044.
  15. ^ Conard, Nicholas J.; Serangeli, Jordi; Böhner, Utz; Starkovich, Britt M.; Miller, Christopher E.; Urban, Brigitte; Van Kolfschoten, Thijs (December 2015). "Excavations at Schöningen and paradigm shifts in human evolution". Journal of Human Evolution. 89: 1–17. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2015.10.003.
  16. ^ Conard, Nicholas J.; Serangeli, Jordi; Bigga, Gerlinde; Rots, Veerle (May 2020). "A 300,000-year-old throwing stick from Schöningen, northern Germany, documents the evolution of human hunting". Nature Ecology & Evolution. 4 (5): 690–693. doi:10.1038/s41559-020-1139-0. ISSN 2397-334X.
  17. ^ Lang, Jörg; Böhner, Utz; Polom, Ulrich; Serangeli, Jordi; Winsemann, Jutta (December 2015). "The Middle Pleistocene tunnel valley at Schöningen as a Paleolithic archive". Journal of Human Evolution. 89: 18–26. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2015.02.004.
  18. ^ "Paleoenvironment and possibilities of plant exploitation in the Middle Pleistocene of Schöningen (Germany). Insights from botanical macro-remains and pollen". Journal of Human Evolution. 89: 92–104. 2015-12-01. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2015.10.005. ISSN 0047-2484.
  19. ^ Thieme, Hartmut (February 1997). "Lower Palaeolithic hunting spears from Germany". Nature. 385 (6619): 807–810. doi:10.1038/385807a0. ISSN 1476-4687.
  20. ^ Conard, Nicholas J.; Serangeli, Jordi; Bigga, Gerlinde; Rots, Veerle (May 2020). "A 300,000-year-old throwing stick from Schöningen, northern Germany, documents the evolution of human hunting". Nature Ecology & Evolution. 4 (5): 690–693. doi:10.1038/s41559-020-1139-0. ISSN 2397-334X.
  21. ^ "The Spear Horizon: First spatial analysis of the Schöningen site 13 II-4". Journal of Human Evolution. 89: 202–213. 2015-12-01. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2015.10.001. ISSN 0047-2484.
  22. ^ Conard, Nicholas J.; Serangeli, Jordi; Bigga, Gerlinde; Rots, Veerle (May 2020). "A 300,000-year-old throwing stick from Schöningen, northern Germany, documents the evolution of human hunting". Nature Ecology & Evolution. 4 (5): 690–693. doi:10.1038/s41559-020-1139-0. ISSN 2397-334X.
  23. ^ Thieme H. 2007. Warum ließen die Jäger die Speere zurück? in: Thieme H. (ed.) 2007: Die Schöninger Speere – Mensch und Jagd vor 400 000 Jahren. pp. 188-190 Konrad Theiss Verlag, Stuttgart, ISBN 3-89646-040-4
  24. ^ Julien, Marie-Anne; Rivals, Florent; et al. (2015-12-01). "A new approach for deciphering between single and multiple accumulation events using intra-tooth isotopic variations: Application to the Middle Pleistocene bone bed of Schöningen 13 II-4". Journal of Human Evolution. 89: 114–128. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2015.02.012. ISSN 0047-2484.
  25. ^ Rivals, Florent; et al. (2015-12-01). "Investigation of equid paleodiet from Schöningen 13 II-4 through dental wear and isotopic analyses: Archaeological implications". Journal of Human Evolution. 89: 129–137. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2014.04.002. ISSN 0047-2484.
  26. ^ Schoch, W.; et al. (2015-12-01). "New insights on the wooden weapons from the Paleolithic site of Schöningen". Journal of Human Evolution. 89: 214–225. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2015.08.004. ISSN 0047-2484.
  27. ^ Schoch, W.; et al. (2015-12-01). "New insights on the wooden weapons from the Paleolithic site of Schöningen". Journal of Human Evolution. 89: 214–225. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2015.08.004. ISSN 0047-2484.
  28. ^ Schoch, W.; et al. (2015-12-01). "New insights on the wooden weapons from the Paleolithic site of Schöningen". Journal of Human Evolution. 89: 214–225. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2015.08.004. ISSN 0047-2484.
  29. ^ Thieme, Hartmut (February 1997). "Lower Palaeolithic hunting spears from Germany". Nature. 385 (6619): 807–810. doi:10.1038/385807a0. ISSN 1476-4687.
  30. ^ Thieme H. 1999: Altpaläolithische Holzgeräte aus Schöningen, Lkr. Helmstedt. Germania 77, pp. 451-487
  31. ^ Golek M & Rieder H 1999: Erprobung der Altpalaolithischen Wurfspeere von Schöningen in: Stadion, Internationale Zeitschrift für Geschichte des Sports Nr. XXV Academia Verlag Sankt Augustin, S. 1-12
  32. ^ Milks, Annemieke; Parker, David; Pope, Matt (2019-01-25). "External ballistics of Pleistocene hand-thrown spears: experimental performance data and implications for human evolution". Scientific Reports. 9 (1): 820. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-37904-w. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 6347593. PMID 30683877.
  33. ^ "New insights on the wooden weapons from the Paleolithic site of Schöningen". Journal of Human Evolution. 89: 214–225. 2015-12-01. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2015.08.004. ISSN 0047-2484.
  34. ^ Milks, A; et al. (2016). "Early spears as thrusting weapons: Isolating force and impact velocities in human performance trials". Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports. 10: 191–203 – via Elsevier Science Direct.
  35. ^ Milks, Annemieke (2020-09-09). "A Review of Ethnographic Use of Wooden Spears and Implications for Pleistocene Hominin Hunting". Open Quaternary. 6 (1): 12. doi:10.5334/oq.85. ISSN 2055-298X.
