- This article primarily concerns student-related bullying at school. For teacher-related bullying at school, see Bullying in teaching.
||This section may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. (September 2015)|
School bullying is a type of bullying that occurs in an educational setting. Bullying can be physical, sexual, verbal or emotional in nature.
School bullying may be more specifically characterized by:
- An intention to harm: intention suggests that the harm caused by bullying is deliberate, not accidental.
- Victimization distress: bullying causes the victim to suffer mild to severe psychological, social or physical trauma.
- Repetition: bullying is persistent; it happens more than once or has the potential to occur multiple times.
- Power inequity: definitions of bullying often state that bullying includes a real or perceived imbalance of power between the bully and the victim. This characteristic is disputed, as both bullies and victims have reported that the conflict and/or behaviours most commonly occur between two equals.
- Provocation: bullying is proposed to be a part of progressive aggression: motivated by perceived benefits of their aggressive behaviours.
The long-term effects of school bullying are numerous, and can include sensitivity, anxiety, and depression. Recent statistics suggest that the majority of students will experience bullying at some point in their academic careers. In the early 21st century, increasing attention has been given to the importance of teachers and parents understanding and recognizing the signs of bullying (among both bullies and victims), and being equipped with strategies and tools to address school bullying.
- 1 Statistics
- 2 Types of bullying
- 3 Power imbalance
- 4 Bullying venues
- 5 Warning signs of bullying
- 6 Roles kids play
- 7 Short-term and long-term effects
- 8 Complex cultural dynamics
- 9 Responses
- 10 Events and organizations
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 Fictional bullies
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
Bullying is a common occurrence in most schools. According to the American Psychological Association, "40% to 80% of school-age children experience bullying at some point during their school careers." Regardless of grade level, socioeconomic environment, gender, religion, or sexual orientation, bullying can happen to anyone. However, various studies point out that students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds are more bullied than students from higher ones. The following statistics help to illustrate the severity of bullying within classrooms:
- In a study conducted across 32 Dutch elementary schools, 16.2% of 2766 participating children reported being bullied regularly (several times a month or more).
- At least 1 in 3 adolescent students in Canada have reported being bullied recently 
- 47% of Canadian parents report having a child victim of bullying 
- The rate of discrimination experienced among non-heterosexual students is thrice as high than heterosexual youth
- In a Canadian study that surveyed 2,186 students across 33 middle and high schools, 49.5% reported being bullied online in the previous 3 months. 33.7% of the sample reported being the perpetrator of cyber bullying.
- The most common form of cyber-bullying involved receiving threatening or aggressive e-mails or instant messages, reported by 73% of victims
- Statistics referencing the prevalence of bullying in schools may be inaccurate. In a U.S. study of 5, 621 students, aged 12–18, 64% of the students had experienced bullying and did not report it.
- Developmental research suggests bullies are often morally disengaged and use egocentric reasoning strategies.
- Adolescents who experience violence or aggression in the home, or are influenced by negative peer relationships, are more likely to bully. This suggests that positive social relationships reduce the likelihood of bullying.
- The diagnosis of a mental health disorder is strongly associated with being a bully. This trend is most evident in adolescents diagnosed with depression, anxiety, or ADHD.
- Poor theory of mind is associated with bullying among school-aged children.
- 25% of students encourage bullying if not given proper education and support in anti-bullying techniques
In a survey by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), students in a school were asked to complete a questionnaire.
"A total of 10.6 percent of the children replied that they had 'sometimes' bullied other children, a response category defined as 'moderate' bullying. An additional 8.8 percent said they had bullied others once a week or more, defined as 'frequent' bullying. Similarly, 8.5 percent said they had been targets of moderate bullying, and 8.4 percent said they were bullied frequently.
"Out of all the students, 13 percent said they had engaged in moderate or frequent bullying of others, while 10.6 percent said they had been bullied either moderately or frequently. Some students — 6.3 percent — had both bullied others and been bullied themselves. In all, 29 percent of the students who responded to the survey had been involved in some aspect of bullying, either as a bully, as the target of bullying, or both."
According to Tara Kuther, associate professor of psychology at Western Connecticut State University, "...bullying gets so much more sophisticated and subtle in high school. It's more relational. It becomes more difficult for teens to know when to intervene; whereas with younger kids, bullying is more physical and, therefore, more clear-cut".
Because of the low numbers of students who actually report incidents of bullying, thwarting the problem requires teachers to have a certain level of awareness, beginning with understanding bullying. An additional study by Lisa Garby shows that 60 percent of bullies in middle school will have at least one criminal conviction by the age of 24.
Types of bullying
Direct bullying is a relatively open attack on a victim that is physical and/or verbal in nature. Indirect bullying is more subtle and harder to direct, but involves one or more forms of relational aggression, including social isolation, intentional exclusion, rumor-spreading, damaging someone's reputation, making faces or obscene gestures behind someone's back, and manipulating friendships and other relationships.
