Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction that typically deals with imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, parallel universes, and extraterrestrial life. It has been called the "literature of ideas", and often explores the potential consequences of scientific, social, and technological innovations.
Science fiction, whose roots go back to ancient times, is related to fantasy, horror, and superhero fiction, and contains many subgenres. Its exact definition has long been disputed among authors, critics, scholars, and readers.
Science fiction literature, film, television, and other media have become popular and influential over much of the world. Besides providing entertainment, it can also criticize present-day society, and is often said to inspire a "sense of wonder".
American science fiction author and editor Lester del Rey wrote, "Even the devoted aficionado or fan—has a hard time trying to explain what science fiction is," and the lack of a "full satisfactory definition" is because "there are no easily delineated limits to science fiction." Whereas, according to Isaac Asimov, "Science fiction can be defined as that branch of literature which deals with the reaction of human beings to changes in science and technology." Furthermore, Robert A. Heinlein wrote that "A handy short definition of almost all science fiction might read: realistic speculation about possible future events, based solidly on adequate knowledge of the real world, past and present, and on a thorough understanding of the nature and significance of the scientific method." Damon Knight summed up the difficulty, saying "science fiction is what we point to when we say it."
Forrest J Ackerman is credited with first using the term "sci-fi" (analogous to the then-trendy "hi-fi") in 1954. As science fiction entered popular culture, writers and fans active in the field came to associate the term with low-budget, low-tech "B-movies," and with low-quality pulp science fiction. By the 1970s, critics within the field, such as Damon Knight and Terry Carr, were using "sci fi" to distinguish hack-work from serious science fiction. Peter Nicholls writes that "SF" (or "sf") is "the preferred abbreviation within the community of sf writers and readers." Robert Heinlein found even "science fiction" insufficient for certain types of works in this genre, and suggested the term speculative fiction to be used instead for those that are more "serious" or "thoughtful."
Science fiction had its beginnings in ancient times, when the line between myth and fact was blurred. Written in the 2nd century CE by the satirist Lucian, A True Story contains many themes and tropes characteristic of modern science fiction, including travel to other worlds, extraterrestrial lifeforms, interplanetary warfare, and artificial life. Some consider it the first science-fiction novel. Some of the stories from The Arabian Nights, along with the 10th-century The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter and Ibn al-Nafis's 13th-century Theologus Autodidactus, also contain elements of science fiction.
Written during the Scientific Revolution and the Age of Enlightenment, Johannes Kepler's Somnium (1634), Francis Bacon's New Atlantis (1627), Athanasius Kircher's Itinerarium extaticum (1656), Cyrano de Bergerac's Comical History of the States and Empires of the Moon (1657) and The States and Empires of the Sun (1662), Margaret Cavendish's "The Blazing World" (1666), Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels (1726), Ludvig Holberg's Nicolai Klimii Iter Subterraneum (1741) and Voltaire's Micromégas (1752) are regarded as some of the first true science-fantasy works. Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan considered Somnium the first science-fiction story; it depicts a journey to the Moon and how the Earth's motion is seen from there.
Following the 17th-century development of the novel as a literary form, Mary Shelley's Frankenstein (1818) and The Last Man (1826) helped define the form of the science-fiction novel. Brian Aldiss has argued that Frankenstein was the first work of science fiction. Edgar Allan Poe wrote several stories considered to be science fiction, including "The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall" (1835) which featured a trip to the Moon. Jules Verne was noted for his attention to detail and scientific accuracy, especially in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea (1870). In 1887, the novel El anacronópete by Spanish author Enrique Gaspar y Rimbau introduced the first time machine.
Many critics consider H. G. Wells one of science fiction's most important authors, or even "the Shakespeare of science fiction." His notable science-fiction works include The Time Machine (1895), The Island of Doctor Moreau (1896), The Invisible Man (1897), and The War of the Worlds (1898). His science fiction imagined alien invasion, biological engineering, invisibility, and time travel. In his non-fiction futurologist works he predicted the advent of airplanes, military tanks, nuclear weapons, satellite television, space travel, and something resembling the World Wide Web.
