The municipality of Scheffau am Tennengebirge lies in the southern Tennengau of the Salzburger Land. The River Lammer flows through its territory. Its subordinate parishes are: Unterscheffau, Oberscheffau, Voregg, Wallingwinkl, Weitenau. Its Katastralgemeinden are Scheffau, Voregg und Weitenau.
The villages lies at the foot of the Tennengebirge mountain range that rises to a height of 2,300 m (7,500 ft) and, to the south, forms the boundary with Pongau. To the north the municipality includes part of the Ostern Group which is up to 1,600 m (5,200 ft) high. The centre of the municipality is in the Lammer valley in Unterscheffau and Oberscheffau.