The district got its name from the two predominant landscapes in the district. The Black Forest (Schwarzwald), and the Baar, the foothills between the Black Forest and the Swabian Alb. Both the Danube River and the Neckar River have their origins in the Schwarzwald and Baar district.
The coat of arms is modeled after the two coat of arms of the cities Villingen and Schwenningen. Villingen had a horizontally divided blue-and-white arms, while Schwenningen had a vertically divided blue-and-white arms. Combining both divisions give the four fields. The eagle in the top-left quarter is taken from the coat of arms of the city Villingen, and derives from the Zähringen family who ruled that city in the 13th century.