School psychology

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School psychology is a field that applies principles of educational psychology, developmental psychology, clinical psychology, community psychology, and applied behavior analysis to meet children's and adolescents' behavioral health and learning needs in a collaborative manner with educators and parents. School psychologists are educated in psychology, child and adolescent development, child and adolescent psychopathology, education, family and parenting practices, learning theories, and personality theories. They are knowledgeable about effective instruction and effective schools. They are trained to carry out psychological testing and psychoeducational assessment, counseling, and consultation, and in the ethical, legal and administrative codes of their profession.

Historical foundations[edit]

School psychology dates back to the beginning of American psychology in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The field is tied to both functional and clinical psychology. School psychology actually came out of functional psychology. School psychologists were interested in childhood behaviors, learning processes, and dysfunction with life or in the brain itself.[1] They wanted to understand the causes of the behaviors and their effects on learning. In addition to its origins in functional psychology, school psychology is also the earliest example of clinical psychology, beginning around 1890.[2] While both clinical and school psychologists wanted to help improve the lives of children, they approached it in different ways. School psychologists were concerned with school learning and childhood behavioral problems, which largely contrasts the mental health focus of clinical psychologists.[1]

Another significant event in the foundation of school psychology as it is today was the Thayer Conference. The Thayer Conference was first held in August 1954 in West Point, New York in Hotel Thayer. The 9 day-long conference was conducted by the American Psychological Association (APA).[3] The purpose of the conference was to develop a position on the roles, functions, and necessary training and credentialing of a school psychologist. At the conference, forty-eight participants that represented practitioners and trainers of school psychologists discussed the roles and functions of a school psychologist and the most appropriate way to train them.[3]

At the time of the Thayer Conference, school psychology was still a very young profession with only about 1,000 school psychology practitioners.[4]One of the goals of the Thayer Conference was to define school psychologists. The agreed upon definition stated that school psychologists were psychologists who specialize in education and have specific knowledge of assessment and learning of all children. School psychologists use this knowledge to assist school personnel in enriching the lives of all children. This knowledge is also used to help identify and work with children with exceptional needs.[4] It was discussed that a school psychologist must be able to assess and develop plans for children considered to be at risk. A school psychologist is also expected to better the lives of all children in the school; therefore, it was determined that school psychologists should be advisors in the planning and implementation of school curriculum.[3] Participants at the conference felt that since school psychology is a specialty, individuals in the field should have a completed a two-year graduate training program or a four-year doctoral program.[5] Participants felt that states should be encouraged to establish certification standards to ensure proper training. It was also decided that a practicum experience be required to help facilitate experiential knowledge within the field.[3]

The Thayer Conference is one of the most significant events in the history of school psychology because it was there that the field was initially shaped into what it is today. Before the Thayer Conference defined school psychology, practitioners used seventy-five different professional titles.[4] By providing one title and a definition, the conference helped to get school psychologists recognized nationally. Since a consensus was reached regarding the standards of training and major functions of a school psychologist, the public can now be assured that all school psychologists are receiving adequate information and training to become a practitioner. It is essential that school psychologists meet the same qualifications and receive appropriate training nationwide. These essential standards were first addressed at the Thayer Conference. At the Thayer Conference some participants felt that in order to hold the title of a school psychologist an individual must have earned a doctoral degree.

The issues of titles, labels, and degree levels are still debated among psychologists today. However, APA and NASP reached a resolution on this issue in 2010.[6]

Social reform in the early 1900s[edit]

The late 19th century marked the era of social reforms directed at children.[2] It was due to these social reforms that the need for school psychologists emerged. These social reforms included compulsory schooling, juvenile courts, child labor laws as well as a growth of institutions serving children. Society was starting to "change the 'meaning of children' from an economic source of labor to a psychological source of love and affection".[2] Historian Thomas Fagan argues that the preeminent force behind the need for school psychology was compulsory schooling laws.[2] Prior to the compulsory schooling law, only 20% of school aged children completed elementary school and only 8% completed high school.[1] Due to the compulsory schooling laws, there was an influx of students with mental and physical defects who were required by law to be in school.[2] There needed to be an alternative method of teaching for these different children. Between 1910 and 1914, schools in both rural and urban areas created small special education classrooms for these children.[2] From the emergence of special education classrooms came the need for "experts" to help assist in the process of child selection for special education. Thus, school psychology was founded.[citation needed]