Edgar Rice Burroughs' A Princess of Mars, published in 1912, was the first of his three-decade-long planetary romance series of Barsoom novels which were set on Mars and featured John Carter as the hero. In 1926, Hugo Gernsback published the first American science-fiction magazine, Amazing Stories. In its first issue he wrote:
By 'scientifiction' I mean the Jules Verne, H. G. Wells and Edgar Allan Poe type of story—a charming romance intermingled with scientific fact and prophetic vision... Not only do these amazing tales make tremendously interesting reading—they are always instructive. They supply knowledge... in a very palatable form... New adventures pictured for us in the scientifiction of today are not at all impossible of realization tomorrow... Many great science stories destined to be of historical interest are still to be written... Posterity will point to them as having blazed a new trail, not only in literature and fiction, but progress as well.
In 1928, E. E. "Doc" Smith's first published work, The Skylark of Space, written in collaboration with Lee Hawkins Garby, appeared in Amazing Stories. It is often called the first great space opera. The same year, Philip Francis Nowlan's original Buck Rogers story, Armageddon 2419, also appeared in Amazing Stories. This was followed by a Buck Rogers comic strip, the first serious science-fiction comic.
In 1937, John W. Campbell became editor of Astounding Science Fiction, an event which is sometimes considered the beginning of the Golden Age of Science Fiction, which is characterized by stories celebrating scientific achievement and progress. In 1942, Isaac Asimov started his Foundation series, which chronicles the rise and fall of galactic empires and introduced psychohistory. The series was later awarded a one-time Hugo Award for "Best All-Time Series." The "Golden Age" is often said to have ended in 1946, but sometimes the late 1940s and the 1950s are included.
Theodore Sturgeon's More Than Human (1953) explored possible future human evolution. In 1957, Andromeda: A Space-Age Tale by the Russian writer and paleontologist Ivan Yefremov presented a view of a future interstellar communist civilization and is considered one of the most important Soviet science fiction novels. In 1959, Robert A. Heinlein's Starship Troopers marked a departure from his earlier juvenile stories and novels. It is one of the first and most influential examples of military science fiction, and introduced the concept of powered armor exoskeletons. The German space opera series Perry Rhodan, written by various authors, started in 1961 with an account of the first Moon landing and has since expanded in space to multiple universes, and in time by billions of years. It has become the most popular science fiction book series of all time.
In the 1960s and 1970s, New Wave science fiction was known for its embrace of a high degree of experimentation, both in form and in content, and a highbrow and self-consciously "literary" or "artistic" sensibility. In 1961, Solaris by Stanisław Lem was published in Poland. The novel dealt with the theme of human limitations as its characters attempted to study a seemingly intelligent ocean on a newly discovered planet. 1965's Dune by Frank Herbert featured a much more complex and detailed imagined future society than had previous science fiction.
In 1967 Anne McCaffrey began her Dragonriders of Pern science fantasy series. Two of the novellas included in the first novel, Dragonflight, made McCaffrey the first woman to win a Hugo or Nebula Award. In 1968, Philip K. Dick's Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?, was published. It is the literary source of the Blade Runner movie franchise. 1969's The Left Hand of Darkness by Ursula K. Le Guin was set on a planet in which the inhabitants have no fixed gender. It is one of the most influential examples of social science fiction, feminist science fiction, and anthropological science fiction.
In 1979, Science Fiction World began publication in the People's Republic of China. It dominates the Chinese science fiction magazine market, at one time claiming a circulation of 300,000 copies per issue and an estimated 3-5 readers per copy (giving it a total estimated readership of at least 1 million), making it the world's most popular science fiction periodical. In 1984, William Gibson's first novel, Neuromancer, helped popularize cyberpunk and the word "cyberspace," a term he originally coined in his 1982 short story Burning Chrome. In 1986, Shards of Honor by Lois McMaster Bujold began her Vorkosigan Saga. 1992's Snow Crash by Neal Stephenson predicted immense social upheaval due to the information revolution.
In 2007, Liu Cixin's novel, The Three-Body Problem, was published in China. It was translated into English by Ken Liu and published by Tor Books in 2014, and won the 2015 Hugo Award for Best Novel, making Liu the first Asian writer to win the award.
Emerging themes in late 20th and early 21st century science fiction include environmental issues, the implications of the Internet and the expanding information universe, questions about biotechnology, nanotechnology, and post-scarcity societies. Recent trends and subgenres include steampunk, biopunk, and mundane science fiction.