- spreading malicious rumors about people
- keeping certain people out of a "group"
- getting certain people to "gang up" on others (could also be considered physical bullying)
- making fun of certain people
- ignoring people on purpose – silent treatment or 'Sending to Coventry'
- pretending the victim is non-existent
- saying hurtful sentences (also a form of verbal bullying)
- belittling 
Verbal bullying is any slanderous statements or accusations that cause the victim undue emotional distress. Examples include:
According to the website Stop Cyberbullying, "Cyberbullying is when a child, preteen or teen is tormented, threatened, harassed, humiliated, embarrassed or otherwise targeted by another child, preteen or teen using the Internet, interactive and digital technologies or mobile phones." This form of bullying can easily go undetected because of lack of parental/authoritative supervision. Because bullies can pose as someone else, it is the most anonymous form of bullying. Cyber-bullying includes, but is not limited to, abuse using e-mail, blogs, instant messaging, text messaging or websites. Many who are bullied in school are likely to be bullied over the Internet, and vice versa.
Prevention of cyber-bullying
According to the website Stop Cyberbullying, "When schools try and get involved by disciplining the student for cyber-bullying actions that took place off-campus and outside of school hours, they are often sued for exceeding their authority and violating the student's free speech right." 
Cyber-bullying has become extremely prevalent in today's society. Since 95 percent of teens making use of social media reported having witnessed malicious behavior on social media from 2009 to 2013, the odds for rash behaviour by a victim are very high. This calls for preventive measures. As sites like Facebook or Twitter offer no routine monitoring, children from a young age must learn proper Internet behaviour, say Abraham Foxman and Cyndi Silverman: "This is a call for parents and educators to teach these modern skills... through awareness and advocacy." "Parents and educators need to make children aware at a young age of the life-changing effects cyber-bullying can have on the victim. The next step for prevention is advocacy. For example, three high school students from Melville, New York organized a Bullying Awareness Walk, where several hundred people turned out to show their support."
Clara Wajngurt writes: "Other than organizing events, calling for social media sites to take charge could make the difference between life and death. Cyber-bullying is making it increasingly difficult to enforce any form of prevention." Joanna Wojcik concludes: "The rapid growth of social media is aiding the spread of cyber-bullying, and prevention policies are struggling to keep up. In order for prevention policies to be put in place, the definition of cyber-bullying must be stated, others must be educated on how to recognize and prevent bullying, and policies that have already attempted to be enacted need to be reviewed and learned from." "Most importantly, clear and concise legislation must be created on the state and federal level to aid in worldwide prevention."
Sexual bullying is "any bullying behavior, whether physical or non-physical, that is based on a person’s sexuality or gender. It is when sexuality or gender is used as a weapon by boys or girls towards other boys or girls—although it is more commonly directed at girls. It can be carried out to a person’s face, behind their back or through the use of technology."
As part of its research into sexual bullying in schools, the BBC Panorama program commissioned a questionnaire aimed at young people aged 11 to 19 in schools and youth clubs across five regions of England. The survey revealed that of the 273 respondents, 28 had been forced to do something sexual, and 31 had seen it happen to someone else. Of the 273 respondents, 40 had experienced unwanted touching. U.K. government figures show that in school year 2007-8, there were 3,450 fixed-period exclusions and 120 expulsions from schools in England due to sexual misconduct. This includes incidents such as groping and using sexually insulting language. From April 2008 to March 2009, ChildLine counselled a total of 156,729 children, 26,134 of whom spoke about bullying as a main concern and 300 of whom talked specifically about sexual bullying.
The U.K. charity Beatbullying has claimed that as gang culture enters inner-city schools, children are being bullied into providing ‘sexual favours’ in exchange for protection. However, other anti-bullying groups and teachers' unions, including the National Union of Teachers, challenged the charity to provide evidence of this, as they had no evidence that this sort of behaviour was happening in schools.
Sexting cases are also on the rise and is becoming a major source of bullying. The circulation of explicit photos of those involved either around school or the internet put the originators in a position to be scorned and bullied.  There have been reports of some cases in which the bullying has been so extensive that the victim has taken their life. 
Pack bullying is bullying undertaken by a group. The 2009 Wesley Report on bullying prepared by an Australia-based group, found that pack bullying was more prominent in high schools and characteristically lasted longer than bullying undertaken by individuals. Pack bullying may be physical bullying or emotional bullying and may be perpetrated in person or in cyberspace. It can take place in schoolyards, school hallways, sports fields and gymnasiums, classrooms and on the school bus.