Important contributors to the founding[edit]

Lightner Witmer[edit]

Lightner Witmer has been acknowledged as the founder of school psychology.[1] Witmer was a student of both Wilhelm Wundt and James Mckeen Cattell. While Wundt believed that psychology should deal with the average or typical performance, Cattell's teachings emphasized individual differences.[7] Witmer followed Cattell's teachings and focused on learning about each individual child's needs. Witmer opened the first psychological and child guidance clinic in 1896 at the University of Pennsylvania.[7] Witmer's goal was to prepare psychologists to help educators solve children's learning problems, specifically those with individual differences.[8] Witmer became an advocate for these special children. He was not focused on their deficits per se, but rather helping them overcome them, by looking at the individual's positive progress rather than all they still could not achieve.[7] Witmer stated that his clinic helped "to discover mental and moral defects and to treat the child in such a way that these defects may be overcome or rendered harmless through the development of other mental and moral traits".[2] He strongly believed that active clinical interventions could help to improve the lives of the individual children.[7]

Since Witmer saw much success through his clinic, he saw the need for more experts to help these individuals. Witmer argued for special training for the experts working with exceptional children in special educational classrooms.[2] He called for a "new profession which will be exercised more particularly in connection with educational problems, but for which the training of the psychologist will be a prerequisite".[2]

As Witmer believed in the appropriate training of these school psychologists, he also stressed the importance of appropriate and accurate testing of these special children. The IQ testing movement was sweeping through the world of education after its creation in 1905.[8] However, the IQ test negatively influenced special education. The IQ test creators, Lewis Terman and Henry Goddard, held a nativist view of intelligence, believing that intelligence was inherited and difficult if not impossible to modify in any meaningful way through education.[8] These notions were often used as a basis for excluding children with disabilities from the public schools.[8] Witmer argued against the standard pencil and paper IQ and Binet type tests in order to help select children for special education.[7] Witmer's child selection process included observations and having children perform certain mental tasks.[2]

Granville Stanley Hall[edit]

Another important figure to the origin of school psychology was Granville Stanley Hall. Rather than looking at the individual child as Witmer did, Hall focused more on the administrators, teachers and parents of exceptional children[2] He felt that psychology could make a contribution to the administrator system level of the application of school psychology.[2] Hall created the child study movement, which helped to invent the concept of the "normal" child. Through Hall's child study, he helped to work out the mappings of child development and focused on the nature and nurture debate of an individual's deficit.[2] Hall's main focus of the movement was still the exceptional child despite the fact that he worked with atypical children.

Arnold Gesell[edit]

Bridging the gap between the child study movement, clinical psychology and special education, Arnold Gesell, was the first person in the United States to officially hold the title of school psychologist, Arnold Gesell.[2] He successfully combined psychology and education by evaluating children and making recommendations for special teaching.[2] Arnold Gesell paved the way for future school psychologists.

Gertrude Hildreth[edit]

Gertrude Hildreth was a psychologist with the Lincoln School at Teacher's College, Columbia then at Brooklyn College in New York. She authored many books including the first book pertaining to school psychology titled, "Psychological Service for School Problems" written in 1930.[9] The book discussed applying the science of psychology to address the perceived problems in schools. The main focus of the book was on applied educational psychology to improve learning outcomes. Hildreth listed 11 problems that can be solved by applying psychological techniques, including: instructional problems in the classroom, assessment of achievement, interpretation of test results, instructional groupings of students for optimal outcomes, vocational guidance, curriculum development, and investigations of exceptional pupils.[10] Hildreth emphasized the importance of collaboration with parents and teachers. She is also known for her development of the Metropolitan Readiness Tests and for her contribution to the Metropolitan Achievement test.[11] In 1933 and 1939 Hildreth published a bibliography of Mental Tests and Rating Scales encompassing a 50-year time period and over 4,000 titles. She wrote approximately 200 articles and bulletins and had an international reputation for her work in education.[12]

Current issues related to the foundations, practice, and field of school psychology[edit]

Disproportionality in special education[edit]

There continues to be an overrepresentation of minority students in special education. There has been an ongoing debate on racial disproportionality in special education. Disproportionality refers to the differences in treatment or outcomes by group membership. While special education is a benefit to those with limited educational access, it can quickly become a hindrance to individuals who have been misidentified—leading to long term negative outcomes. African Americans have been overidentified as having emotional disturbances and intellectual disabilities, American Indians have been overidentified with learning disabilities, and Hispanic and Asian students are either proportionally or under identified for special education services. Inferences have been made that the process of identification may be oversimplified. Explanations such as minority populations’ increased susceptibility to certain disabilities based on economic, cultural, or economic disadvantage; as well as social iniquities and race relations have been posed. Research supports that there are biases in special education referral, however, empirical evidence has not been established for biases in identification. The National Research Council has, however, brought attention to the unreliability of educational decision making in special education—vast number of false positives/negatives.  A fundamental concern with disproportionality is differentiating disability from circumstantial forces that have an effect on achievement and behavior. During the identification process, school psychologists should take into account the ecological factors that may disproportionally effect minority students, such as socioeconomic status—thus limiting funding and materials, a poor curriculum, fewer qualified teachers, and a negative school climate—and other alternative explanations for behavior/performance. As school psychologists move forward in the field, self-reflection of biases and prejudices are critical. It has also been proposed that school psychologists’ participation in Tier 1 of MTSS (Multi-Tiered Systems of Support) may decrease the overrepresentation of minority students in special education—via prevention strategies. [13]

Technological issues[edit]

With the ever growing use of technology, school psychologists are faced with several issues, both ethical and within the populations they try to serve. As it is so easy to share and communicate over technology, concerns are raised as to just how easy it is for outsiders to get access to the private information that school psychologists deal with everyday. Thus exchanging and storing information digitally may come under scrutiny if precautions such as password protecting documents and specifically limiting access within school systems to personal files.[14] Then there is the issue of how students communicate using this technology. There are both concerns on how to address these virtual communications and on how appropriate it is to access them. Concerns on where the line can be drawn on where intervention methods end and invasion of privacy begin are raised by students, parents, administrators, and faculty. Addressing these behaviors becomes even more complicated when considering the current methods of treatment for problematic behaviors, and implementation of these strategies can become complex, if not impossible, within the use of technology.

Social Justice[edit]

The three major elements that comprise social justice include equity, fairness, and respect (Shriberg, 2014). The concept of social justice includes all individuals having equal access to opportunities and resources. A major component behind social justice is the idea of being culturally aware and sensitive. American Psychological Association (APA) and the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) both have ethical principles and codes of conduct that present aspirational elements of social justice that school psychologists may abide by. Although ethical principles exist, there is federal legislation that acts accordingly to social justice. For example, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA) address issues such as poverty and disability to promote the concept of social justice in schools (Shriberg & Moy, 2014).

Schools are becoming increasingly diverse with growing awareness of these differences. Cultural diversity factors that can be addressed through social justice practice include race/ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status (SES), religion, and sexual orientation. With the various elements that can impact a student's education and become a source of discrimination, there is a greater call for the practice of social justice in schools. School psychologists that consider the framework of social justice know that injustices that low SES students face can sometimes be different when compared to high SES students (NASP, 2019).

A major aspect of social justice involves advocating and speaking up for individuals as needed.  Advocacy can be done at district, regional, state, or national level (Power, 2008). In order to promote the best interests, not only do school psychologists advocate for the students, but for their parents and caregivers as well (NASP, 2019). Collaboration is a key component of school psychology and social justice. However, there are times when the team (administration, teachers, counselors, and school psychologists) may not see eye to eye for what type of changes should be made regarding a student's academic journey. Still, the school psychologist's job entails advocating for what lies in the best interest of the student (Shriberg & Moy, 2014).  Another way in which school psychologists can help advocate for students is by creating primary prevention programs. These prevention programs can be created for sexual minority students, homeless students, cyberbullying victims, and minority populations (Mulé et al., 2009).

In order to incorporate topics regarding social justice within a school, one could utilize lesson plans for students and staff. For instance, when working with students, the teachers need to ensure the content is connected to other meaningful topics covered in the class/school. Information should also be connected to current events in the community and country. For staff, it is important to look at one's own culture while seeing the value in diversity. It is also vital to learn how to adapt to diversity and integrate a comprehensive way to understand cultural knowledge. Staff members should keep the terms race, privilege, implicit bias, micro aggression, and cultural relevance in mind when thinking about social justice. School psychologists and staff members can help facilitate awareness through courageous conversations (NASP, 2019).