The first, or at least one of the first, recorded science fiction film is 1902's A Trip to the Moon, directed by French filmmaker Georges Méliès. It was profoundly influential on later filmmakers, bringing a different kind of creativity and fantasy to the cinematic medium. In addition, Méliès's innovative editing and special effects techniques were widely imitated and became important elements of the medium.
1927's Metropolis, directed by Fritz Lang, is the first feature-length science fiction film. Though not well received in its time, it is now considered a great and influential film. In 1954, Godzilla, directed by Ishirō Honda, began the kaiju subgenre of science fiction film, which feature large creatures of any form, usually attacking a major city or engaging other monsters in battle.
1968's 2001: A Space Odyssey, directed by Stanley Kubrick and based on the work of Arthur C. Clarke, rose above the mostly B-movie offerings up to that time both in scope and quality, and greatly influenced later science fiction films. That same year, Planet of the Apes (the original), directed by Franklin J. Schaffner and based on the 1963 French novel La Planète des Singes by Pierre Boulle, was released to popular and critical acclaim, due in large part to its vivid depiction of a post-apocalyptic world in which intelligent apes dominate humans.
In 1977, George Lucas began the Star Wars film series with the film now identified as "Star Wars: Episode IV – A New Hope." The series, often called a space opera, went on to become a worldwide popular culture phenomenon, and the second-highest-grossing film series of all time.
Since the 1980s, science fiction films, along with fantasy, horror, and superhero films, have dominated Hollywood's big-budget productions. Science fiction films often "cross-over" with other genres, including animation (WALL-E - 2008, Big Hero 6 - 2014), gangster (Sky Racket - 1937), Western (Serenity - 2005), comedy (Spaceballs -1987, Galaxy Quest - 1999), war (Enemy Mine - 1985), action (Edge of Tomorrow - 2014, The Matrix - 1999), adventure (Jupiter Ascending - 2015, Interstellar - 2014), sports (Rollerball - 1975), mystery (Minority Report - 2002), thriller (Ex Machina - 2014), horror (Alien - 1979), film noir (Blade Runner - 1982), superhero (Marvel Cinematic Universe - 2008-), drama (Melancholia - 2011, Predestination - 2014), and romance (Her (film) - 2013).
Science fiction and television have consistently been in a close relationship. Television or television-like technologies frequently appeared in science fiction long before television itself became widely available in the late 1940s and early 1950s.
The first known science fiction television program was a thirty-five-minute adapted excerpt of the play RUR, written by the Czech playwright Karel Čapek, broadcast live from the BBC's Alexandra Palace studios on 11 February 1938. The first popular science fiction program on American television was the children's adventure serial Captain Video and His Video Rangers, which ran from June 1949 to April 1955.
The Twilight Zone (the original series), produced and narrated by Rod Serling, who also wrote or co-wrote most of the episodes, ran from 1959 to 1964. It featured fantasy, suspense, and horror as well as science fiction, with each episode being a complete story. Critics have ranked it as one of the best TV programs of any genre.
The animated series The Jetsons, while intended as comedy and only running for one season (1962–1963), predicted many inventions now in common use: flat-screen televisions, newspapers on a computer-like screen, computer viruses, video chat, tanning beds, home treadmills, and more. In 1963, the time travel-themed Doctor Who premiered on BBC Television. The original series ran until 1989 and was revived in 2005. It has been extremely popular worldwide and has greatly influenced later TV science fiction. Other programs in the 1960s included The Outer Limits (1963-1965), Lost in Space (1965-1968), and The Prisoner (1967).
Star Trek (the original series), created by Gene Roddenberry, premiered in 1966 on NBC Television and ran for three seasons. It combined elements of space opera and Space Western. Only mildly successful at first, the series gained popularity through syndication and extraordinary fan interest. It became a very popular and influential franchise with many films, television shows, novels, and other works and products. Star Trek: The Next Generation (1987-1994) led to four additional Star Trek shows (Deep Space 9 (1993-1999), Voyager (1995-2001), Enterprise (2001-2005), and Discovery (2017–present))--with more in some form of development.