  36. ^ Serangeli, J.; et al. (2015-12-01). "The European saber-toothed cat (Homotherium latidens) found in the "Spear Horizon" at Schöningen (Germany)". Journal of Human Evolution. 89: 172–180. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2015.08.005. ISSN 0047-2484.
  37. ^ Schoch, W.; et al. (2015-12-01). "New insights on the wooden weapons from the Paleolithic site of Schöningen". Journal of Human Evolution. 89: 214–225. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2015.08.004. ISSN 0047-2484.
  38. ^ Thieme H. 1999: Altpaläolithische Holzgeräte aus Schöningen, Lkr. Helmstedt. Germania 77, S. 451-487
  39. ^ Serangeli, Jordi; Conard, Nicholas (2015-12-01). "The behavioral and cultural stratigraphic contexts of the lithic assemblages from Schöningen". Journal of Human Evolution. 89: 287–297. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2015.07.004. ISSN 0047-2484.
  40. ^ Serangeli, Jordi; Conard, Nicholas (2015-12-01). "The behavioral and cultural stratigraphic contexts of the lithic assemblages from Schöningen". Journal of Human Evolution. 89: 287–297. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2015.07.004. ISSN 0047-2484.
  41. ^ Van Kolfschoten, Thijs; et al. (2015-12-01). "The larger mammal fauna from the Lower Paleolithic Schöningen Spear site and its contribution to hominin subsistence". Journal of Human Evolution. 89: 138–153. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2015.09.014. ISSN 0047-2484.
  42. ^ Voormolen, B (2008). "Ancient Hunters, Modern Butchers". Journal of Taphonomy. 6 (2): 71–141.
  43. ^ Starkovich, Britt (2015-12-01). "Bone taphonomy of the Schöningen "Spear Horizon South" and its implications for site formation and hominin meat provisioning". Journal of Human Evolution. 89: 154–171. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2015.09.015. ISSN 0047-2484.
  44. ^ Van Kolfschoten, Thijs; et al. (2015-12-01). "Lower Paleolithic bone tools from the 'Spear Horizon' at Schöningen (Germany)". Journal of Human Evolution. 89: 226–263. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2015.09.012. ISSN 0047-2484.
  45. ^ Urban, Brigitte; Bigga, Gerlinde (2015-12-01). "Environmental reconstruction and biostratigraphy of late Middle Pleistocene lakeshore deposits at Schöningen". Journal of Human Evolution. 89: 57–70. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2015.10.002. ISSN 0047-2484.
  46. ^ Thieme H. 2007. Der große Wurf von Schöningen: Das neue Bild zur Kultur des frühen Menschen in: Thieme H. (ed.) 2007: Die Schöninger Speere – Mensch und Jagd vor 400 000 Jahren. S. 224-228 Konrad Theiss Verlag, Stuttgart ISBN 3-89646-040-4
  47. ^ Haidle M.N. 2006: Menschenaffen? Affenmenschen? Mensch! Kognition und Sprache im Altpaläolithikum. In Conard N.J. (ed.): Woher kommt der Mensch. S. 69-97. Attempto Verlag. Tübingen ISBN 3-89308-381-2
  48. ^ Balter, Michael. 2014. The killing ground. Science 6 June 2014: 344 (6188), 1080-1083. DOI:10.1126/science.344.6188.1080
  49. ^ Rivals, Florent; et al. (2015-12-01). "Investigation of equid paleodiet from Schöningen 13 II-4 through dental wear and isotopic analyses: Archaeological implications". Journal of Human Evolution. 89: 129–137. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2014.04.002. ISSN 0047-2484.
  50. ^ Stahlschmidt, Mareike; et al. (2015-12-01). "On the evidence for human use and control of fire at Schöningen". Journal of Human Evolution. 89: 181–201. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2015.04.004. ISSN 0047-2484.
  51. ^ Stahlschmidt, Mareike; et al. (2015-12-01). "The depositional environments of Schöningen 13 II-4 and their archaeological implications". Journal of Human Evolution. 89: 71–91. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2015.07.008. ISSN 0047-2484.
  52. ^ Yong, Ed (2019-01-25). "When Modern Men Throw Ancient Weapons". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2021-09-13.
  53. ^ Milks, Annemieke. "Why the Neanderthals may have been more sophisticated hunters than we thought – new study". The Conversation. Retrieved 2021-09-13.
  54. ^ Oakley, K. P., Andrews, P., Keeley, L. H. u. Clark, J. D. 1977: A reappraisal of the Clacton spearpoint. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 43, S. 13–30.
  55. ^ Thieme H. & Veil S. 1985: Neue Untersuchungen zum eemzeitlichen Elefanten-Jagdplatz Lehringen, Ldkr. Verden. in: Die Kunde 36, S. 11–58.
  56. ^ Wagner E. 1995: Cannstatt I. Großwildjäger im Travertingebiet. Forschungen und Berichte zur Vor- und Frühgeschichte in Baden-Württemberg, Band 061 Konrad Theiss Verlag Stuttgart ISBN 978-3-8062-1196-2
  57. ^ Mania D. & Mania U. 1998: Geräte aus Holz von der altpaläolithischen Fundstelle bei Bilzingsleben. Praehistorca Thuringica 2, S. 32-72
  58. ^ Steguweit L. 2003: Gebrauchsspuren an Artefakten der Hominidenfundstelle Bilzingsleben (Thüringen). Tübinger Arbeiten zur Urgeschichte 2. Verlag Marie Leidorf, Rhaden/Westf. ISBN 3-89646-852-9
  59. ^ "Wyrie Swamp". austhrutime.com. Retrieved 2021-09-13.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 52°08′14″N 10°59′18″E / 52.13722°N 10.98833°E / 52.13722; 10.98833