Multicultural competence[edit]

Ideally, school psychologists are competent when providing the 10 domains of practices and services. School psychologists are trained to use their skills, knowledge, and professional practices in promoting diversity and advocating for services for all students, families, teachers, and schools.[4]

Through training and experiences, multicultural competence for school psychologists extends to race, ethnicity, social class, gender, religion, sexual orientation, disability, age, and geographic region .[15] Some school psychologists realize the need to understand and accept their own cultural beliefs and values in order to understand the impact it may have when delivering services to clients and families.[15][16] For example, these school psychologists ensure that students who are minorities, including African Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans are being equally represented at the system level, in the classroom, and receiving special education services. School psychologists may also work with teachers and educators to provide an integrated multicultural education classroom and curriculum that allows more students to be represented in learning. School psychologists offer many types of services in order to be multiculturally competent. [17]

Services[edit]

Behavior interventions[edit]

School psychologists are involved in the implementation of academic, behavioral, and social/emotional interventions within a school across a continuum of supports. These systems and policies should convey clear behavior expectations and promote consistency among educators. Continuous reinforcement of positive behaviors can yield extremely positive results. [18] Schoolwide positive behavior supports A systematic approach that proactively promotes constructive behaviors in a school can yield positive outcomes. These programs are designed to improve and support students’ social, behavioral, and learning outcomes by promoting a positive school climate and providing targeted training to students and educators within a school.[19] Data should be collected consistently to assess implementation effectiveness, screen and monitor student behavior, and develop or modify action plans.[20]

Academic interventions[edit]

Academic interventions can be conceptualized as a set of procedures and strategies designed to improve student performance with the intent of closing the gap between how a student is currently performing and the expectations of how they should be performing. Short term and long term interventions used within a problem-solving model must be evidence-based. This means the intervention strategies must have been evaluated by research that utilized rigorous data analysis and peer review procedures to determine the effectiveness. Implementing evidence-based interventions for behavior and academic concerns requires significant training, skill development, and supervised practice. Linking assessment and intervention is critical for determining that the correct intervention has been chosen.[21] [22] School psychologists have been specifically trained to ensure that interventions are implemented with integrity to maximize positive outcomes for children in a school setting.

Systems-level services[edit]

Leaders in the field of school psychology recognize the practical challenges that school psychologists face when striving for systems-level change and have highlighted a more manageable domain within a systems-level approach – the classroom.[23] Overall, it makes sense for school psychologists to devote considerable effort to monitoring and improving school and classroom-based performance for all children and youth because it has been shown to be an effective preventive approach.[24]

Universal screening[edit]

School psychologists play an important role in supporting youth mental wellness, but identifying youth who are in distress can be challenging. Some schools have implemented universal mental health screening programs to help school psychologists find and help struggling youth. For instance, schools in King County, Washington are using the Check Yourself digital screening tool designed by Seattle Children's Hospital[25] to measure, understand, and nurture individual students’ well-being. Check Yourself collects information about lifestyle, behaviour, and social determinants of health to identify at-risk youth so that school psychologists can intervene and direct youth to the services they need.[26] Mental health screening provides school psychologists with valuable insights so that interventions are better fitted to student needs.

Crisis intervention[edit]

Crisis intervention is an integral part of school psychology. School administrators view school psychologists as the school's crisis intervention “experts”. Crisis events can significantly affect a student's ability to learn and function effectively. Many school crisis response models suggest that a quick return to normal rituals and routines can be helpful in coping with crises. The primary goal of crisis interventions is to help crisis-exposed students return to their basic abilities of problem-solving so the student can return to their pre-crisis level of functioning.[27][28]

Consultation[edit]

Consultation is done through a problem solving method that will allow the consultee to apply the same process to help other students without the intensive support of a school psychologist.[29]

Education[edit]

In order to become a school psychologist, one must first learn about school psychology by successfully completing a graduate-level training program.[30] A B.A. or B.S. is not sufficient.

United States[edit]

School psychology training programs are housed in university schools of education or departments of psychology. School psychology programs require courses, practica, and internships.

