Visa policy of the Schengen Area

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A specimen Schengen visa
Entry stamp
Exit stamp
Examples of Schengen entry and exit stamps.

The visa policy of the Schengen Area is set by the European Union and applies to the Schengen Area and to other EU member states without the opt-outs enjoyed by Ireland and the UK.[1] If someone other than a European Union, European Economic Area (EEA) or Swiss citizen wishes to enter the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania they must have a visa or be a national of a visa-exempt country.

The Schengen Area consists of 22 European Union member states and four non-members who are members of EFTA: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland. Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania are not yet part of the Schengen Area but, nonetheless, have a visa policy that is based on the Schengen acquis.[2]

Ireland and the United Kingdom opt out of the EU's visa policies and instead operate their own separate visa policies, as do certain overseas territories of EEA member states.

European Union citizens and European Free Trade Association (EFTA) nationals are not only visa-exempt but are legally entitled to enter and reside in each other's countries. Their right to freedom of movement in each other's countries can, however, be limited in a reserved number of situations, as prescribed by the European Union Treaties.

Freedom of movement[edit]

Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 recognises the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States[3][4][5] defines the right of free movement for citizens of the European Economic Area (EEA), which includes the European Union (EU) and three European Free Trade Association (EFTA) members Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein. Switzerland, which is a member of EFTA but not of the EEA, is not bound by the Directive but rather has a separate bilateral agreement on the free movement with the EU.

Citizens of all EEA member states and Switzerland holding a valid passport, passport card, or national identity card enjoy freedom of movement rights in each other's territory and can enter, reside and work in each other's territory without a visa.

If EU/EEA/Swiss nationals are unable to present a valid passport or national identity card at the border, they must nonetheless be afforded every reasonable opportunity to obtain the necessary documents or have them brought to them within a reasonable period of time or corroborate or prove by other means that he/she is covered by the right of free movement.[6][7]

Council of Europe Schengen Area European Free Trade Association European Economic Area Eurozone European Union European Union Customs Union Agreement with EU to mint euros GUAM Central European Free Trade Agreement Craiova Group EU Med Group Switzerland-Liechtenstein customs and monetary union Nordic-Baltic Eight Open borders with Schengen Nordic Council Baltic Assembly Benelux Visegrád Group Weimar Triangle Common Travel Area Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation Union State Switzerland Iceland Norway Liechtenstein Sweden Denmark Finland Poland Czech Republic Hungary Slovakia Estonia Latvia Lithuania Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Germany Austria Slovenia France Spain Portugal Italy Greece Malta Cyprus Ireland United Kingdom Croatia Romania Bulgaria Turkey Andorra Monaco San Marino Vatican City Moldova Ukraine Georgia Azerbaijan Armenia Russia Belarus Serbia Albania Macedonia Bosnia and Herzegovina Montenegro Kosovo (UNMIK) Kazakhstan
A clickable Euler diagram showing the relationships between various multinational European organisations and agreements.

However, EU, EEA member states and Switzerland member states can refuse entry to any EU, EEA or Swiss citizen on public policy, public security or public health grounds where the person presents a "genuine, present and sufficiently serious threat affecting one of the fundamental interests of society".[8] If the person has obtained permanent residence in the country where they seek entry (a status which is normally attained after 5 years of residence), the member state can only expel them on serious grounds of public policy or public security. Where the person has resided for 10 years or is a minor, the member state can only expel them on imperative grounds of public security (and, in the case of minors, if expulsion is necessary in the best interests of the child, as provided for in the Convention on the Rights of the Child).[9] Expulsion on public health grounds must relate to diseases with 'epidemic potential' which have occurred less than 3 months from the person's date of arrival in the Member State where they seek entry.[10]

Non-EU/EEA/Swiss citizen family members[edit]

A family member of an EU/EEA/Swiss citizen who is in possession of a residence permit indicating their status is exempt from the requirement to hold a visa when entering the European Union, European Economic Area or Switzerland when they are accompanying their EU/EEA/Swiss family member or are seeking to join them.[11] As from 6 April 2015, the UK recognizes this document.[12]

Non-EU family members who otherwise require a Schengen visa will still need one before they travel to Switzerland even if they possess a UK residence permit that clearly mentions that they are the family member of an EEA citizen.

Visa exemptions[edit]

Schengen Area visa lists.
  Schengen member states
  Other EU members outside Schengen Area but bound by same visa policy and special territories of the EU and Schengen member states. These countries are also legally obliged to join the Area as soon as they meet the criteria.
  Members of the EU with an independent visa policy
  Visa-free access to the Schengen states for 90 days in any 180 day period, although some Annex II nationals can enjoy longer visa-free access in some circumstances (EC 539/2001 Annex II)
  Visa required to enter the Schengen states (EC 539/2001 Annex I)
  Visa required for transit via the Schengen states (EC 810/2009 Annex IV)
  Visa status unknown

Since 2001, the European Union has issued two lists regarding visas for the Schengen Area: a white list of countries whose nationals do not require visas (Annex II)[13] and a black list of countries whose nationals do require visas (Annex I).[14] The two lists are also adopted by Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania, even though the four countries are not yet part of the Schengen Area.

Individuals in the following categories can enter the Schengen Area, Bulgaria,[15] Croatia,[16] Cyprus,[17] and Romania[18] without a visa:

As of right[edit]

Family members of EU/EEA/Swiss citizens[edit]

Citizens of 'Annex II' countries and territories (Visa waiver countries)[edit]

Citizens of the following 62 countries and territories holding ordinary passports:[23]

School pupils resident in the EU, EEA and Switzerland[edit]

School pupils resident in Annex II countries and territories[edit]

Holders of local border traffic permits[edit]

Currently the local border traffic regulation agreements exist with Belarus (with Latvia since 2011), Moldova (with Romania since 2010), Russia (with Norway since 2012, with Latvia since 2013 and Poland 2012-20161) and Ukraine (with Hungary and Slovakia since 2008, Poland since 2009 and Romania since 2015). Agreement between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina is pending ratification but is applied on provisional basis.[69]

Notes
  1. ^ Poland has suspended the border traffic agreements with Russia indefinitely from 4 July 2016.[70][71]

Holders of non-ordinary passports[edit]