Bystanders to Bullying
According to Department of Education and Training of Western Australia, bullying also involves the concept of “bystanders”. A bystander may be someone who sees bullying or knows about it, but he or she is not usually directly involved. Everyone at the school can have a role in supporting those who are being bullied. All members of the whole school community need to be aware of their role in supporting those who are being bullied and their responsibility to discourage bullying behaviours when they observe them. Any member of the school community can be a bystander and can act successfully to prevent or stop bullying. Bystanders are encouraged to report to someone who can help, such as a member of the school staff.
Bullying is usually associated with an imbalance of power. A bully has a perceived authority over another due to factors such as size, gender, or age. Bullies are not identifiable by their appearance or group identification; rather we need to focus on how they act. The definition of bullying briefly describes actions that are exhibited by an individual that is playing the role of a bully. Boys find motivation for bullying from factors such as not fitting in, physical weakness, short temper, who their friends are, and the clothes they wear. Bullying among girls, on the other hand, results from factors such as not fitting in, facial appearance, emotional factors, being overweight, and academic status. In both sexes, a speech impediment of some sort (such as stutter) can also become the target of a bully.
Individuals that choose to be a bully are not typically born with the characteristic. It is a result from the treatment they receive from authority figures, including parents. Bullies often come from families that use physical forms of discipline. This somewhat turns the tables on the bully, making them the victim. Unfortunately, this leads to a strategy of bully or be bullied.
Bullies come in all shapes and sizes. Girls and boys are both bullies. Girls are more likely social bullies, spreading rumors, breaking up friendships, etc. Boys are more physical bullies, hitting, punching, and slapping. Bullies are typically overly concerned about their appearance and the popularity standings. They have an urge to be dominate, or to be in charge of others. Bullies are usually easily pressured by their peers and feel the need to impress them. There are several different types of bullies; confident, social, fully armored, hyperactive, bullied bully, bunch of bullies, and a gang of bullies. The confident bully has a very high opinion of him/herself and feels a sense of superiority over other students. The social bully uses rumors, gossip, and verbal taunts to insult others. Social bullies are typically a female who has low self-esteem and therefore tries to bring others down. The fully armored bully shows very little emotion and often bullies when no one will see or stop them. The hyperactive bully typically has problems with academics and social skills. This student will often bully someone then place the blame on someone else. A bullied bully is usually someone who has been bullied in the past or is bullied by an older sibling. A bunch of bullies is a group of friends who gang up on others. A gang of bullies is a group of students who are not really friends but are drawn together due to their desire for power. Print Students become bullies for many reasons such as they want to impress their peers, they were once bullied themselves and now feel big bullying others, and some even do it as retaliation for being punished in school.
Bullying occurs in and away from schools; however, the majority of bullying takes place in educational institutions. Bullying locations vary by context. For example, the playground is the most dangerous area on the elementary level, followed by the outdoor recess area, hallways, indoor recess, and classrooms. In middle school, hallways were the most perilous location, followed by the lunchroom, outdoor recess areas, classrooms, indoor recess, and the front of the school.
The bathroom, locker room, bus, front and back of the school, gym, parking lot, coat room, and cubby areas are other hazardous bullying zones.
The common denominator in almost all of these locations is inadequate or no supervision and unstructured time. Under these conditions, opportunistic children have free rein. For example, recess, playgrounds and hallways head the list of trouble spots because there are few adults supervising large numbers of children who are constantly moving around wide expanses with few or no organized activities.
Warning signs of bullying
There are warning signs for everyone involved in bullying. Whether your child is being bullied, doing the bullying, or witnessing it, there are signs to look for. Parents should always keep the lines of communication open by starting conversations about daily life and feelings with questions like: What was one good thing that happened today? What is your lunch time like at your school? Who do you sit with? Keep the questions open-ended so your child can describe his or her day. Listen for clues as they talk and follow up with further questions if you suspect something is happening to your child. First, you need to help your child understand what bullying is. Kids who know what bullying is can better identify it. Kids need to know what steps to take if they have been bullied or have seen someone else get bullied. You should encourage your child to always report bullying. Let them know that bullying is not acceptable for any reason, and they should report it immediately.
Signs that a child is being bullied include:
- Unexplainable injuries
- Conditions such as Anxiety and Post-traumatic stress manifesting in the child's behaviour
- Lost or destroyed clothing
- Change in eating habits
- Declining grades
- Continuous school absences
Signs that a child is bullying others include:
- Getting into physical or verbal fights
- Getting sent to the principal’s office frequently
- Having friends who bully others
- Becoming increasingly aggressive in normal day activities
Signs that a child has witnessed bullying include:
- Poor school behavior
- Emotional disturbance
- Post-traumatic stress
- Drug and alcohol abuse
- Suicidal tendencies
Roles kids play
There are some roles in bullying that take place. “McNamee and Mercurio” have identified the people involved in bullying as: the person doing the bullying, the person getting bullied and the bystander as the "bullying triangle".