Degree requirements[edit]

Specific degree requirements vary across training programs. School psychology training programs offer masters-level (M.A., M.S., M.Ed.), specialist-level degrees (Ed.S., Psy.S., SSP, CAGS), and doctoral-level degrees (Ph.D., Psy.D. or Ed.D.) degrees. Regardless of degree title, a supervised internship is the defining feature of graduate-level training that leads to certification to practice as a school psychologist.

Specialist-level training typically requires 3–4 years of graduate training including a 9-month (1200 hour) internship in a school setting.

Doctoral-level training programs typically require 5–7 years of graduate training. Requirements typically include more coursework in core psychology and professional psychology, more advanced statistics coursework, involvement in research endeavors, a doctoral dissertation, and a one-year (1500+ hour) internship (which may be in a school or other settings such as clinics or hospitals).[31]

In the past, a master's degree was considered the standard for practice in schools. As of 2017, the specialist-level degree is considered the entry-level degree in school psychology.[32] Masters-level degrees in school psychology may lead to obtaining related credentials (such as Educational Diagnostician, Psychological Examiner, School Psychological Examiner, Psychometrist, School Psychometrist) in one or two states.

International[edit]

In the UK, the similar practice and study of School Psychology is more often termed Educational Psychology and requires a doctorate (in Educational Psychology) which then enables individuals to register and subsequently practice as a licensed educational psychologist.

Employment in the United States[edit]

Most school psychologists are employed in schools. Other school psychologists practice in other settings, including clinics, hospitals, forensic settings, correctional facilities, universities, and independent practice.[33] The job prospects in school psychology in the US are excellent. The US Department of Labor cites employment opportunities in school psychology at both the specialist and doctoral levels as among the best across all fields of psychology.[34]

Demographic information[edit]

According to the NASP Research Committee,[35] 74% of school psychologists are female with an average age of 46. In 2004-05, average earnings for school practitioners ranged from $56,262 for those with a 180-day annual contract to $68,764 for school psychologists with a 220-day contract. In 2009-10, average earnings for school practitioners ranged from $64,168 for those with a 180-day annual contract to $71,320 for school psychologists with a 200-day contract. For university faculty in school psychology, the salary estimate is $77,801.[36]

Based on surveys performed by NASP in 2009-2010, it's shown that 90.7% of school psychologists are white, while minority races make up the remaining 9.3%. Of this remaining percentage, the next largest populations represented in school psychology, are African-Americans and Hispanics, at 3% and 3.4% respectively.[14]

Shortages in the Field[edit]

There is a lack of trained school psychologists within the field. While jobs are available across the country, there are just not enough people to fill them.[14]

Due to the low supply and high demand of school psychologists, being a school psychologist is very demanding. School psychologists may feel under pressure to supply adequate mental health and intervention services to the students in their care.[37] Burnout is a risk of being a school psychologist.

Bilingual School Psychologists[edit]

Approximately 21% of school-age children ages 5-7 speak a language other than English.[38] For this reason, there is an enormous demand for bilingual school psychologists in the United States. The National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) does not currently offer bilingual certification in the field. However, there are a number of professional training opportunities that bilingual LSSPs/School Psychologists can attend in order to prepare to adequately administer assessments. In addition, there are 7 NASP-Approved school psychology programs that offer a bilingual specialization:

  • Brooklyn College-City University of New York- Specialist Level
  • Gallaudet University- Specialist Level
  • Queens College-City University of New York- Specialist Level
  • San Diego State University- Specialist Level
  • Texas State University- Specialist Level
  • University of Colorado Denver- Doctoral Level
  • Fordham University- Lincoln Center- Doctoral Level

New York and Illinois are the only two states that offer a bilingual credential for school psychologists.[39]

International School Psychology[edit]

The role of a school psychologist in the United States and Canada may differ considerably from the role of a school psychologist elsewhere.[40] Especially in the United States, the role of school psychologist has been closely linked to public law for education of students with disabilities. In most other nations, this is not the case. Despite this difference, many of the basic functions of a school psychologist, such as consultation, intervention, and assessment are shared by most school psychologists worldwide.