Recent EU visa waiver bilateral agreements are exempting holders of non-ordinary passports from a visa requirement. These waivers are applicable to the counter-party, the Schengen countries, Schengen associated countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland) and countries that are obliged to implement the Schengen acquis (Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania):

  • Armenia - exemption for diplomatic passports[75] (except Denmark and Iceland)
  • Azerbaijan - exemption for diplomatic passports[76] (except Denmark and Iceland; biometric diplomatic passport only for Liechtenstein and Switzerland)
  • Cape Verde - exemption for diplomatic and service passports[77] (except Denmark, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland)
  • China - exemption for diplomatic passports[78]
  • Russia - exemption for diplomatic passports[79]

There are no common black[Note 1] or transit[Note 2] lists for holders of diplomatic, service and other official passports. States may still maintain a different policy on these.[82][83][84]

Visa waivers maintained exclusively for diplomatic, official and service passports by member state
  • Austria: Azerbaijan, Bolivia, Côte d'Ivoire, Ecuador, Egypt, Indonesia, Morocco, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey and only diplomatic passports of Belize, Jamaica, Maldives, Pakistan and Sovereign Military Order of Malta.[85]
  • Belgium: Bolivia, Ecuador, Egypt, Indonesia, Malawi, Morocco, South Africa, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey and only diplomatic passports of Chad, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Pakistan and Senegal.[86]
  • Czech Republic: Bolivia, Egypt, Indonesia,[87] Laos, Morocco, Pakistan, South Africa, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey and only diplomatic passports of Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Mongolia, Sovereign Military Order of Malta, Vietnam and Yemen.[88]
  • Denmark: Bolivia, Egypt, Morocco, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, Turkey and only diplomatic passports of India, Kazakhstan and Tunisia.[89]
  • Estonia: Bolivia, Morocco, Philippines, Turkey and only diplomatic passports of Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Vietnam.[90]
  • Finland: Bolivia, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, Turkey and only diplomatic passports of Kazakhstan, Morocco and Tunisia.[91]
  • France: Algeria, Angola, Bahrain, Bolivia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Gabon, Indonesia, Kuwait, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Tunisia, Turkey, United States (provided not travelling on duty) and only diplomatic passports of Belize, Benin (biometric only), Republic of the Congo (biometric only), India, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Namibia, Senegal, Thailand and Vietnam.[92]
  • Germany: Bolivia, Chad, Ecuador, Ghana, Kuwait, Oman, Philippines, Qatar (biometric only), Thailand, Turkey and only diplomatic passports of Algeria, Gabon (biometric only), India, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Malawi, Mongolia (biometric only), Morocco, Namibia, Pakistan, South Africa, Tunisia and Vietnam.[93]
  • Greece: Algeria, Bolivia, Egypt, Kuwait, Morocco, Philippines, South Africa, Tunisia, Turkey, Zimbabwe and only diplomatic passports of India, Iran, Jordan and Kazakhstan.[94][95]
  • Hungary: Azerbaijan, Belarus, Cambodia, China, Cuba, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Mongolia, Morocco, Philippines, Russia, South Africa, Sovereign Military Order of Malta, Tajikistan, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Vietnam and only diplomatic passports of Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Lebanon, Swaziland, Uzbekistan and Yemen.[96]
  • Italy: Algeria, Angola, Azerbaijan, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Gambia, Guyana, Indonesia, Kuwait, Lesotho, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Oman, Philippines, Qatar, South Africa, Sovereign Military Order of Malta, Swaziland, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda and only diplomatic passports of Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Mozambique, Senegal and Vietnam.[97]
  • Latvia: Mongolia, Turkey and only diplomatic passports of Uzbekistan.[98]
  • Lithuania: China, Indonesia, Oman, Philippines, Turkey and only diplomatic passports of India, Jordan, Kazakhstan and Morocco.[99]
  • Luxembourg: Bolivia, Ecuador, Indonesia, Malawi, Morocco, South Africa, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey and only diplomatic passports of Chad, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Pakistan and Senegal.[100]
  • Malta: Algeria, China, Egypt, Kuwait, Tunisia, Turkey and only diplomatic passports of Angola, Bahrain, Belarus, Belize, Cambodia, Cuba, Ecuador, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guyana, India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Lesotho, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mongolia, Morocco, Namibia, Nepal, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sovereign Military Order of Malta, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Syria, Thailand, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Yemen and Zambia.[101]
  • Netherlands: Cuba (conditions), Bolivia, Ecuador, Indonesia, Malawi, Morocco, South Africa, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey and only diplomatic passports of Chad, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Pakistan and Senegal.[102]
  • Poland: Benin, Ecuador, Indonesia, Mongolia, Morocco, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey and only diplomatic passports of Belarus, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Sovereign Military Order of Malta, Uzbekistan and Vietnam.[103]
  • Portugal: Algeria, Angola, Azerbaijan, Bolivia, Ecuador, Egypt, Indonesia, Kuwait, Morocco, Mozambique, Oman, Qatar, São Tomé and Príncipe, South Africa, Tunisia, Turkey and only diplomatic passports of Democratic Republic of the Congo, India, Kazakhstan and Senegal.[104]
  • Slovakia: Algeria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bolivia, Cambodia, China, Egypt, Indonesia, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Laos, Mongolia, Morocco, Pakistan, Philippines, Russia, South Africa, Sovereign Military Order of Malta, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Yemen and only diplomatic passports of Cuba, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Vietnam.[105]
  • Slovenia: Bolivia, China, Cuba, Egypt, Indonesia, Morocco, Philippines, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Vietnam and only diplomatic passports of Ecuador, India, Jamaica, Kazakhstan and Maldives.[106]
  • Spain: Algeria, Bolivia, Ecuador, Egypt, Morocco, Philippines, Tunisia, Turkey, United States (tourism purpose only) and only diplomatic passports of Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Mauritania, Senegal, South Africa, Thailand and Vietnam.[107]
  • Sweden: Bolivia, Philippines, Thailand, Turkey and only diplomatic passports of India, Morocco and Tunisia.[108]
Outside Schengen Area
  • Bulgaria: Azerbaijan, China, India, Indonesia, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Mongolia, Morocco, North Korea, Qatar, Russia, South Africa, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Venezuela and Vietnam.[109]
  • Croatia: Azerbaijan, Bolivia, China, Cuba, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Mongolia, Morocco, Oman, Philippines, Russia, South Africa, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Vietnam and only diplomatic passport of Algeria, Jordan and Qatar.[110]
  • Cyprus: China, Cuba, Egypt, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Mongolia, Pakistan, Russia, Syria, Vietnam and only diplomatic passports of Jordan, Pakistan, Philippines, Qatar, Thailand and Tunisia.[111]
  • Romania: Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bolivia, Central African Republic, China, Republic of the Congo, Cuba, Ecuador, Ghana, Guinea, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Mauritania, Mongolia, Morocco, Pakistan, Philippines, Qatar, Russia, São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Vietnam, Zambia and only diplomatic passports of Algeria, India, Iran, Jordan and Uzbekistan.[112]
Other Schengen Area
  • Iceland: Pakistan, South Africa and Turkey.[113]
  • Liechtenstein: Algeria, Angola, Azerbaijan (biometric only), Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Cameroon, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guyana, Indonesia, Jamaica, Kuwait, Laos, Morocco, Namibia, Oman, Philippines, Qatar, South Africa, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey and only diplomatic passports of Kazakhstan, Iran and Vietnam.[114]
  • Norway: Bolivia, Indonesia, Morocco, Pakistan, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, Turkey and only diplomatic passports of India and Tunisia.[115]
  • Switzerland: Algeria, Angola, Azerbaijan (biometric only), Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Cameroon, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guyana, Indonesia, Jamaica, Kuwait, Laos, Morocco, Namibia, Oman, Philippines, Qatar, South Africa, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey and only diplomatic passports of China, India, Iran, Kazakhstan and Vietnam.[116]