- Bully – Students with power (social and/or physical) who repeatedly picks on another student or group of students with the intent to inflict harm or discomfort.
- Victim – Students who are the target of the bullying.
- Bystander – Student who observes bullying – may ignore bullying, encourage bullying, or take a stand against bullying.
Even if you are not directly involved in the bullying you play a role. There are several roles kids play when witnessing bullying.
These roles include:
- Kids who assist – These kids help in the bullying but do not directly start it. They are encouraged further bullying from surrounding peers.
- Kids who reinforce – These kids are not directly involved in the bullying or assist in the bullying. These kids are ones who laugh and give the bully an audience.
- Outsiders – These kids are incidental bystanders they are not involved at all in the bullying but witness it. They mainly will feel sorry for the victim but do not know how to get involved.
- Kids who defend – These kids either get directly involved or defend the victim or there to console the victim after the bullying.
Short-term and long-term effects
Dombeck defines some common short-term and long-term effects of bullying. These include, but are not limited to:
- suicide (bullycide) Many feel unwanted in life and that they should not live
- significant drop in school performance
- feeling as if their life has fallen apart
- excessive stress
"Witnessing bullying incidents can produce feelings of anger, fear, guilt, and sadness in observers. Bystanders who witness repeated victimization of peers can experience negative effects similar to the victimized children themselves." 
- abiding feelings of insecurity
- lack of trust
- extreme sensitivity (hypervigilance)
- mental illness such as psychopathy and PTSD
"Pure bullies did not show problems with emotional functioning as adults. But they did show increased risk of developing antisocial personality disorder. People with this disorder have little empathy and few scruples about manipulating others for their own gain. The disorder is linked with a greater risk of becoming a criminal or committing domestic violence against their own spouses and children. Most bullies did not go on to have the disorder, Copeland said, but they were more likely to develop it than other groups." 
Complex cultural dynamics
- some students bully other students; some of these student bullies are themselves bullied by other student bullies; some of these student bullies bully teachers
- some teachers bully students; some teacher bullies bully other teachers; some teacher bullies bully parents
- some office staff bully teachers, students and parents
- some principals bully teachers, office staff, students and parents
- some parents bully teachers, office staff, principals, and even their own children.
Verifying the signs that signify bullying characteristics are slightly harder than expected. They are usually viewed as loud and assertive and may even be hostile in particular situations. Bullies are not usually the largest kid in a class, but may be part of the popular or cool kids group. The bullies that are part of a popular group may not come from intense disciplinary homes, rather they gain acceptance from the peer group by bullying a victim.
Victims of bullying typically are physically smaller, more sensitive, unhappy, cautious, anxious, quiet, and withdrawn. They are often described as passive or submissive. Possessing these qualities make these individuals vulnerable to being victimized. Unfortunately bullies know that these students will not retaliate, making them an easy target.
A general semantics term called indexing is useful in dealing with the different types of bullying. Indexing is a way to categorize of signs. This allows educators and parents a way to assist in recognizing how bullying behavior varies. By understanding and recognizing the different varieties of behavior it helps to allow flexibility in the responses to the variations.
An interesting result from previous research states that the majority of children possess anti-bullying attitudes. However, there is a small amount of children that admire those that bully and show little empathy for those that get bullied.
- Bullying is a consequence of large class or school size.
- Bullying is a consequence of competition for grades and failure in school
- Bullying is a consequence of poor self-esteem and insecurity
- Students who are overweight, wear glasses, have a different ethnic origin, or speak with an unusual dialect are particularly at risk of becoming bully victims
- Bullying is just teasing.
- Some people deserve to be bullied.
- Only boys are bullies.
- Bullying is a normal part of growing up.
- Bullies will go away if ignored.
- It's tattling to tell an adult about a bully.
- The best way to deal with a bully is by fighting or trying to get even.
- People who are bullied will only hurt for a while and then get over it.
School connectedness is the positive relationship between students, teachers, administrators, and educational support professionals. Studies have shown that bullying programs set up in schools with the help and engagements of staff and faculty have been shown to reduce peer victimization and bullying. Incidences of bullying are noticeably reduced when the students themselves disapprove of bullying.
Research indicates that methods such as increasing awareness, instituting zero tolerance for fighting, or placing troubled students in the same group or classroom are ineffective in reducing bullying while other measures, including increasing empathy for victims, adopting a program with a "whole school" approach, which includes all teachers, students, and parents, and student-led anti-bullying efforts, have shown significant progress and success.
A review of research regarding anti-bullying efforts in schools summarizes the most successful ways:
- Everyone in the school must change, not only the identified bullies.
- Intervention must begin in early grades.
- Evaluation of the programs in place is critical since some programs may increase bullying rather than reduce it.
- Some students taking online classes to avoid bullies at school.
