||The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with North America and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (December 2010)|
A school library (or a school library media center) is a library within a school where students, staff, and often, parents of a public or private school have access to a variety of resources. The goal of the school library media center is to ensure that all members of the school community have equitable access "to books and reading, to information, and to information technology." A school library media center "uses all types of media... is automated, and utilizes the Internet [as well as books] for information gathering." School libraries are distinct from public libraries because they serve as "learner-oriented laboratories which support, extend, and individualize the school's curriculum... A school library serves as the center and coordinating agency for all material used in the school."
Researchers have demonstrated that school libraries have a positive impact on student achievement through the more than 60 studies have been conducted in 19 U.S. states and one Canadian province. The major finding of these studies was that students with access to a well-supported school library media program with a qualified school library media specialist, scored higher on reading assessments regardless of their socio-economic statuses. In addition, a study conducted in Ohio revealed that 99.4% of students surveyed believed that their school librarians and school library media programs helped them succeed in school. A report that reported similar conclusions was compiled by Michele Lonsdale in Australia in 2003.
History of school libraries
The later part of the 19th century marked the beginning of the modern American library movement with the creation of the American Library Association (ALA) in 1876 by a group of librarians led by Melvil Dewey. At these beginning stages of development, the school libraries were primarily made up of small collections with the school librarian playing primarily a clerical role.
Dewey wrote that "a broad conception at the end of the century of the work of the schools is simply this, to teach the children to think accurately, with strength and with speed. If it is in the school that they get their start, then where do they get their education?"
1920 marked the first effort by the library and education communities to evaluate school libraries with the publication of the Certain Report, which provided the first yardstick for evaluating school libraries.
School libraries experienced another major push following the launch of Sputnik in 1957, which forced the United States to re-evaluate its priorities for math and science education. As a result, the 1960s were one of the greatest periods of growth and development for school libraries due to an increased flow of money and support from the private sector and public funding for education. Most notable during this time was the Knapp School Libraries Project which established model school library media centers across the country. Hundreds of new school libraries were expanded and renovated during this time.
Globally important mission statement is the Unesco School library Manifesto , which states: "The school library provides information and ideas that are fundamental to functioning successfully in today’s information and knowledge-based society. The school library equips students with life-long learning skills and develops the imagination, enabling them to live as responsible citizens" (para. 1).
The purpose of the school library
School library media centers in the 21st century can, and should be, hubs for increased student achievement and positive focused school reform--Kathleen D. Smith 
The school library exists to provide a range of learning opportunities for both large and small groups as well as individuals with a focus on intellectual content, information literacy, and the learner. In addition to classroom visits with collaborating teachers, the school library also serves as a place for students to do independent work, use computers, equipment and research materials; to host special events such as author visits and book clubs; and for tutoring and testing.
School libraries function as a central location for all of the information available, and a school librarian functions as the literary map to the resources and materials found within the library.
A school library functions as an opportunity for educators to work with librarians in support of a resource center for the students to be able to safely access the internet for both school work and interacting with each other. In her article, "Tag! You're It!": Playing on the Digital Playground, De las Casas discusses how today's youth is much more comfortable with technology than ever before, and believes that “We need to advocate for regulations and laws that support education of young people rather than simply limiting their access to the Web.”
The school library media center program is a collaborative venture in which school library media specialists, teachers, and administrators work together to provide opportunities for the social, cultural, and educational growth of students. Activities that are part of the school library media program can take place in the school library media center, the laboratory classroom, through the school, and via the school library's online resources.
In Australia school libraries have played a major role in the success of Reading Challenge programs initiated and funded by various State Governments.
The Premier's Reading Challenge in South Australia, launched by Premier Mike Rann (2002 to 2011) has one of the highest participation rates in the world for reading challenges. It has been embraced by more than 95% of public, private and religious schools.
The school library collection
School libraries are similar to public libraries in that they contain books, films, recorded sound, periodicals, realia, and digital media. These items are not only for the education, enjoyment, and entertainment of the all members of the school community, but also to enhance and expand the school's curriculum.
Staffing of the school library
In many schools, school libraries are staffed by librarians, teacher-librarians, or school library media specialists or media coordinators who hold a specific library science degree. In some jurisdictions, school librarians are required to have specific certification and/or a teaching certificate.
The school librarian performs four leadership main roles: teacher, instructional partner, information specialist, and program administrator. In the teacher role, the school librarian develops and implements curricula relating to information literacy and inquiry. School librarians may read to children, assist them in selecting books, and assist with schoolwork. Some school librarians see classes on a "flexible schedule". A flexible schedule means that rather than having students come to the library for instruction at a fixed time every week, the classroom teacher schedules library time when library skills or materials are needed as part of the classroom learning experience.
In the instructional partner role, school librarians collaborate with classroom teachers to create independent learners by fostering students' research, information literacy, technology, and critical thinking skills.
As information specialists, school librarians develop a resource base for the school by using the curriculum and student interests to identify and obtain library materials, organize and maintain the library collection in order to promote independent reading and lifelong learning. Materials in the library collection can be located using an Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC). Often these catalogs are web-based from which students can gain access both at school and from home.
This role also encompasses many activities relating to technology including the integration of resources in a variety of formats: periodical databases; Web sites; digital video segments; podcasts; blog and wiki content; digital images; virtual classrooms, etc. School librarians are often responsible for audio-visual equipment and are sometimes in charge of school computers and computer networks.
Many school librarians also perform clerical duties. They handle the circulating and cataloging of materials, facilitate interlibrary loans, shelve materials, perform inventory, etc.