The miniseries V premiered in 1983 on NBC. It depicted an attempted takeover of Earth by reptilian aliens. Red Dwarf, a comic science fiction series aired on BBC Two between 1988 and 1999, and on Dave since 2009. The X-Files, which featured UFOs and conspiracy theories, was created by Chris Carter and broadcast by Fox Broadcasting Company from 1993 to 2002, and again from 2016 to 2018. Stargate, a film about ancient astronauts and interstellar teleportation, was released in 1994. Stargate SG-1 premiered in 1997 and ran for 10 seasons (1997-2007). Spin-off series included Stargate Infinity (2002-2003), Stargate Atlantis (2004-2009), and Stargate Universe (2009-2011). Other 1990s series included Quantum Leap (1989-1993) and Babylon 5 (1994-1999).
Science fiction's great rise in popularity during the first half of the 20th century was closely tied to the popular respect paid to science at that time, as well as the rapid pace of technological innovation and new inventions. Science fiction has often predicted scientific and technological progress. Some works predict that new inventions and progress will tend to improve life and society, for instance the stories of Arthur C. Clarke and Star Trek. Others, such as H.G. Wells's The Time Machine and Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, warn about possible negative consequences.
In 2001 the National Science Foundation conducted a survey on "Public Attitudes and Public Understanding: Science Fiction and Pseudoscience." It found that people who read or prefer science fiction may think about or relate to science differently than other people. They also tend to support the space program and the idea of contacting extraterrestrial civilizations. Carl Sagan wrote: "Many scientists deeply involved in the exploration of the solar system (myself among them) were first turned in that direction by science fiction."
Brian Aldiss described science fiction as "cultural wallpaper." Evidence for this widespread influence can be found in trends for writers to employ science fiction as a tool for advocacy and generating cultural insights, as well as for educators when teaching across a range of academic disciplines not limited to the natural sciences. Scholar and science fiction critic George Edgar Slusser said that science fiction "is the one real international literary form we have today, and as such has branched out to visual media, interactive media and on to whatever new media the world will invent in the 21st century. Crossover issues between the sciences and the humanities are crucial for the century to come."
As protest literature
Science fiction has sometimes been used as a means of social protest. George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949) is an important work of dystopian science fiction. It is often invoked in protests against governments and leaders who are seen as totalitarian. James Cameron's 2009 film Avatar was intended as a protest against imperialism, and specifically the European colonization of the Americas. Its images have been used by, among others, Palestinians in their protests against the State of Israel.
Robots, artificial humans, human clones, intelligent computers, and their possible conflicts with human society have all been major themes of science fiction since, at least, the publication of Shelly's Frankenstein. Some critics have seen this as reflecting authors’ concerns over the social alienation seen in modern society.
Feminist science fiction poses questions about social issues such as how society constructs gender roles, the role reproduction plays in defining gender, and the inequitable political or personal power of one gender over others. Some works have illustrated these themes using utopias to explore a society in which gender differences or gender power imbalances do not exist, or dystopias to explore worlds in which gender inequalities are intensified, thus asserting a need for feminist work to continue.
Climate fiction, or "cli-fi," deals with issues concerning climate change and global warming. University courses on literature and environmental issues may include climate change fiction in their syllabi, and it is often discussed by other media outside of science fiction fandom.
Libertarian science fiction focuses on the politics and social order implied by right libertarian philosophies with an emphasis on individualism and private property, and in some cases anti-statism.
Sense of wonder
Science fiction is often said to inspire a "sense of wonder." Science fiction editor and critic David Hartwell wrote: "Science fiction’s appeal lies in combination of the rational, the believable, with the miraculous. It is an appeal to the sense of wonder." Carl Sagan said: "One of the great benefits of science fiction is that it can convey bits and pieces, hints and phrases, of knowledge unknown or inaccessible to the reader . . . works you ponder over as the water is running out of the bathtub or as you walk through the woods in an early winter snowfall."
In 1967, Isaac Asimov commented on the changes then occurring in the science fiction community: "And because today’s real life so resembles day-before-yesterday’s fantasy, the old-time fans are restless. Deep within, whether they admit it or not, is a feeling of disappointment and even outrage that the outer world has invaded their private domain. They feel the loss of a 'sense of wonder' because what was once truly confined to 'wonder' has now become prosaic and mundane."