Strategies for teachers
Children spend a lot of their time in school. Although bullying can happen anywhere, the vast majority of bullying occurs in school, which means that a teacher’s influence is profound. It is important for teachers to be able to identify the signs of bullying, and also be equipped with the strategies to help both bullies and victims. Below is a list of possible warning signs, as well as ways that teachers can help students in their classrooms.
- Easily frustrated and quick to anger
- Does not recognize impact of their behaviour
- Has friends who bully and are aggressive
- Few friends at school or in neighbourhood
- Afraid to go to school
- Appears anxious or fearful
- Low self-esteem
- Lower interest in activities and lower performance at school
- Injuries, bruising, damaged belongings
- May appear isolated from the peer group
- Complains of feeling unwell (headaches and stomach aches)
- Helping students who are bullied
- Teach the appropriate social skills
- Build self-esteem
- Assure the child that bullying is not their fault
- Encourage students to report bullying
- Advocate for individual children
- Model healthy relationships
- Promote inclusive classrooms
- Manage student interactions
- Intervene early (and frequently)
- Helping students who bully
- Help them change the way they use their power
- Acknowledge positive behaviours
- Give consequences that teach (and not punish)
- Establish a code of conduct
- Have student sign a behavioural contract
||This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. (December 2011)|
Anti-Bullying Laws in the United Kingdom Section 89 of the Education and Inspections Act 2006 provides for an anti-bullying policy for all state schools to be made available to parents.
Anti-Bullying Laws across the United States As of August 2013 all states, except for Montana, have anti-bullying laws. "Some policies require disciplinary procedures while others mandate that schools track and report every incident. A growing number of states also require schools to employ someone trained in anti-bullying education. Despite widespread attention to the issue, anti-bullying advocates worry that many of the new laws don’t provide adequate funding to implement anti-bullying strategies, particularly those calling for training teachers, counselors or administrators. With state budgets facing huge shortfalls in recent years, lawmakers have been cutting education funding, including for bullying prevention, leading some school districts to resist anti-bullying mandates."
American victims and their families have legal recourse, such as suing a school or teacher for failure to adequately supervise, for racial or gender discrimination, or for other civil rights violations. Special education students who are victimized may sue a school or school board under the ADA or Section 504. In addition, the victims of some school shootings have sued both the shooters' families and the schools.
Anti-Bullying Laws In Canada According to CBC News Canada "Anyone who posts or transmits an "intimate image" of another individual without that person’s consent could face up to five years in prison. MacKay said C-13, also known as the Protecting Canadians from Online Crime Act, reflected the government’s commitment "to ensuring that our children are safe from online predators and from online exploitation." Since introducing the bill, MacKay has said that C-13 is also meant to update the Criminal Code to reflect modern communications such as email and social media. 
Researchers (Olweus, 1993); Craig & Peplar, 1999; Ross, 1998; Morrison, 2002; Whitted & Dupper, 2005; Aynsley-Green, 2006; Fried-Sosland provide several strategies which address ways to help reduce bullying, these include:
- Make sure an adult knows what is happening to their child[ren].
- Enforce anti bullying laws.
- Make it clear that bullying is never acceptable.
- Recognize that bullying can occur at all levels within the hierarchy of the school (i.e., including adults).
- Hold a school conference day or forum devoted to bully/victim problems.
- Conduct assessments in your school to determine how often bullying occurs, where it happens, how students and adults intervene, and whether your prevention efforts are working.
- Increase adult supervision in the yard, halls and washrooms more vigilantly.
- Emphasize caring, respect and safety.
- Emphasize consequences of hurting others.
- Enforce consistent and immediate consequences for aggressive behaviors.
- Improve communication among school administrators, teachers, parents and students.
- Set up a peer support program.
- Have a school problem box where kids can report problems, concerns and offer suggestions.
- Teach cooperative learning activities.
- Help bullies with anger control and the development of empathy.
- Encourage positive peer relations.
- The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program: Warmth, positive interest, and involvement from adults; firm limits on unacceptable behavior; consistent application of nonpunitive, nonphysical sanctions for unacceptable behavior or violations of rules; and adults who act as authorities and positive role models.
- Offer a variety of extracurricular activities which appeal to a range of interests
- Teach your child to defend him/herself verbally. Fighting back physically may land the bullied in school trouble or even legal trouble.
- Keep in mind the range of possible causes: e.g., medical, psychiatric, psychological, developmental, family problems, etc.
- If problems continue in your school, press harassment charges against the family of the person who is bullying you.
- Adjust teacher preparation programs to include appropriate bullying interventions to use in their classroom.
"Eighty-seven percent of students think school shootings are meant to get back at someone for bullying them" School bullying is associated with school shootings. 87% of the attackers were motivated by being bullied. School shooters that died or committed suicide left behind evidence that they were bullied, including Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, Nathan Ferris, Edmar Aparecido Freitas, Brian Head, Seung-Hui Cho, Wellington Menezes Oliveira, Kimveer Gill, Karl Pierson and Jeff Weise.