It is difficult to estimate the number of school psychologists worldwide. Recent surveys indicate there may be around 76,000 to 87,000 school psychologists practicing in 48 countries, including 32,300 in the United States and 3,500 in Canada.[41][42] Following the United States, Turkey has the next largest estimated number of school psychologists (11,327), followed by Spain (3,600), and then both Canada and Japan (3,500 each).

Credentialing[edit]

In order to work as a school psychologist, one must first meet the state requirements. In most states (excluding Texas and Hawaii), a state education agency credentials school psychologists for practice in the schools.[43]

The Nationally Certified School Psychologist (NCSP) credential offered by the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP). The NCSP credential is an example of a non-practice credential as holding the NCSP does not make one eligible to provide services without first meeting the state requirements to work as a school psychologist.

State psychology boards (which may go by different names in each state) also offer credentials for school psychologists in some states.[43] For example, Texas offers the LSSP credential which permits licensees to deliver school psychological services within public and private schools.[44]

Subspecializations[edit]

  • Pediatric School Psychology
  • Systems Level Consultation
  • School Based Mental Health
  • Behavioral School Psychology

Professional organizations in the United States[edit]

  • National Association of School Psychologists
  • American Psychological Association

Journals and other publications[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Phillips 1990.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Fagan 1992.
  3. ^ a b c d Ysseldyke & Schakel, 1983
  4. ^ a b c d Fagan, 2005
  5. ^ D'Amato, Zafiris, McConnell & Dean, 2011
  6. ^ "APA Model Act for State Licensure of Psychologists" (PDF).
  7. ^ a b c d e Routh 1996.
  8. ^ a b c d Merrell, Ervin & Gimpel 2006.
  9. ^ History of School Psychology 2012.
  10. ^ Plotts & Lasser 2013.
  11. ^ Gertrude Hildreth.
  12. ^ Saretzky 2012.
  13. ^ "The Shield or the Sword? Revisiting the Debate on Racial Disproportionality in Special Education and Implications for School Psychologists". National Association of School Psychologists (NASP). Retrieved 2019-12-09.
  14. ^ a b c Harrison, Patti; Thomas, Alex (2014). Best Practices in School Psychology: Foundations. Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychology. pp. 383, 385, 475–487. ISBN 978 0932955-56-2.
  15. ^ a b Toward multiculturalism competence: A practical model for implementation in the schools et al., p. 1-15.
  16. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-05-14. Retrieved 2012-04-10.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  17. ^ "Resources & Podcasts".
  18. ^ McGraw, K., & Koonce, D. (2011). Role of the school psychologist: Orchestrating the continuum of school-wide positive behavior support. Comminique,39 (8)
  19. ^ Sullivan, A. L., A’vant, E., Baker, J., Chandler, D., Graves, S., McKinney, E., et al. (2009). Confronting inequity in special education, part I: Understanding the problem of disproportionality. Communiqué, 38(1), 1, 14–15.
  20. ^ Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (2009). Defining and describing schoolwide positive behavior support. In W. Sailor, G. Dunlap, G. Sugai, & R. H. Horner (Eds.), Handbook of positive behavior support (pp. 307–326). New York, NY: Springer
  21. ^ Batsche, G. M., Castillo, J. M., Dixon, D. N., & Forde, S. (2008). Best practices in linking assessment to intervention. Bethesda, MD: NASP Publications.
  22. ^ Upah, K. R. F. (2008). Best practices in designing, implementing, and evaluating quality interventions. Bethesda, MD: NASP Publications.
  23. ^ Noell 2008.
  24. ^ Lehr, C. A., & Christenson, S. L. (2002). Best practices promoting a positive school climate. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best Practices in School Psychology (4th ed.) (p. 930). Bethesda, MD: NASP Publications.
  25. ^ http://teenhealthcheck.org
  26. ^ http://www.jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2733175
  27. ^ Lauren Bolnik and Stephen E. Brock (2005). "The Self-Reported Effects of Crisis Intervention Work on School Psychologists" (PDF). The California School Psychologist, Volume 10. Retrieved 2013-05-12.[permanent dead link]
  28. ^ Harrison, Patti; Thomas, Alex (2014). "15: Best Practices in School Crisis Intervention". Best Practices in School Psychology: Systems-Level Services. Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologist. pp. 211–230. ISBN 9780932955-55-5.
  29. ^ Akin-Little, A., Little, S. G., Bray, M. A., & Kehle, T. A. (Eds.). (2009). Behavioral interventions in schools: Evidence-based positive strategies. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association (pp. 14-19)
  30. ^ "Graduate Student Fact Sheets". National Association of School Psychologists (NASP). Retrieved 2020-07-05.
  31. ^ Committee on Accreditation 2008.
  32. ^ Overview of Differences Among Degrees in School Psychology Developed by the National Association of School Psychologists, April 2017.
  33. ^ American Board of Professional Psychology (n.d.). Specialty certification in school psychology. Brochure retrieved on January 31, 2008 from American Board of Professional Psychology.
  34. ^ United States Department of Labor Occupational Outlook Handbook (OOH), 2006-2007 Edition. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
  35. ^ National Association of School Psychologists Research Committee (2007). Demographics of the profession of school psychology. Retrieved on December 29, 2007 from University of California, Santa Barbara.[permanent dead link]
  36. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-07-02. Retrieved 2013-07-04.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  37. ^ "School psychologists feel the squeeze". http://www.apa.org. Retrieved 2018-12-01. External link in |website= (help)
  38. ^ Aud, S., Hussar, W., Kena, G., Bianco, K., Frohlich, L., Kemp, J., & Tahan, K. (2011, May). The Condition of Education 2011 (NCES 2011-033). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education.
  39. ^ "Bilingual School Psychology Certification".
  40. ^ Merrell, K. W., Ervin, R. A., & Gimpel, G. A. (2012). School psychology for the 21st century: Foundations and practices (2nd edition). New York: Guilford.
  41. ^ Jimerson, S. R., Steward, K., Skokut, M., Cardenas, S., & Malone, H. (2009). How many school psychologists are there in each country of the world? International estimates of school psychologists and school psychologist-to-student ratios. School Psychology International, 30, 555-567.
  42. ^ Oakland, T. D., & Cunningham, J. (1992). A survey of school psychology in developed and developing countries. School Psychology International, 13, 99-129.
  43. ^ a b "State Credentialing FAQs". National Association of School Psychologists (NASP). Retrieved 2020-07-05.
  44. ^ "Texas Administrative Code". texreg.sos.state.tx.us. Retrieved 2020-07-05.