Despite the fact that visas are not required for ordinary passport holders, a visa is required for Australian diplomatic and service/official passport holders by Bulgaria and Cyprus, for Israeli diplomatic and service/official passport holders by Cyprus, for Mexican diplomatic and service/official passport holders by Cyprus and Iceland[117] and for the United States diplomatic and service/official passport holders by Bulgaria, Cyprus, France, Greece and Spain.

Obtaining a visa[edit]

Schengen visas can be issued by any country in the Schengen area. Travellers must apply to the country's embassy which they are visiting. In cases of travellers visiting multiple countries in the Schengen area, travellers must apply to their main destination's embassy. [118] If the main destination cannot be determined, the traveller should apply for the visa at the embassy of the Schengen country of first entry.[118][119] Often, external service providers are contracted by certain diplomatic missions to process, collect and return visa applications.

Schengen visa applications may not be submitted more than three months prior to the proposed date of entry into the Schengen area.[120] All countries' embassies may require applicants to provide biometric identifiers (ten fingerprints and a digital photograph) as part of the visa application process to be stored on the Visa Information System (VIS). Biometric identifiers are not collected from children under the age of 12.[121] Travellers must apply in person and are subject to an interview by the consular officers. Providing that the visa application is admissible and there are no issues with the application, a decision must be given within 15 calendar days of the date on which the application was lodged.[122]

A Schengen visa is only valid for the Schengen Area. For individuals who require a visa for Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and/or Romania, a separate visa has to be obtained for each country. Note that holders of a Schengen visa can enter Bulgaria, Croatia and Romania for up to 90 days in a 180-day period during the validity of their Schengen visa without having to apply for visas for each country.[20][22][123] However, holders of Bulgarian, Croatian, Cypriot or Romanian visas need to apply for a Schengen visa to enter the Schengen Area. Bulgaria additionally recognises short stay and transit visas issued by Croatia, Cyprus and Romania.[124]

At the border[edit]

In exceptional cases, single-entry Schengen visas valid for up to 15 days may be issued on arrival at the border. These visas are reserved for individuals who can prove that they were unable to apply for a visa in advance due to time constraints arising out of 'unforeseeable' and 'imperative' reasons as long as they fulfil the regular criteria for the issuing of a Schengen visa.[125] However, if the individual requesting a Schengen visa at the border falls within a category of people for which it is necessary to consult one or more of the central authorities of other Schengen States, they may only be issued a visa at the border in exceptional cases on humanitarian grounds, on grounds of national interest or on account of international obligations (such as the death or sudden serious illness of a close relative or of another close person).[126] In 2014, over 122,000 Schengen visas were issued to travellers on arrival at the border.[127] People trying this way to travel to the Schengen Area, can get into problems with the airline because of the carrier's responsibility, which penalises airlines if they carry passengers who do not have the correct documentation.

Unrecognised travel documents[edit]

As the following travel documents are not recognised by any Schengen country, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania, visas are not endorsed inside the travel documents.[82]

In addition, the following entities are not recognised as sovereign states by any Schengen country, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania. Therefore, passports issued by them are not recognised as valid travel documents by any Schengen country, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania, and visas will not be attached to such passports.[citation needed]

Statistics[edit]

Most visas were applied for from the following countries:

2016
2015

Visa facilitation agreements[edit]

The EU has concluded visa facilitation agreements that allow facilitated procedures for issuing visas for both the EU citizens and citizens of the partner country. The facilitated procedures include faster visa processing times, reduced fee or fee-free visa application processing, reduces list of supporting documents. The agreements are in force with the following countries:[132]

Country Entry into force
 Albania 2008
 Armenia 2014
 Azerbaijan 2014
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 2008
 Cape Verde 2014
 Macedonia 2008
 Georgia 2011
 Moldova 2013
 Montenegro 2008
 Serbia 2008
 Russia 2007
 Ukraine 2013

These agreements are linked to readmission agreements that allow the return of people irregularly residing in the EU.[133]

Visas with limited territorial validity[edit]

In exceptional cases, member states may issue visas with limited territorial validity (LTV) instead of a Schengen visa. A LTV visa may either specifically name member state(s) for which it is valid or, inversely, specifically name member state(s) for which it is not valid. Holders of LTV visas are only permitted to transit via, travel to, and circulate within the territories of, member states for which it is valid.

Schengen visa code that member states may issue LTV visas:[134]

  • when a consulate deems it justifiable to overcome the three-month limitation in six months;
  • or when a member state considers it necessary due to pressing circumstances to derogate from entry conditions as set by Schengen Border code, or to overcome objections of other member states, or in cases of urgency.