Events and organizations
Events and nonprofits and other organizations which address bullying in schools include:
- Act Against Bullying
- The Bully Police Squad
- Bully-Free ABA!
- Bullying UK
- Ditch the Label
- GRIN Campaign
- International Day of Pink
- Jer's Vision
- Kidpower (organization)
- LSA Community
- Student Reports of Bullying, Results From the 2001 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey, U.S. National Center for Education Statistics
- Goldsmid, S.; Howie, P. (2014). "Bullying by definition: An examination of definitional components of bullying". Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties 19 (2): 210–225. doi:10.1080/13632752.2013.844414.
- Goldsmid, S.; Howie, P. (2014). "Bullying by definition: An examination of definitional components of bullying". Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties 19 (2): 210–225. doi:10.1080/13632752.2013.844414.
- Bullying: A Module for Teachers, APA.org. Retrieved on 2012-12-30.
- Agirdag, O.; Demanet, J.; Van Houtte, M.; Van Avermaet, P.; Bettelheim, K. A. (2011). "Ethnic school composition and peer victimization: A focus on the interethnic school climate". International Journal of Intercultural Relations 35 (4): 465–473. doi:10.1016/j.ijintrel.2010.09.009.
- Fekkes, M.; Pijpers, F. I. M.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S. P. (2005). "Bullying: Who does what, when and where? involvement of children, teachers and parents in bullying behavior". Health Education Research 20 (1): 81–91. doi:10.1093/her/cyg100.
- "Canadian Bullying Statistics". Canadian Institutes of Health Research. 2012-09-28. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Mishna, F.; Cook, C.; Gadalla, T.; Daciuk, J.; Solomon, S. (2010). "Cyber bullying behaviors among middle and high school students". American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 80 (3): 362–374. doi:10.1111/j.1939-0025.2010.01040.x.
- Petrosino, A., Guckenburg, S., DeVoe, J., and Hanson, T. (2010). What characteristics of bullying, bullying victims, and schools are associated with increased reporting of bullying to school officials? Issues & Answers Report, REL 2010–No. 092. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast and Islands. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/ edlabs.
- Perren, S.; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, E.; Malti, T.; Hymel, S. (2012). "Moral Reasoning and Emotion Attributions of Adolescent Bullies, Victims, and Bully-Victims". British Journal Of Developmental Psychology 30 (4): 511–530.
- Keelan, C.; Schenk, A.; McNally, M.; Fremouw, W. (2014). "The interpersonal worlds of bullies: Parents, peers, and partners". Journal of Interpersonal Violence 29 (7): 1338–1353. doi:10.1177/0886260513506278.
- Turcotte Benedict, F., Vivier, P., & Gjelsvik, A. (2014). Mental Health and Bullying in the United States Among Children Aged 6 to 17 Years. Journal Of Interpersonal Violence.
- Shakoor, S.; Jaffee, S. R.; Bowes, L.; Ouellet-Morin, I.; Andreou, P.; Happé, F.; Arseneault, L. (2012). "A prospective longitudinal study of children's theory of mind and adolescent involvement in bullying". Journal Of Child Psychology & Psychiatry 53 (3): 254–261. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02488.x.
- The Bully and the Bystander, Greatschools.org. Retrieved on 2012-12-30.
- "Bullying Widespread in U.S. Schools, Survey Finds." US National Institute of Health (2001-04-24)
- Garby, Lisa (2011). "Direct Bullying: Criminal Act or Mimicking What Has Been Learned?". Education 20 (1): 449.
- Hirsch, L. & Lowen, C. Bully. New York: Weinstein Books, 2012. Print.
- So what is bullying? Stop Bullying Now! Information, Prevention, Tips, and Games.
- Bolton, José, and Stan Graeve. "No Room for Bullies: from the Classroom to Cyberspace." Boys Town, Neb.: Boys Town, 2005 ISBN 1-889322-67-9.
- "The Effects of Belittling". Counselling Connect. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- "What is cyberbullying, exactly?". Stop cyberbullying. Retrieved 29 Oct 2013.
- "What Is the School's Role?" Stopcyberbullying.org. Web. 12 April 2014.
- Sherry Boschert, "Cyberbullying triples suicide risk in teens", Pediatric News. Web. 15 Sept. 2013.
- Abraham Foxman and Cyndi Silverman. "Social Networking Sites Can Be Forums for Cyberbullying." Are Social Networking Sites Harmful? Ed. Stefan Kiesbye. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2011, from "Op Ed." Anti-Defamation League. 2009. Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 25 Sept. 2013.
- Scott Eidler. "Anti-bullying walk held in North Hempstead." Newsday, (Melville, NY) 07 Apr. 2013: Points of View Reference Center. Web. 21 Sept. 2013.
- Wajngurt, Clara. "Anti-Bullying Policies in Higher Ed". Not in Our Town. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- Wojcik, Joanna. "Cyber-Bullying Lawsuits Test School's Legal Reach".
- Wajngurt, Clara. "Anti-Bullying Policies in Higher Education". Not in Our Town. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- "NSPCC working definition of Sexual Bullying" (PDF). NSPCC. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
- "Rising problem of sexual bullying in schools". BBC Panorama. 5 January 2009. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
- "What is sexual bullying, and how can I manage it within educational settings?". NSPCC. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
- "Permanent and Fixed Period Exclusions from Schools in England 2007/08". UK Government's Department for Children, Schools and Families. 2009-07-30. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
- "Girls bullied for 'sex favours'". BBC. 27 March 2007. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
- "Sexting". EyePAT. Retrieved 2015-09-14.
- Hastings, Katy (2009-03-10). "Teenager commits suicide after 'sexting' a nude photo to her boyfriend made her life a misery | Daily Mail Online". Dailymail.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-09-14.
- "School Bullying." Bullyingstatistics.org. Web. 4 March 2014.
- "Preventing and Managing Bullying".
- "4 Amazing Ways To Prevent Bullying At The Primary School".
- Sylvester, Ruth (2011). "Teacher as Bully: Knowingly or Unintentionally Harming Students". Morality in Education 77 (2): 42–45.
- Liepe-Levinson, Katherine and Levinson, Martin H. (2005). "A General Semantics Approach to School-Age Bullying". Review of General Semantics 62 (1): 4–16.
- Beaty, LA; Alexeyev, EB (2008). "The problem of school bullies: What the research tells us" (PDF). Adolescence 43 (169): 1–11. PMID 18447077.
- Nelson, E. D. (2001). Qualitative Sociology 24: 83. doi:10.1023/A:1026695430820. Missing or empty
- Let's Get Real. Prod. Debra Chasnof, Helen S. Cohen, and Kate Stilley. New Day Films: Women's Educational Media, 2003. Videocassette
- "Who Is at Risk for Bullying Others." StopBullying.gov. U.S. Government Web. Web. 1 Dec. 2011.
- Coloroso, Barbara. The Bully, the Bullied, and the Bystander: From Preschool to High School—How Parents and Teachers Can Help Break the Cycle of Violence. New York: HarperResource, 2004. pp. 11–41 ISBN 0-06-174460-3
- Heath, Melissa, Tina Dyches, and Mary Prater. Classroom Bullying Prevention, Pre-K-4th Grade: Children's Books, Lesson Plans, and Activities. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2013. Ebrary. Web. 14 Nov. 2013
- United States. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Stopbullying.gov. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, N.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2013.
- Miller, Holly Ventura, and J. Mitchell Miller. "School-Based Bullying Prevention." Encyclopedia of Victimology and Crime Prevention. Ed. Bonnie S. Fisher, and Steven P. Lab. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc., 2010. 818–20. SAGE knowledge. Web. 20 Feb. 2014.
- McNamee, Abigail and Mia Mercurio. "School-Wide Intervention in the Childhood Bullying Triangle." Taylor & Francis Online. (25 Jul. 2012): 370–378. PDF file.
- Dr. Mark Dombeck. Mentalhelp.net. Retrieved on 2012-12-30.
- Pappas, Stephanie. "Long-Term Effects of Bullying: Pain Lasts Into Adulthood (STUDY)." Huffingtonpost.com. Livescience. 20 Feb. 2013. Web. 15 April 2014.
- Les Parsons (2005). Bullied Teacher – Bullied Student: How to Recognize the Bullying Culture in Your School And What to Do About It. Pembroke Publishers Limited. ISBN 978-1-55138-190-9.
- Dake, J. A.; Price, J. H.; Telljohann, S. K. (2003). "The nature and extent of bullying in school" (PDF). The journal of school health 73 (5): 173–80. doi:10.1111/j.1746-1561.2003.tb03599.x. PMID 12793102.
- Blake, Patricia; Louw, Johann (2010). "Exploring high school learners' perceptions of bullying". Journal of Child & Adolescent Mental Health 22 (2): 111. doi:10.2989/17280583.2010.536657.
- Fox, CL; Elder, T; Gater, J; Johnson, E (2010). "The association between adolescents' beliefs in a just world and their attitudes to victims of bullying". The British journal of educational psychology 80 (Pt 2): 183–98. doi:10.1348/000709909X479105. PMID 19930790.
- Olweus, Dan (March 2003). "A Profile of Bullying at School". Educational Leadership 60 (6): 12.