Works cited and further reading[edit]

  • American Psychological Association Commission for the Recognition of Specialties and Proficiencies in Professional Psychology (n.d.). Archival description of school psychology. Retrieved on December 29, 2007 from American Psychological Association
  • Committee on Accreditation (January 1, 2008), Guidelines and principles for accreditation of programs in professional psychology, Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, retrieved 2007-06-06
  • Curtis, M.J.; Castillo, J.M.; Cohen, R.M. (2009). "Best practices in systems-level change". Communique Online. 38 (2). Archived from the original on 2010-01-23. Retrieved 2012-04-09.
  • Fagan, Thomas K. (1992). "Compulsory Schooling, Child Study, Clinical Psychology, and Special Education: Origins of School Psychology". American Psychologist. 47 (2): 236–243. doi:10.1037/0003-066x.47.2.236. ISSN 0003-066X.
  • Fagan, T. K. (1996). Witmer's contributions to school psychological services. American Psychologist, 51.
  • Fagan, T. K. & Wise, P. S. (2007). School Psychology: Past, present, and future, (3rd ed.). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.
  • Gertrude Hildreth, North Central College, Alumni Association
  • Harrison, P. L. & Thomas, A. (Eds.). (2014). Best practices in school psychology. Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.
  • History of School Psychology, 2012
  • Merrell, K. W., Ervin, R. A., & Gimpel, G. A. (2006). School psychology for the 21st century. NY: Guilford.
  • Merrell, Kenneth W.; Ervin, Ruth A.; Gimpel, Gretchen (2006). School Psychology for the 21st Century: Foundations and Practices. Guilford Press. ISBN 978-1-59385-250-4.
  • Mulé, C., Lippus, K., Santora, K., Cicala, G., Smith, B., Cataldo, J., & Li, C. (2009, June). Advancing social justice through primary prevention. Communique. Retrieved from https://www.nasponline.org/publications/periodicals/communique/issues/volume-37-issue-8/advancing-social-justice-through-primary-prevention
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