Despite the fact that LTV visas may be issued in exceptional cases only, some member state abuse the facility. For instance, the Spanish Embassy in Russia occasionally issues LTV visas to tourists.

Airport transit[edit]

In general, a passenger who transits through one single airport in the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania while remaining airside less than one day will not require a visa.

However, on 5 April 2010, common visa requirements for airport transit were introduced by the European Union.[81] At present, citizens of the following 12 countries are required to hold an airport transit visa (ATV) when transiting through any airport in the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Cyprus or Romania, even if they remain airside:

However, citizens of the above 12 countries are exempt from airport transit visas if they:

  • hold a Schengen visa, a national long-stay visa or a residence permit issued by an EU member state,
  • hold certain residence permits issued by Andorra, Canada, Japan, San Marino or the United States guaranteeing the holder's unconditional readmission to that country,
  • hold a valid visa for an EU member state or for a member of the European Economic Area Agreement, Canada, Japan or the United States of America, or when they return from those countries after having used the visa,
  • are family members of an EU citizen,
  • hold a diplomatic passport, or
  • are flight crew members whose state of nationality is a party to the Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation.

Additionally, individual Schengen countries can impose airport transit visa requirements for nationals of other countries in urgent cases of mass influx of illegal immigrants.[81] Eight countries (Finland,[135] Iceland, Latvia,[136] Poland,[137] Malta, Romania,[18] Slovenia[138] and Sweden)[139] currently do not use this provision and have no additional requirements.[140] As Liechtenstein has indicated that it won't accept flights originating outside the Schengen Area,[141] airport transit visa requirements are not relevant there. The other Schengen countries require airport transit visas for nationals from up to 23 (in the case of France) additional countries (See the table below).[140] Note that visa-free airport transit is not available when travelling with Ryanair or Easyjet. Their passengers normally need to pick up luggage and check in again if transferring.[142]

Changes in the last five years[edit]

Changes to the entries on Annex I (list of visa nationals) and Annex II (list of visa-exempt nationals) are regularly considered by the Council of the European Union based on advice from the individual member states. The Council then proposes draft legislation which has to be approved by the European Parliament.

On 24 January 2011, Moldova officially received an action plan on visa liberalization from the EU's Internal Affairs Commissioner.[152] In October 2013, the Commission proposed that visa requirements for short term visits be abolished for Moldovan citizens holding biometric passports.[153][154] On 27 February 2014, the European Parliament approved visa-free travel for Moldovan citizens.[155] The Council gave their consent on 3 April, allowing visa-free travel from 28 April 2014.[156]

On 7 November 2012, the European Commission announced a proposal to introduce visa-free travel for citizens from 16 island nations — 5 from the Caribbean (Dominica, Grenada, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Trinidad and Tobago), 10 from the Pacific (Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Palau, Samoa, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu) and Timor-Leste. The European Parliament also amended the list to include three other countries: Colombia, Peru, United Arab Emirates in February 2014.[157][158][159] Each of the 19 countries were required to conclude a bilateral visa waiver agreement with the European Union.[160] Agreements were signed and took effect with the United Arab Emirates on 6 May 2015,[161][162] with Timor-Leste on 26 May 2015,[163] with Dominica, Grenada, Samoa, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago and Vanuatu on 28 May 2015,[164] with Tonga on 21 November 2015,[165] with Colombia on 3 December 2015,[166] with Palau on 8 December 2015,[167] with Peru on 15 March 2016, with Kiribati on 23 June 2016, with Marshall Islands on 28 June 2016, with Tuvalu on 2 July 2016, and with Micronesia on 20 September 2016. As of 7 April 2017, Nauru is the only of the 19 countries that has not signed a visa waiver agreement.

On 5 August 2015, the European Commission submitted a recommendation authorising the opening of negotiations on a short-stay visa waiver agreement with China for holders of diplomatic passports.[168] The agreement was subsequently signed by both parties on 29 February 2016 and went into effect on 2 March 2016.[169] The agreement, however, does not apply to UK and Ireland as separate visa-waiver agreements were already in force with these two countries.[170]

An action plan on visa liberalisation with Georgia was launched on 25 February 2013.[171] In December 2015, the European Commission concluded that Georgia[172] met the criteria for visa liberalization. In March 2016, a legislative proposal was presented by the Commission to amend the regulation on visa requirements to include Georgia.[173] The visa waiver for Georgia took effect on 28 March 2017.

On 22 November 2010, the European Council and Ukraine announced "an action plan for Ukraine toward the establishment of a visa-free regime for short-stay travel".[174] In December 2015, the Commission concluded that Ukraine[175] met the criteria for visa liberalization. The visa waiver for Ukraine took effect on 11 June 2017.

Future changes[edit]

Plans for introduction of an electronic authorisation[edit]

We need to know who is crossing our borders. By November, we will propose an automated system to determine who will be allowed to travel to Europe. This way we will know who is travelling to Europe before they even get here. — Jean-Claude Juncker, 2016: State of the Union Address

In November 2016, the European Commission proposed a system for an electronic authorisation of visa-exempt third country nationals called ETIAS (European Travel Information and Authorisation System).[176] Under the proposal the ETIAS will be managed by the European Border and Coast Guard in cooperation with national authorities. Foreign visitors will be required to submit personal data in advance and pay a processing fee (fee is waived for children). Submitted applications will be processed automatically by checking against databases and watch lists and in case no issues appear the authorisation should be issued immediately. The authorisation request may be processed for up 72 hours in which case the applicant must be notified if the authorisation request was issued or refused or if additional information is required. In case the authorisation is refused the applicant will have the right of appeal in accordance with national law of the member state. The authorisation will be valid for five years. A travel authorisation with limited territorial validity may be issued only exceptionally. It is imagined as a system similar to the ESTA system of the United States and the eTA system of Canada. It is expected to enter into operation on 1 January 2020.[177] The cost for developing ETIAS is estimated at EUR 212,1 million.[177][178]

ETIAS requirements will not apply to

  • local border traffic permit holders
  • holders of diplomatic passports
  • crew members on duty
  • family members of EU citizens holding a valid residence card
  • nationals of a third country enjoying the right to free movement holding a valid residence card
  • recognised refugees or stateless person residing in one of the member states and holding a travel document issued there
  • visits to the United Kingdom (also pre-Brexit) or Ireland, but will apply to visits to Croatia, Cyprus, Bulgaria and Romania.[179]

Asides from visa-exempt third country nationals the ETIAS requirements will also apply to

  • family members of EU citizens not holding a valid residence card
  • nationals of a third country enjoying the right to free movement not holding a valid residence card

In addition, the EU citizens who have multiple nationalities will be obliged to use the passport issued by an EU Member State for entering the Schengen area.

The fee is €5; non-EU visitors to the Schengen area will have to provide various details.[176], this information is cross-referenced against various EU databases[178]

Border crossing[edit]

The EU plans to establish a Registered Traveller Programme that would allow pre-screened travellers easier access.[180] In 2013, the EU also adopted a proposal for establishment of an Entry/Exit System that would make it possible to identify overstayers.[181]

The system would also collect fingerprints and a face template of all third-country nationals (except children under 12) when entering and exiting Schengen Area.

Visa exemptions[edit]

On 7 November 2012, the European Commission announced a proposal to introduce visa-free travel for citizens from 16 island nations, and the European Parliament amended the list to include three other countries in February 2014.[157][158][159] Each of the 19 countries were required to conclude a bilateral visa waiver agreement with the European Union.[160] As of October 2016, Nauru is the only of the 19 countries that has not signed such agreement.

On 14 June 2012, Kosovo received a roadmap for visa liberalisation with the EU.[182] In December 2015, the European Commission has adopted the third, and final, report on Kosovo’s progress in fulfilling the requirements of its visa liberalisation roadmap which lists eight outstanding requirements that remain.[183][184][185]

In December 2013, after signing a readmission agreement, the EU started a visa dialogue with Turkey including a "Roadmap towards the visa-free regime".[186] The EU announced readiness to accelerate the implementation of the visa liberalisation roadmap if Turkey stems the influx of refugees and migrants to Europe.[187]

In the first half of 2016, legislative proposals were presented by the Commission to amend the regulation on visa requirements to include Kosovo[188] and Turkey[189] in the list of countries whose nationals are visa-exempt for short stays in the Schengen Area.

Other countries with which the EU is negotiating a visa waiver:

Indonesia

On 10 July 2015, the Foreign minister of Indonesia, Retno Marsudi and the European Commission Vice President, Frans Timmermans, discussed possibilities for Indonesian passport holders to get visa-free access to the Schengen Area. They noted that the visa rejection rate for Indonesian citizens is low at 1.1% in 2014 and immigration violations by Indonesian citizens are very low.[190] Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania,[191] Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Romania and Switzerland are some Schengen members who gave their support to Indonesia for visa-free access to the Schengen Area.[192][193][194][195][196][197]

During the sidelines of the EU-ASEAN ministerial meeting in Luxembourg on 5 November 2015, the European Commission reportedly included Indonesia in a list of countries proposed for review by the European Council. Indonesia's proposal will be submitted to the council in early 2016. The European Council then ask three main entities (Frontex, Europol and the EASO) to study and review Indonesia's eligibility. If the study results are positive, then the Council and the European Commission will propose new regulations for Indonesia's Schengen visa waiver.[198][199][200]

On 25 February 2016, Indonesian Foreign Ministry spokesman, Arrmanatha Nassir, claimed that Indonesia has already received a green light from the EU Commission and almost two-third of Schengen countries to get the visa-waiver status. However, the implementation will not happen in the near future, because the visa-waiver procedure in the EU is quite complex and there are new migration issues in the region.[201] Meanwhile, Patrick Herman, ambassador of Belgium to Indonesia, is confident that the visa waiver agreement will be reached as soon as possible as all stakeholders are working to finalize the necessary agreements.[202]

Russia

On 15 December 2011, in a statement given after an EU-Russia summit, the President of the European Commission confirmed the launch of "Common Steps towards visa-free travel" with Russia.[203]In 2013, Russia and the European Union have agreed on the issue of biometric service passports.[204] The EU suspended talks in March 2014, as a result of the situation in Ukraine.[205]

Reciprocity[edit]

Visa requirements for the European Union citizens
  European Union (EU) and European Free Trade Association (EFTA)
  Visa free access for all EU citizens
  Visa free access for some (1-27) EU citizens
  Visa on arrival for all EU citizens
  Visa on arrival for some (1-27) EU citizens
  Limited visa on arrival
  Electronic visa application

As per Regulation No 539/2001 (amended by Regulation No 1289/2013)[206] reciprocity is required from all Annex II countries and territories. That means that these countries must offer visa-free access for 90 days to all EU citizens (except citizens of Ireland and the United Kingdom) and to the citizens of Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland. When this is not the case, the affected EU or Schengen member state is expected to notify the European Commission. Starting six months after the notification, the Commission may adopt an implementing act to suspend the visa-free regime for certain categories of nationals of the third country concerned, for a period of up to six months, with a possible prolongation by further periods of up to six months. If the Commission decides not to adopt such an act, it has to present a report explaining the reasons why it did not propose the measure. If after two years from the notification the third country is still requiring visas from citizens of one or more Member States, the Commission shall adopt a delegated act to re-impose the visa obligation on all citizens of the third country, for a period of 12 months. Either the European Parliament or the Council could oppose the entry into force of the delegated acts.[207] All of the states that implement the common visa rules – including Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania – may notify the European Commission about non-compliant third states.[208]

When the European Commission carried out its first visa reciprocity assessment on 1 May 2004 following the accession of 10 new Member States, only the following Annex II countries and territories were found to offer fully reciprocal visa-free treatment to all EU citizens: Andorra, Argentina, Chile, Holy See, Hong Kong SAR, Israel, Japan, Monaco and South Korea.[209] On 24 June 2005, additional countries were found to offer full reciprocity: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Macao SAR, Mexico, New Zealand, Paraguay and San Marino.[209] However, after the accession of Romania and Bulgaria in 2007, some of these countries were found to no longer offer full reciprocity: Israel, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand and Paraguay.[210]

Since the adoption of this policy, full reciprocity has been achieved with the following countries (listed in order of achieving reciprocity):[211] Nicaragua,[209] Venezuela,[209] Uruguay,[212] Costa Rica,[210][212] Mexico,[210] New Zealand,[210] Israel,[Note 5][213] Malaysia,[213] Paraguay,[213] Panama,[209][214] Singapore,[214] Brazil[215][216] and Brunei.[217] Full reciprocity is also ensured with countries added to Annex II since 2006, such as Taiwan.[218][219]

According to a report from April 2015,[220] the Commission dismissed notifications by both Bulgaria and Romania of a general visa requirement by Australia.[221] It concluded that the Australian electronic visa 'manual processing' treatment should not be considered as equivalent to the Schengen visa application procedures and consequently will not be covered by the reciprocity mechanism.[220] In its previous report,[216] the Commission also committed to assessing certain provisions of the US electronic visa system — such as the application fee.

The current status as of November 2016, based on the Commissions communications from April and July 2016:[208][217]

  • Canada: Bulgarian and Romanian citizens are still required to have visas to travel to Canada.[222] In October 2016, as part of the CETA signature negotiations it was agreed that Canada will lift visa requirements for Bulgarian and Romanian citizens on 1 December 2017.[223]
  • United States: Bulgarian, Croatian, Cypriot, Polish and Romanian citizens are still required to apply for a visa to enter the US. In November 2014, the Bulgarian government announced that it will not ratify the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership unless the United States lifted visa requirements for its citizens.[224] Since the United States failed to lift the requirements, on 3 March 2017 the European Parliament voted in favor of a non-binding resolution calling on the European Commission to revoke the visa-free travel for US citizens to the Schengen Area.[225]
  • Japan: Full reciprocity is ensured until 31 December 2018, by granting Romanian citizens, including holders of temporary passports, a temporary visa waiver.

Special requirements[edit]

The following countries require electronic authorizations for citizens of the European Union who are exempted from visa requirements:

Stays exceeding 90 days[edit]

For stays in the Schengen Area as a whole which exceed 90 days, as a general rule, a third country national (i.e. a non-EU, EEA or Swiss national) will need to hold either a long-stay visa for a period of no longer than a year or a residence permit for longer periods. Similarly, a third-country national who wishes to stay for more than 90 days in Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania will be required to hold a long-stay visa or a residence permit.

Although long-stay visas issued by Schengen countries, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania have the same uniform design, as a national visa, in general, the procedures and conditions for issue are determined by each individual country. Therefore, for example, whilst some Schengen countries (such as France) require applications for long-stay visas to be made in the applicant's home country, other Schengen countries permit applicants to lodge their applications after arrival. Some countries, such as Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands and Switzerland offer a hybrid regime, whereby third-country nationals are required to apply for long-stay visas in their home country, with the exception of a few nationalities who are permitted to apply for a residence permit directly upon arrival without having first to obtain a long-stay visa. For example, Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands and Switzerland allow New Zealand citizens to apply for a residence permit upon arrival without having to apply for a long-stay visa in advance, but not South African citizens.[227][228][229][230]

However, in some situations, the procedures and conditions for the issue of long-stay visas have been harmonised among all Schengen member states, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania. For example, Council Directive 2004/114 has harmonised the conditions of admission of third country nationals wishing to study in a Schengen member state, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania.[231] Consequently, following the deadline for the implementation of the Directive (i.e. 12 January 2007), all Schengen member states (as well as Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania) are obliged to apply the same criteria in dealing with applications from third country nationals who wish to be admitted to their territory in order to study (namely that the applicant must have a valid travel document covering the duration of the stay, parental authorisation (if a minor), sickness insurance, not be regarded as a threat to public policy, security or health, and payment of the relevant fee).[232]

Long-stay visas issued by a Schengen country entitle the holder to enter the Schengen Area and remain in the territory of the issuing state for a period longer than 90 days, but no more than one year. If a Schengen state wishes to allow the holder of a long-stay visa remain there for longer than a year, the state must issue him or her with a residence permit.

The holder of a long-stay visa or a residence permit issued by a Schengen country is entitled to move freely within the other states which comprise the Schengen Area for a period of up to 90 days in any 180 days.[233] Third-country nationals who are long-term residents in a Schengen state may also acquire the right to move to and settle in another Schengen state without losing their legal status and social benefits.[234]

However, some third-country nationals are permitted to stay in the Schengen Area for more than 90 days without the need to apply for a long-stay visa. For example, France does not require citizens of Andorra, the Holy See, Monaco and San Marino to apply for a long-stay visa.[235] In addition, Article 20(2) of the Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement allows for this 'in exceptional circumstances' and for bilateral agreements concluded by individual signatory states with other countries before the Convention entered into force to remain applicable. As a result, for example, New Zealand citizens are permitted to stay for up to 90 days in each of the Schengen countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland) which had already concluded bilateral visa exemption agreements with the New Zealand Government prior to the Convention entering into force without the need to apply for long-stay visas,[30][236] but if travelling to other Schengen countries the 90 days in any 180 day period time limit applies.

Means of subsistence[edit]

In addition to general requirements, EU member states also set entry conditions for foreign nationals of countries outside the EEA and Switzerland called the "reference amounts required for the crossing of the external border fixed by national authorities" regarding means of subsistence during their stay.[237][238]

Authorities of Austria, Cyprus and Luxembourg decide on a case by case basis.

Country Reference amount
Belgium €45 per day for aliens staying with a private individual; €95 per day for aliens staying at a hotel.
Bulgaria €50 per day; minimum €500 per stay[239]
Croatia €100 per day; but €50 for aliens possessing a certified guarantee letter, a proof of paid travel arrangements, etc.
Czech Republic €40 per day up to 30 days[240]
Germany €45 per day in the form of cash, credit cards and cheques but alternatively a letter of guarantee from the host.[241]
Denmark DKK350 per day
Estonia €78 per day or a letter of invitation
Finland €30 per day[242]
France €120 per day if holding no proof of accommodation; €65 per day if staying at a hotel; €32.50 per day if holding proof of accommodation.[243]
Greece €50 per day; minimum total amount of €300 for a stay of up to 5 days reduced by 50% for minors[244]
Hungary HUF1000 per entry or letter of invitation, confirmation of accommodation or any other credible proof.[245]
Iceland ISK4,000 per day + ISK20,000 per each entry
Italy €269.60 fixed sum for stays up to 5 days (€212.81 per person for groups of two and more);

6–10 days: €44.93 per day (€26.33); 11–20 days: €51.64 fixed sum + €36.67 per day (€25.82 + €22.21); 20+ days €206.58 fixed sum + €27.89 per day (€118.79 + €17.04).