Science fiction studies
The study of science fiction, or science fiction studies, is the critical assessment, interpretation, and discussion of science fiction literature, film, TV shows, new media, fandom, and fan fiction. Science fiction scholars study science fiction to better understand it and its relationship to science, technology, politics, other genres, and culture-at-large. Science fiction studies began around the turn of the 20th century, but it was not until later that science fiction studies solidified as a discipline with the publication of the academic journals Extrapolation (1959), Foundation: The International Review of Science Fiction (1972), and Science Fiction Studies (1973), and the establishment of the oldest organizations devoted to the study of science fiction in 1970, the Science Fiction Research Association and the Science Fiction Foundation. The field has grown considerably since the 1970s with the establishment of more journals, organizations, and conferences, as well as science fiction degree-granting programs such as those offered by the University of Liverpool and the University of Kansas.
Science fiction has historically been sub-divided between hard science fiction and soft science fiction–with the division centering on the feasibility of the science central to the story. However, this distinction has come under increasing scrutiny in the 21st century. Some authors, such as Tade Thompson and Jeff VanderMeer, have pointed out that stories that focus explicitly on physics, astronomy, mathematics, and engineering tend to be considered "hard" science fiction, while stories that focus on botany, mycology, zoology, and the social sciences tend to be categorized as "soft," regardless of the relative rigor of the science.
Max Gladstone defined "hard" science fiction as stories "where the math works," but pointed out that this ends up with stories that often seem "weirdly dated," as scientific paradigms shift over time. Michael Swanwick dismissed the traditional definition of "hard" SF altogether, instead saying that it was defined by characters striving to solve problems "in the right way–with determination, a touch of stoicism, and the consciousness that the universe is not on his or her side."
Ursula K. Le Guin also criticized the more traditional view on the difference between "hard" and "soft" SF: "The 'hard' science fiction writers dismiss everything except, well, physics, astronomy, and maybe chemistry. Biology, sociology, anthropology—that's not science to them, that's soft stuff. They're not that interested in what human beings do, really. But I am. I draw on the social sciences a great deal."
As serious literature
Respected authors of mainstream literature have written science fiction. Mary Shelley wrote a number of science fiction novels including Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus (1818), and is considered a major writer of the Romantic Age. Aldous Huxley's Brave New World (1932) is often listed as one of England's most important novels, both for its criticism of modern culture and its prediction of future trends including reproductive technology and social engineering. Kurt Vonnegut was a highly respected American author whose works contain science fiction premises or themes. Other science fiction authors whose works are widely considered to be "serious" literature include Ray Bradbury (including, especially, Fahrenheit 451 (1953) and The Martian Chronicles (1951)), Arthur C. Clarke (especially for Childhood's End), and Paul Myron Anthony Linebarger, writing under the name Cordwainer Smith. In his book "The Western Canon", literary critic Harold Bloom includes Brave New World, Solaris, Cat's Cradle (1963) by Vonnegut, and The Left Hand of Darkness as culturally and aesthetically significant works of western literature.
David Barnett has pointed out that there are books such as The Road (2006) by Cormac McCarthy, Cloud Atlas (2004) by David Mitchell, The Gone-Away World (2008) by Nick Harkaway, The Stone Gods (2007) by Jeanette Winterson, and Oryx and Crake (2003) by Margaret Atwood, which use recognizable science fiction tropes, but whose authors and publishers do not market them as science fiction. Doris Lessing, who was later awarded the Nobel Prize in literature, wrote a series of five SF novels, Canopus in Argos: Archives (1979-1983), which depict the efforts of more advanced species and civilizations to influence those less advanced, including humans on Earth.
In her much reprinted 1976 essay "Science Fiction and Mrs Brown," Ursula K. Le Guin was asked: "Can a science fiction writer write a novel?" She answered: "I believe that all novels, . . . deal with character, and that it is to express character–not to preach doctrines [or] sing songs... that the form of the novel, so clumsy, verbose, and undramatic, so rich, elastic, and alive, has been evolved. . . . The great novelists have brought us to see whatever they wish us to see through some character. Otherwise they would not be novelists, but poets, historians, or pamphleteers." Orson Scott Card, best known for his 1985 science fiction novel Ender's Game, has postulated that in science fiction the message and intellectual significance of the work is contained within the story itself and, therefore, does not need stylistic gimmicks or literary games.
