Schisandra chinensis

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Schisandra chinensis
Schisandra sinensis.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Order: Austrobaileyales
Family: Schisandraceae
Genus: Schisandra
Species:
S. chinensis
Binomial name
Schisandra chinensis
Synonyms

Schisandra chinensis (common name: magnolia-vine, Chinese magnolia-vine, schisandra),[1] whose fruit is called magnolia berry[4] or five-flavor-fruit[1] (from Chinese wǔ wèi zi), is a deciduous woody vine native to forests of Northern China and the Russian Far East. It is hardy in USDA Zone 4. The plant likes some shade with moist, well-drained soil. The species itself is dioecious, thus flowers on a female plant will only produce fruit when fertilized with pollen from a male plant. However, a hybrid selection titled 'Eastern Prince' has perfect flowers and is self-fertile. Seedlings of 'Eastern Prince' are sometimes sold under the same name, but are typically single-sex plants.

Growing information[edit]

Schisandra is native to northern and northeastern China (Manchuria). Cultivation requirements are thought to be similar to those of grapes.[5] Plants require conditions of moderate humidity and light, together with a wet, humus-rich soil. In order to successfully grow fruit male and female plants must be grown together.[6] Plants can be propagated by seed or by layering in spring or autumn, or in the summer time by using semi-ripe cuttings .[6] Tens of tons of berries are used annually in Russia in Primorsky Krai and Khabarovsk Krai for the commercial manufacture of juices, wines, extracts, and sweets.

Etymology[edit]

Its Chinese name comes from the fact that its berries possess all five basic flavors: salty, sweet, sour, pungent (spicy), and bitter. Sometimes, it is more specifically called běi wǔ wèi zi (literally "northern five-flavor berry") to distinguish it from another traditionally medicinal schisandraceous plant Kadsura japonica that grows only in subtropical areas. Another species of schisandra berry, Schisandra sphenanthera, has a similar but different biochemical profile; the Chinese Pharmacopeia distinguishes between S. chinensis (běi wǔ wèi zi) and S. sphenanthera (nan wǔ wèi zi).[7]

Uses[edit]

Its berries are used in traditional medicine, where it is considered one of the 50 fundamental herbs. Chemical constituents include the lignans schisandrin, deoxyschizandrin, gomisins, and pregomisin.[8]

In Korean, the berries are known as omija (hangul – five flavours). The cordial drink made from the berries is called omija-cha, meaning "omija tea"; see Korean tea. In Japanese, they are called gomishi. The Ainu people used this plant, called repnihat, as a remedy for colds and sea-sickness.[9]

Interest in limonnik (S. chinensis) in Russia was associated with ethnopharmacological investigations by Soviet scientists on berries and seeds.[10]

Culture[edit]

In 1998, Russia released a postage stamp depicting S. chinensis.[11]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Schisandra chinensis". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2008-02-19.
  2. ^ "Magnolia Vine (Five Flavor Fruit) (Schisandra chinensis)". University of Wisconsin. 2013. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
  3. ^ a b c "Schisandra chinensis – Plants For A Future database report". Plants for a Future. 2012. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
  4. ^ Moskin, Julia; Fabricant, Florence; Wells, Pete; Fox, Nick (29 November 2011). "The Year's Notable Cookbooks". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
  5. ^ "Magnolia vine". Bay Flora. 2016.
  6. ^ a b Deni., Bown, (1995). Encyclopedia of herbs & their uses. Montréal: RD Press. ISBN 0888503342. OCLC 32547547.
  7. ^ Difference between Schisandra chinensis and Schisandra sphenanthera
  8. ^ Lu, Y; Chen, D. F. (2009). "Analysis of Schisandra chinensis and Schisandra sphenanthera". Journal of Chromatography A. 1216 (11): 1980–90. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2008.09.070. PMID 18849034.
  9. ^ Batchelor, John; Miyabe, Kingo (1893). "Ainu economic plants". Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan. R. Meiklejohn & Co. 51: 198–240.
  10. ^ Panossian, A; Wikman, G (2008). "Pharmacology of Schisandra chinensis Bail.: An overview of Russian research and uses in medicine". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 118 (2): 183–212. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2008.04.020. PMID 18515024.
  11. ^ "Russian stamp: Schisandra chinensis". 1998.

External links[edit]