Latvia €14 per day or certified invitation letter
Liechtenstein CHF100 per day; CHF30 for students
Lithuania €40 per day
Malta €48 per day
Netherlands €34 per day
Norway NOK500 per day (indicative for those not staying with friends or relatives)
Poland PLN300 for stay not exceeding 3 days; PLN100 per day by stay exceeding 3 days; PLN20 per day if cost of the stay were paid.[246]
Portugal €40 per day + €75 per entry
Romania €50 per day; minimum €500 per stay
Slovakia €56 per day (€30 for accommodation, €4 for breakfast, €7.5 for lunch, €7.5 for dinner, €7 for spending) or a certified invitation letter[247]
Slovenia €70; €35 for minors accompanied by parents[248]
Spain €583.74 minimum amount (for stays of up to 10 days); €64.86 per day in excess of 10 days.[249]
Sweden SEK450 per day
Switzerland CHF100 per day; CHF30 for students

Netherlands exempts visitors from Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, South Korea, United States and Vatican City from holding proof of sufficient funds and return tickets.[250] Romania requires visitors from the Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Russia, Serbia and Ukraine to hold a medical insurance covering the period of stay. Romania also exempts visitors from Australia, Canada, South Korea and the United States from holding proof of sufficient funds and return tickets.[251]

Visa policy of candidate and applicant states[edit]

Countries applying to join the European Union are obliged to adopt the EU's visa policy no later than three months before they formally join the Union.[252] Schengen countries give visa-free access to nationals of all European Union candidate and applicant states except Turkey.[253] Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Montenegro grant 90-day visa-free entry to all Schengen Annex II nationalities except some countries added since 2015, while Serbia also requires visas from some earlier Annex II nationalities. In addition to requiring visas from some Annex II countries, Turkey still requires visas from some Schengen states, but they may be obtained online or on arrival.[254] All of these candidate and applicant states also grant visa-free entry to some additional nationalities not listed in Schengen Annex II.

Visa-free stays involving paid activity in the Schengen Area[edit]

Below is a table of Schengen countries which permit nationals of Annex II countries and territories to enter the country on a 90-day visa-free period of stay with the intention of working in the country during that period.[66] Nonetheless, some Schengen countries which permit certain Annex II nationals to work during their visa-free stay may still require them to obtain a work permit (either in advance or on arrival).

The table below includes Bulgaria, Croatia and Romania (which apply the Schengen Area's visa list), but excludes states which do not allow any Annex II nationals to work during their visa-free stay, namely: Austria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Portugal and Spain.

Nationality Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Denmark France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Norway Poland Romania Slovakia Slovenia Sweden Switzerland
 Albania[Note 7] N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A No
 Andorra Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes
 Antigua and Barbuda Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No
 Argentina Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No
 Australia Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No
 Bahamas Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No
 Barbados Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No
 Bosnia and Herzegovina[Note 7] Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Yes N/A Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A No
 Brazil Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No
 Brunei Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes
 Canada Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No
 Chile Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No
 Colombia Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Yes Yes N/A Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A No
 Costa Rica Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No
 Dominica Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Yes Yes N/A Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A No
 East Timor Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes
 El Salvador Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No
 Georgia[Note 7] N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 Grenada Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Yes Yes N/A Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A No
 Guatemala Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No
 Honduras Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No
 Hong Kong[Note 8] Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes No
 Israel Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No
 Japan Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
 Kiribati N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 Macau[Note 9] Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes No
 Macedonia[Note 7] Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Yes Yes N/A Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A No
 Malaysia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes
 Marshall Islands N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 Mauritius Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No
 Mexico Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No
 Micronesia N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 Moldova[Note 7][155][156] Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Yes Yes N/A Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A No
 Monaco Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No
 Montenegro[Note 7] Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Yes Yes N/A Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A No
 New Zealand Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes
 Nicaragua Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No
 Palau Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Yes Yes N/A Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A No
 Panama Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No
 Paraguay Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No
 Peru N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes
 Saint Lucia Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Yes Yes N/A Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A No
 Samoa Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Yes Yes N/A Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A No
 San Marino Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Yes Yes N/A Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A No
 Serbia[Note 7][Note 10] Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Yes Yes N/A Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A No
 Seychelles Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Yes Yes N/A Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A No
 Singapore Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No
 Solomon Islands N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 South Korea Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No
 Taiwan[Note 11][43][255][Note 12] Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Yes Yes N/A Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A No
 Tonga Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Yes Yes N/A Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A No
 Trinidad and Tobago Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Yes Yes N/A Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A No
 Tuvalu N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 Ukraine[Note 7] N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Yes[Note 13] N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 United Arab Emirates Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Yes Yes N/A Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A No
 United States[Note 14] Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Yes Yes N/A Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A No
 Uruguay Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No
 Vanuatu Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No
  Vatican City Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes
 Venezuela Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No
United Kingdom British nationals who are not EU citizens Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Yes Yes N/A Yes N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A No
Nationality Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Denmark France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Norway Poland Romania Slovakia Slovenia Sweden Switzerland

Validity for other countries[edit]

Schengen visas that are valid for further travel are accepted as substitute visas for national visas in the following countries:

  •  Albania — 90 days; must hold a multiple entry C visa or D visa used to enter the Schengen Area at least once.
  •  Andorra — should hold a multiple entry visa, relaxed checks
  •  Antigua and Barbuda — 30 days; USD100 visa waiver fee applies.
  •  Belarus — 5 days; for nationals of China, Gambia, Haiti, Honduras, India, Lebanon, Namibia, Samoa and Vietnam only.
  •  Bulgaria — 90 days; must hold a double or multiple entry C visa valid for the period of stay.
  •  Bosnia and Herzegovina — 15 days; must hold a multiple entry visa.[256]
  •  Colombia — 90 days;
  •  Croatia — 90 days; must hold a double or multiple entry C visa valid for the period of stay.
  •  Cyprus — 90 days; must hold a double or multiple entry C visa valid for the period of stay.
  •  Dominican Republic — 90 days;
  •  El Salvador — 90 days; not applicable to all nationalities.
  •  Georgia — 90 days within any 180 day period;
  •  Gibraltar — 21 days; not applicable to all nationalities.
  •  Guatemala — 90 days; not applicable to all nationalities.
  •  Honduras — 90 days; not applicable to all nationalities.
  •  Jamaica — 30 days; not applicable to all nationalities.
  •  Macedonia — 15 days; must hold a C visa valid for at least 5 days beyond the period of stay and must be valid for re-entry to any of the Schengen Area member states.
  •  Mexico — 180 days;[257]
  •  Montenegro — 30 days;
  •  Nicaragua — 90 days; not applicable to all nationalities.
  •  Philippines — 7 days; for nationals of China and India only.
  •  Romania — 90 days; must hold a double or multiple entry C visa valid for the period of stay.
  •  Sao Tome and Principe — 15 days;
  •  Serbia — 90 days;
  •  Turkey — certain nationalities can obtain an electronic Turkish visa if holding a valid Schengen visa.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Black list of passport types where a visa is required for entry, corresponding to Annex I of Council Regulation (EC) No 539/2001.[80]
  2. ^ Transit list of passport types where a visa is required not only for entry, but also for airport transit, corresponding to Annex IV of Council regulation No. 810/2009.[81]
  3. ^ Fantasy passports are either "Passports" issued by minorities, sects and population groups; or identity documents, etc., issued by private organisations and individuals. Camouflage passports are passports issued in the name of former States no longer in existence.[82]
  4. ^ An airport transit visa is only required for Russians when transiting through a French airport having arrived from an airport in Armenia, Belarus, Azerbaijan, Egypt, Georgia, Moldova, Turkey, or Ukraine.
  5. ^ Strictly speaking, full reciprocity has not been achieved with Israel as German citizens born before 1 January 1928 need a visa for Israel. The German government, however, has apparently avoided reporting this fact to the European Commission.
  6. ^ Except for French citizens living in Saint Pierre and Miquelon who fly directly to Canada from Saint Pierre and Miquelon.[226]
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Holders of biometric passports only.
  8. ^ Persons holding a Hong Kong Special Administrative Region passport. See also British National (Overseas) for persons residing in Hong Kong holding a form of British nationality.
  9. ^ Persons holding a Macau Special Administrative Region passport.
  10. ^ Visas are required from Serbian citizens holding passports issued by the Serbian Coordination Directorate.
  11. ^ The visa waivers granted by the European Union, the United Kingdom and Ireland to Taiwan passport holders have not altered the European Union member states' non-recognition of Taiwan as a sovereign country. For this reason, Taiwan is listed in Annex II by the European Commission under the heading "entities and territorial authorities that are not recognised as states by at least one member state", by Bulgaria as "China, Taipei" (mfa.bg) and by Romania under the heading "Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China"(mae.ro).
  12. ^ Only for holders with their personal ID numbers stipulated in their respective passports. Taiwan issues passports without ID numbers to some persons not having the right to reside in Taiwan, including nationals without household registration and certain persons from Hong Kong, Macau, and mainland China.[39][40]
  13. ^ Work permit is required. "Ustawa z dnia 20 kwietnia 2004 r. o promocji zatrudnienia i instytucjach rynku pracy".  Art. 87 ust. 1 pkt. 12 lit. f
  14. ^ The entry Mariana Islands has been removed from the "visa required" list on 11 January 2011. As there is no Northern Mariana Islands citizenship in contrast to the United States citizenship, this entry produced no effects.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Österreich, Außenministerium der Republik. "Schengen Visa – BMEIA, Außenministerium Österreich". 
  2. ^ "Visa policy". European Commission. Retrieved 6 January 2014. 
  3. ^ "Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States". 2004-04-29. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  4. ^ Summary of the Directive 2004/38/EC "Right of Union citizens and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States". 2006-05-02. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  5. ^ "Decision of the EEA Joint Committee No 158/2007 of 7 December 2007 amending Annex V (Free movement of workers) and Annex VIII (Right of establishment) to the EEA Agreement" (PDF). 2007-12-07. Retrieved 2008-12-22. 
  6. ^ a b Article 6.3.2 of the Practical Handbook for Border Guards (C (2006) 5186)
  7. ^ a b Judgement of the European Court of Justice of 17 February 2005, Case C 215/03, Salah Oulane vs. Minister voor Vreemdelingenzaken en Integratie
  8. ^ Article 27 of Directive 2004/38/EC (Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States).
  9. ^ Article 28 of Directive 2004/38/EC (Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States).
  10. ^ Article 29 of Directive 2004/38/EC (Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States).
  11. ^ Articles 3(1) and 5(2) of the Directive 2004/38/EC (Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States).
  12. ^ "Entering the UK as the holder of an Article 10 residence card - GOV.UK". 
  13. ^ As listed in Annex II of the Council Regulation 539/2001.
  14. ^ As listed in annex I of the Council Regulation 539/2001.
  15. ^ "Visa requirements for Bulgaria". The Republic of Bulgaria Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 7 April 2017. 
  16. ^ "MVEP • Visa requirements overview". 
  17. ^ "Visa requirements for Cyprus". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the republic of Cyprus. Retrieved 16 July 2010. 
  18. ^ a b Romania, Ministry of foreign Affairs. Retrieved May 2015
  19. ^ a b "Non-EU family members". 
  20. ^ a b Administrator. "embassy - Visas". 
  21. ^ "High Commission of the Republic of Cyprus in London – Visa Information". 
  22. ^ a b "V. Do I need a visa? - Ministry of Foreign Affairs". 
  23. ^ "Lists of third countries whose nationals must be in possession of a visa when crossing the external borders and of those whose nationals are exempt from that requirement" (PDF). 
  24. ^ "Ministry: Visa-Free Travel To Schengen Nations - Bernews.com". 23 May 2014. 
  25. ^ Officially referred to as "BRITISH CITIZENS WHO ARE NOT NATIONALS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND FOR THE PURPOSES OF UNION LAW: British nationals (Overseas), British overseas territories citizens (BOTC) British overseas citizens (BOC) British protected persons (BPP) and British subjects (BS)'." REGULATION (EU) No 509/2014 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL
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External links[edit]