Jonathan Lethem, in a 1998 essay in the Village Voice entitled "Close Encounters: The Squandered Promise of Science Fiction," suggested that the point in 1973 when Thomas Pynchon's Gravity's Rainbow was nominated for the Nebula Award and was passed over in favor of Clarke's Rendezvous with Rama, stands as "a hidden tombstone marking the death of the hope that SF was about to merge with the mainstream." In the same year science fiction author and physicist Gregory Benford wrote: "SF is perhaps the defining genre of the twentieth century, although its conquering armies are still camped outside the Rome of the literary citadels."
Science fiction is being written, and has been written, by diverse authors from around the world. According to 2013 statistics by the science fiction publisher Tor Books, men outnumber women by 78% to 22% among submissions to the publisher. A controversy about voting slates in the 2015 Hugo Awards highlighted tensions in the science fiction community between a trend of increasingly diverse works and authors being honored by awards, and reaction by groups of authors and fans who preferred what they considered more "traditional" science fiction.
Among the most respected and well-known awards for science fiction are the Hugo Award for literature, presented by the World Science Fiction Society at Worldcon, and voted on by fans; the Nebula Award for literature, presented by the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America, and voted on by the community of authors; the John W. Campbell Memorial Award for Best Science Fiction Novel, presented by a jury of writers; and the Theodore Sturgeon Memorial Award for short fiction, presented by a jury. One notable award for science fiction films and TV programs is the Saturn Award, which is presented annually by The Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy, and Horror Films.
There are other national awards, like Canada's Prix Aurora Awards, regional awards, like the Endeavour Award presented at Orycon for works from the U.S. Pacific Northwest, and special interest or subgenre awards such as the Chesley Award for art, presented by the Association of Science Fiction & Fantasy Artists, or the World Fantasy Award for fantasy. Magazines may organize reader polls, notably the Locus Award.
Conventions, clubs, and organizations
Conventions (in fandom, often shortened as "cons," such as "comic-con") are held in cities around the world, catering to a local, regional, national, or international membership. General-interest conventions cover all aspects of science fiction, while others focus on a particular interest like media fandom, filking, and so on. Most science fiction conventions are organized by volunteers in non-profit groups, though most media-oriented events are organized by commercial promoters. The convention's activities are called the program, which may include panel discussions, readings, autograph sessions, costume masquerades, and other events. Additional activities occur throughout the convention that are not part of the program. These commonly include a dealer's room, art show, and hospitality lounge (or "con suites").
Conventions may host award ceremonies. For instance, Worldcon presents the Hugo Awards each year. SF societies, referred to as "clubs" except in formal contexts, form a year-round base of activities for science fiction fans. They may be associated with an ongoing science fiction convention, or have regular club meetings, or both. Long-established groups like the New England Science Fiction Association and the Los Angeles Science Fantasy Society have clubhouses for meetings and storage of convention supplies and research materials. The Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America (SFWA) was founded by Damon Knight in 1965 as a non-profit organization to serve the community of professional science fiction authors.
Fandom and fanzines
Science fiction fandom is the "community of the literature of ideas[,] . . . the culture in which new ideas emerge and grow before being released into society at large." Members of this community ("fans"), as discussed above, are often in contact with each other at conventions or clubs, through print or online fanzines, or on the Internet using websites, mailing lists, and other resources. SF fandom emerged from the letters column in Amazing Stories magazine: soon fans began writing letters to each other, and then grouping their comments together in informal publications that became known as fanzines. Once they were in regular contact, fans wanted to meet each other, and they organized local clubs. In the 1930s, the first science fiction conventions gathered fans from a wider area.
The earliest organized online fandom was the SF Lovers Community, originally a mailing list in the late 1970s with a text archive file that was updated regularly. In the 1980s, Usenet groups greatly expanded the circle of fans online. In the 1990s, the development of the World-Wide Web exploded the community of online fandom by orders of magnitude, with thousands and then millions of websites devoted to science fiction and related genres for all media. Most such sites are relatively small, ephemeral, and/or narrowly focused, though sites like SF Site and SFcrowsnest offer a broad range of references and reviews.