- Scarpaci, Richard (2006). "Bullying: Effective Strategies for Its Prevention". Kappa Delta Pi Record 42 (4): 170–174. doi:10.1080/00228958.2006.10518023.
- O'Brennan, L. M.; Waasdorp, T. E.; Bradshaw, C. P. (2014). "Strengthening bullying prevention through school staff connectedness". Journal Of Educational Psychology 106 (3): 870–880. doi:10.1037/a0035957.
- Guerra, Nancy G.; Williams, Kirk R. (2010). "Implementing bullying prevention in diverse settings: Geographic, economic, and cultural influences". Oxford University Press.
- Berger, Kathleen Stassen (2014). Invitation to the Life Span. New York: Worth Publishers. ISBN 1464172056.
- Berger, Kathleen Stassen (2007). "Update on bullying at school: Science forgotten?". Developmental Review.
- "Anti-Bullying Laws by State: An Introduction to US State Anti-Bullying Legislation." Antibullyingsoftware.com.Web.20 Feb. 2014.
- "Bullying." CQ Researcher 15 June 2013. Web. 20 Feb. 2014.
- Brownstein, A. The Bully Pulpit: Post-Columbine, Harassment Victims Take School To Court. TRIAL – the Journal of the Association of Trial Lawyers of America, December 2002.
- New cyberbullying law has 'larger agenda,' expands police powers
- Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at school: What We Know and What We Can Do. Oxford Blackwell Publishers ISBN 0-631-19241-7.
- Craig, W.M. & Peplar, D.J. (1999). "Children who bully – Will they just grow out of it?". Orbit 29 (4): 16–19.
- Ross, P.N. (1998). Arresting violence: a resource guide for schools and their communities. Toronto: Ontario Public School Teachers' Federation.
- Morrison, B. (2002). Bullying and victimisation in schools: a restorative justice approach. Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice. No. 219; Feb. 2002. Australian Institute of Criminology.
- Whitted, K.S. & Dupper, D.R. (2005). "Best Practices for Preventing or Reducing Bullying in Schools". Children and Schools 27 (3): 167–175. doi:10.1093/cs/27.3.167.
- Bullying Today: A Report by the Office of the Children’s Commissioner UK, with Recommendations and Links to Practitioner Tools. November. 2006. Retrieved 12 December 2007.
- Fried, SuEllen; Blanche Sosland (2009). Banishing bullying behavior: transforming the culture of pain, rage, and revenge. Rowman & Littlefield Education. ISBN 978-1-60709-221-6.
- "Prevention At School. "Stopbullying.gov. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 April 2014.
- Cowie, Helen; Nicky Hutson; Ozhan Oztug; Carrie Myers (March 2008). "The impact of peer support schemes on pupils’ perceptions of bullying, aggression and safety at school". Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties 13 (1): 63–71. doi:10.1080/13632750701814708.
- Lakewood, Mark. "Bullying Prevention Skills and Techniques for Children".
- Dake, J. A.; Price, J. H; Telljohann, S. K. (2003). "The nature and extent of bullying at school". The Journal of School Health 73 (5): 0173180. doi:10.1111/j.1746-1561.2003.tb03599.x. PMID 12793102.
- "School Bullying Statistics". Retrieved 2014-02-23.
- Bullying in Schools
- Henry Bowers and his gang in Stephen King's novel It
- Buddy Repperton and his gang in Stephen King's novel Christine
- Chris Hargensen and numerous other girls and students in Stephen King's novel Carrie
- Roger Klotz and his gang on the animated television series Doug
- Flash Thompson in Spider-Man comics
- Scarecrow (1984 film)
- Stuart W. Twemlow, Frank Sacco (2008). Why School Antibullying Programs Don't Work. Jason Aronson Inc, ISBN 978-0-7657-0475-7
- "My Bully My Bra: Confronting Bullying in Schools." Cape Town, 2011. A guide for students, parents and teachers. Includes stories, comics, poetry, posters, slogans and resources for teachers.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to School bullying.|
- AERA Task Force Prevention of Bullying in Schools, Colleges, and Universities: Research Report and Recommendations
- "Bullying Widespread in U.S. Schools, Study Finds," National Institutes of Health
- StopBullying.gov, Departments of Education, Health and Human Services, & Justice
- Bullying Affects All Middle School Kids, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
- EyePAT: Big Lottery Funded School Bullying Workshops
- Girls Bullying Girls: An Introduction to Relational Aggression, National Association of School Psychologists
- "School Bullying"
- "School Bullying Hurts: Evidence of Psychological and Academic Challenges among Students with Bullying Histories."
- Student Bullying: Overview of Research, Federal Initiatives, and Legal Issues Congressional Research Service
- "Nobullying is an online forum aimed at educating, advising, counselling and all importantly, helping to stop bullying, in particular, cyber bullying"
- "STOP A BULLY: Canada's Anti-Bullying Report Service"