One of the few surviving lines from the school, "a one-foot stick, every day take away half of it, in a myriad ages it will not be exhausted," is obviously an independent formulation of Zeno's paradoxes. However, the majority of their paradoxes that survive are of unclear meaning, for example, "A hound can be deemed a sheep."
Their philosophy is often considered to be akin to those of the sophists or of the dialecticians. Joseph Needham notes that their works have been lost, except for the partially preserved Gongsun Longzi, and except for the paradoxes of Chapter 33 of the Zhuangzi. Needham also notes that the disappearance of the greater part of Gongsun Longzi must be considered one of the worst losses in the ancient Chinese books, as what remains is said to reach the highest point of ancient Chinese philosophical writing.