The first science fiction fanzine, The Comet, was published in 1930 by the Science Correspondence Club in Chicago, Illinois. Fanzine printing methods have changed over the decades, from the hectograph, the mimeograph, and the ditto machine, to modern photocopying. Distribution volumes rarely justify the cost of commercial printing. Contemporary fanzines are largely printed on computer printers or at local copy shops, or they may only be sent as email (termed "Ezines") or otherwise made available online (termed "webzines"). One of the best known fanzines today is Ansible, edited by David Langford, winner of numerous Hugo awards. Other notable fanzines to win one or more Hugo awards include File 770, Mimosa, and Plokta. Artists working for fanzines have frequently risen to prominence in the field, including Brad W. Foster, Teddy Harvia, and Joe Mayhew; the Hugos include a category for Best Fan Artists.
Science fiction elements can include, among others:
- Temporal settings in the future, or in alternative histories.
- Spatial settings or scenes in outer space, on other worlds, in subterranean earth, or in parallel universes.
- Aspects of biology in fiction such as aliens, mutants, and enhanced humans.
- Predicted or speculative technology such as brain-computer interface, bio-engineering, superintelligent computers, robots, and ray guns and other advanced weapons.
- Undiscovered scientific possibilities such as teleportation, time travel, and faster-than-light travel or communication.
- New and different political and social systems and situations, including Utopian, dystopian, post-apocalyptic, or post-scarcity.
- Future history and evolution of humans on Earth or on other planets.
- Paranormal abilities such as mind control, telepathy, and telekinesis.
- Australian science fiction
- Bengali science fiction
- Black science fiction
- Brazilian science fiction
- Canadian science fiction
- Chinese science fiction
- Croatian science fiction
- Czech science fiction and fantasy
- French science fiction
- Japanese science fiction
- Norwegian science fiction
- Science fiction in Poland
- Romanian science fiction
- Russian science fiction and fantasy
- Serbian science fiction
- Spanish science fiction
- Yugoslav science fiction
- Anthropological science fiction
- Apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic fiction
- Christian science fiction
- Climate fiction
- Comic science fiction
- Dying Earth
- Feminist science fiction
- Gothic science fiction
- Libertarian science fiction
- Military science fiction
- Mundane science fiction
- Planetary romance
- Social science fiction
- Space opera
- Space Western
- Outline of science fiction
- History of science fiction
- Timeline of science fiction
- Fantastic art
- Fictional worlds
- Futures studies
- List of comic science fiction
- List of religious ideas in science fiction
- List of science fiction and fantasy artists
- List of science fiction authors
- List of science fiction films
- List of science fiction novels
- List of science fiction television programs
- List of science fiction themes
- List of science fiction universes
- Planets in science fiction
- Political ideas in science fiction
- Robots in science fiction
- Science fiction comics
- Science fiction libraries and museums
- Science in science fiction
- Technology in science fiction
- Time travel in fiction
- Marg Gilks; Paula Fleming & Moira Allen (2003). "Science Fiction: The Literature of Ideas". WritingWorld.com. Archived from the original on 15 May 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2006.
- von Thorn, Alexander (August 2002). "Aurora Award acceptance speech". Calgary, Alberta. Cite journal requires
- Prucher, Jeff (ed.). Brave New Words. The Oxford Dictionary of Science Fiction (Oxford University Press, 2007) page 179
- Del Rey, Lester (1980). The World of Science Fiction 1926–1976. Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0-345-25452-8.
- Asimov, "How Easy to See the Future!", Natural History, 1975
- Heinlein, Robert A.; Cyril Kornbluth; Alfred Bester; Robert Bloch (1959). The Science Fiction Novel: Imagination and Social Criticism. University of Chicago: Advent Publishers.
- Knight, Damon Francis (1967). In Search of Wonder: Essays on Modern Science Fiction. Advent Publishing, Inc. p. xiii. ISBN 978-0-911682-31-1.
- "Forrest J Ackerman, 92; Coined the Term 'Sci-Fi'". Washingtonpost.com. Archived from the original on 22 October 2017. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- Whittier, Terry (1987). Neo-Fan's Guidebook.[full citation needed]
- Scalzi, John (2005). The Rough Guide to Sci-Fi Movies. Rough Guides. ISBN 9781843535201. Archived from the original on 2 April 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2007.
- Ellison, Harlan (1998). "Harlan Ellison's responses to online fan questions at ParCon". Archived from the original on 22 May 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2006.
- Clute, John (1993). ""Sci fi" (article by Peter Nicholls)". In Nicholls, Peter (ed.). Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. