Schizophyllum commune

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Schizophyllum commune
Fuzzy Fungi (Schizophyllum commune).jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Schizophyllaceae
Genus: Schizophyllum
Species: S. commune
Binomial name
Schizophyllum commune
Fries (1815)
Synonyms
  • Agaricus alneus L. (1755)
  • Agaricus alneus Reichard (1780)
  • Agaricus multifidus Batsch (1786)
  • Apus alneus (L.) Gray (1821)
  • Merulius alneus (L.) J.F.Gmel. (1792)
  • Merulius alneus (Reichard) Schumach. (1803)
  • Merulius communis (Fr.) Spirin & Zmitr. (2004)
  • Schizophyllum alneum J.Schröt. (1889)
  • Schizophyllum alneum (Reichard) Kuntze (1898)
  • Schizophyllum commune var. multifidum (Batsch) Cooke (1892)
  • Schizophyllum multifidum (Batsch) Fr. (1875)

Schizophyllum commune is a common species of fungus in the genus Schizophyllum. It was initially described as a morphological species of global distribution and then revealed to be a species complex encompassing several cryptic species of more narrow distribution, as typical of many mushroom-forming Basidiomycota.[1]

The gills, which produce basidiospores on their surface, split when the mushroom dries out, earning this mushroom the common name split gill. It has more than 28,000 sexes.[2]

It is common in rotting wood, but can also cause disease in humans.[3][4]

Hydrophobin was first isolated from Schizophyllum commune.

Description[edit]

The cap is shell-shaped, with the tissue concentrated at the point of attachment, resembling a stem. It is often wavy and lobed, with a rigid margin when old. It is tough, felty and hairy, and slippery when moist. It is greyish white and up to 4 cm in diameter. The gills are pale reddish or grey, very narrow with a longitudinal split edge which becomes inrolled when wet; the only known fungus with split gills that is capable of retracting by movement. It is found predominantly from spring to autumn on dead wood, in coniferous and deciduous forest.

Genetics[edit]

The genome of Schizophyllum commune was sequenced in 2010.[5]

Culinary[edit]

Although European and US guidebooks list it as inedible, this is apparently due to differing standards of taste rather than known toxicity, being regarded with little culinary interest due to its tough texture. S. commune is, in fact, edible and widely consumed in Mexico and elsewhere in the tropics.[6] And in North-East India, the state Manipur called it as "Kanglayen'" and it is one of the favourite ingredients for Manipuri-Pancake Style called "Paaknam". In Mizoram, the local name is "Pasi" (pa means mushroom,si means tiny) and it is one of the highest rated edible mushrooms among the Mizo community. The authors explain the preference for tough, rubbery mushrooms in the tropics as a consequence of the fact that tender, fleshy mushrooms quickly rot in the hot humid conditions there, making their marketing problematic.

Supplemental Images[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Taylor, John; Turner, Elizabeth; Townsend, Jeffrey; Dettman, Jeremy; Jacobson, David (2006). "Eukaryotic microbes, species recognition and the geographic limits of species: examples from the kingdom Fungi". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 361: 1947–1963. doi:10.1098/rstb.2006.1923. 
  2. ^ "Tom Volk's Fungus of the Month for February 2000"
  3. ^ Guarro, J; Genéj; Stchigel, Am (Jul 1999), "Developments in Fungal Taxonomy" (Free full text), Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 12 (3): 454–500, ISSN 0893-8512, PMC 100249free to read, PMID 10398676 
  4. ^ Chowdhary A, Kathuria S, Agarwal K, Meis JF. Recognizing filamentous basidiomycetes as agents of human disease: A review. Med Mycol. 2014 Nov;52(8):782-97. doi: 10.1093/mmy/myu047. PMID 25202126
  5. ^ Robin A Ohm,; De Jong, JF; Lugones, LG; Aerts, A; Kothe, E; Stajich, JE; De Vries, RP; Record, E; et al. (Jul 2010), "Genome sequence of the model mushroom Schizophyllum commune", Nature Biotechnology, 28 (9): 957–63, doi:10.1038/nbt.1643, PMID 20622885 
  6. ^ Ruán-Soto; et al. (2006), "Process and dynamics of traditional selling of wild edible mushrooms in tropical Mexico" (Free full text), Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 2 (3) 

External links[edit]