Schizophyllum commune

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Schizophyllum commune
Schizophyllum commune (Split gill) (33389628036).jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Schizophyllaceae
Genus: Schizophyllum
Species:
S. commune
Binomial name
Schizophyllum commune
Fries (1815)
Synonyms
  • Agaricus alneus L. (1755)
  • Agaricus alneus Reichard (1780)
  • Agaricus multifidus Batsch (1786)
  • Apus alneus (L.) Gray (1821)
  • Merulius alneus (L.) J.F.Gmel. (1792)
  • Merulius alneus (Reichard) Schumach. (1803)
  • Merulius communis (Fr.) Spirin & Zmitr. (2004)
  • Schizophyllum alneum J.Schröt. (1889)
  • Schizophyllum alneum (Reichard) Kuntze (1898)
  • Schizophyllum commune var. multifidum (Batsch) Cooke (1892)
  • Schizophyllum multifidum (Batsch) Fr. (1875)

Schizophyllum commune is a species of fungus in the genus Schizophyllum. The mushroom resembles undulating waves of tightly packed corals or loose Chinese fan. ”Gillies” or Split Gills vary from creamy yellow to pale white in colour. The cap is small, 1–4.5 cm wide with a dense yet spongey body texture. It is known as the split-gill mushroom because of the unique longitudinally divided nature of the "gills" on the underside of the cap. It is the only known fungus capable of retracting by movement. This mushroom is found throughout the world.[1]

It is found in the wild on decaying trees after rainy seasons followed by dry spells where the mushrooms are naturally collected. It is known for its high medicinal value and aromatic taste profile. It has recently attracted the medicinal industry for its immunomodulatory, antifungal, antineoplastic and antiviral activities that are higher than those of any other glucan complex carbohydrate.

Description[edit]

S. commune is usually described as a morphological species of global distribution, but some research has suggested that it may be a species complex encompassing several cryptic species of more narrow distribution, as typical of many mushroom-forming Basidiomycota.[2]

The gills, which produce basidiospores on their surface, split when the mushroom dries out, earning this mushroom the common name split gill. It is common in rotting wood, but can also cause disease in humans.[3][4]

It has 23,328 distinct sexes, properly called mating types.[5] Individuals of any sex are compatible for mating with all but their own sex. However, there are two genetic loci determining the mating type, locus A with 288 alleles and locus B with 81 alleles. A pair of fungi will only be fertile if they have different A and different B alleles;[6] that is, each sex can enter fertile pairings with 22,960 others.

Hydrophobin was first isolated from Schizophyllum commune.

Genetics[edit]

The genome of Schizophyllum commune was sequenced in 2010.[7]

Culinary[edit]

Although considered inedible due to its to smallness and toughness, the species is nonpoisonous.[8] As of 2006, it is widely consumed in Mexico and elsewhere in the tropics.[9] In Northeast India, in the state Manipur it is known as kanglayen and one of the favourite ingredients for Manipuri-style pancakes called paaknam. In Mizoram, the local name is pasi (pa means mushroom, si means tiny) and it is one of the highest rated edible mushrooms among the Mizo community. The authors explain the preference for tough, rubbery mushrooms in the tropics as a consequence of the fact that tender, fleshy mushrooms quickly rot in the hot humid conditions there, making their marketing problematic.

Supplemental images[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kuo, M. (2003). "Schizophyllum commune". Mushroom Expert. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  2. ^ Taylor, John; Turner, Elizabeth; Townsend, Jeffrey; Dettman, Jeremy; Jacobson, David (2006). "Eukaryotic microbes, species recognition and the geographic limits of species: examples from the kingdom Fungi". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 361 (1475): 1947–1963. doi:10.1098/rstb.2006.1923. PMC 1764934. PMID 17062413.
  3. ^ Guarro, J; Genéj; Stchigel, Am (Jul 1999), "Developments in Fungal Taxonomy", Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 12 (3): 454–500, doi:10.1128/CMR.12.3.454, ISSN 0893-8512, PMC 100249, PMID 10398676
  4. ^ Chowdhary, A; Kathuria, S; Agarwal, K; Meis, JF (Nov 2014). "Recognizing filamentous basidiomycetes as agents of human disease: A review". Med Mycol. 52 (8): 782–97. doi:10.1093/mmy/myu047. PMID 25202126.
  5. ^ Raper, J.R., 1966. Genetics of sexuality in higher fungi. Genetics of sexuality in higher fungi.
  6. ^ Kothe, Erika (1996). "Tetrapolar fungal mating types: Sexes by the thousands". FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 18 (1): 65–87. doi:10.1016/0168-6445(96)00003-4. PMID 8672296.
  7. ^ Robin A Ohm; De Jong, JF; Lugones, LG; Aerts, A; Kothe, E; Stajich, JE; De Vries, RP; Record, E; et al. (Jul 2010), "Genome sequence of the model mushroom Schizophyllum commune", Nature Biotechnology, 28 (9): 957–63, doi:10.1038/nbt.1643, PMID 20622885
  8. ^ Miller Jr., Orson K.; Miller, Hope H. (2006). North American Mushrooms: A Field Guide to Edible and Inedible Fungi. Guilford, CN: FalconGuide. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-7627-3109-1.
  9. ^ Ruán-Soto, F.; Garibay-Orijel, R.; Cifuentes, J. (2006). "Process and dynamics of traditional selling of wild edible mushrooms in tropical Mexico". Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2 (1): 3. doi:10.1186/1746-4269-2-3. PMC 1360659. PMID 16393345.

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