The Need for Collaboration
Collaboration is important among school librarians, teachers, and parents. Harvey, a school librarian, emphasizes that it isn’t enough to just coexist in the same community, but to ensure that communication is ongoing during the school year. Exposure to another perspective or outlook can lead to strong, thought-provoking discussions, ideas, and activities, and Harvey points out that by working together as educators, teacher librarians and classroom teachers can learn from each other. There is a need to create a culture where collaboration is the foundation for how our schools work and operate. School librarians can take the lead by modeling this behavior as they work with teachers to ensure communication is ongoing during the school year.
Funding Cuts for School Libraries
The primary challenge school libraries are facing today is a lack of funding. In 2012, “School libraries are some of the most underfunded classrooms in the United States because of the struggling local, state, and federal budgets combined with the fact that No Child Left Behind (NCLB) ignores a direct correlation between school libraries and increased student achievement.”
In 2001, the Improving Literacy Though School Libraries was created as the only federal program specified for school libraries and “was authorized at $250 million in 2001 [although] funding has never been appropriated at that level” (“Congress Denies”, 2011). Money was allocated for the program from 2002-2004 but since then there has been a decline in funds allocated for the program. In 2010, Obama proposed wiping out the Improving Literacy Through School Libraries program and “consolidating it with five other literacy programs-all of which would then vie for the same pool of money” (“Congress Denies”, 2011). Obama was successful in stopping funds for the program in both 2011 and 2012 and is planning on decreasing additional literacy funds in 2013.
The Future of School Libraries
There is value for schools offering the ability for an e-book lending system. Wheeler Books, a leading supplier of books to schools and libraries, has created an ePlatform that provides schools and libraries the ability to lend out e-books in a secure manner. It also allows users to load other material onto their computers or mobile devices, such as the teacher's notes. In an article supporting e-lending systems in schools, Temple argues that they add value, stating “Students may no longer have to carry around the same volume of paper based materials — it could completely change the way a student works.”
Notes and references
- The goals of the school library program should support the mission and continuous improvement plan of the school district.Standards for the 21st Century Learner
- Morris, B. (2004). Administering the school library media center. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited. (p.32).
- Morris, 2004, p.32
- Todd, R., Kuhlthau, C., & OELMA. (2004). Student Learning through Ohio School Libraries : The Ohio Research Study. Available online at: http://www.oelma.org/studentlearning/
- Lonsdale, M. (2003). Impact of school libraries on student achievement: A review of the research. Camberwell, Victoria, Australia: Australian Council for Educational Research. Available online at http://www.asla.org.au/research/research.pdf
- Dewey, M. (1920). What a library should be and what it can do. In A. E. Bostwick (Ed.). The library and society: Classics of American librarianship (pp. 75-78). New York: H.W. Wilson.
- Charles C. Certain Committee. (1986). Standard library organization and equipment for secondary schools of different sizes. In Melvil M. Bowie (Comp.), Historic Documents of school libraries (pp.34-51). Littleton, CO: Hi Willow Research and Publishing. (Original work published 1920, Chicago: American Library Association)
- Boardman, Edna (September–October 1994). "The Knapp School Libraries Project: The Best $1,130,000 Ever Spent on School Libraries.". Book Report 13 (2): 17–19. ISSN 0731-4388. ERIC # EJ489785.
- American Association of School Librarians & Association for Educational Communications and Technology. (1998). Information power: Guidelines for school library media programs. Chicago: American Library Association.
- American Association of School Librarians & Association for Educational Communications and Technology. (1998). Information power: Building partnerships for learning. Chicago: American Library Association.
- Smith, K. (2002). "Building Student Learning Through School Libraries." Statement delivered at the White House Conference on School Libraries, available from: http://www.imls.gov/news/events/whitehouse_3.shtm
- Morris, 2004
- Felmley, D. (2010). How far should courses in normal schools and teachers’ colleges seek to acquaint all teachers with the ways of organizing and using school libraries?. Journal Of Proceedings And Addresses Of The Forty-Sixth Annual Meeting Held At Cleveland, Ohio, 1087-1095. Doi:10.1037/e597422010-207
- De las Casas, D. (2010). “Tag! you're it!”: playing on the digital playground. Knowledge Quest, 39(1), 80-82.
- Morris, 2004
- Center for National Policy, Washington DC, What States Can Do, May 2, 2012
- Morris, 2004; Thomas, M. J. & Perritt, P.H. (2003, December 1). A Higher standard: Many states have recently revised their certification requirements for school librarians. School Library Journal. Available online at http://www.schoollibraryjournal.com/article/CA339562.html?industryid=47056
- Harvey II, C. (2012). Collaboration--It's not just a library thing. Knowledge Quest, 40(4), 4-5.
- Ballard, S. (2012). ALA presidential task force: Focus on school libraries. School Library Monthly, 28(6), 15-17.
- Barack, L. (2012, February 15). President cuts school libraries from proposed 2013 budget. School Library Journal. Retrieved from http://www.schoollibraryjournal.com/slj/home/893694-312/president_cuts_school_libraries_from.html.csp]
- du Temple, T. (2011). E-books in school libraries. Access (10300155), 25(4), 38.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to School libraries.|
- Unesco School Library Manifesto 
- American Association of School Librarians
- School Library Journal
- School Library Media Activities Monthly
- Resources for School Libraries
- Virtual Learning Resources Center
- The Hub: Campaign for Quality School Libraries
- Australian School Library Association
- Directory of portuguese online school libraries catalogs
- Suomen koulukirjastoyhdistys 
- Siu-Runyan, Yvonne. "Public and School Libraries in Decline: When We Need Them." (Archive). National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE).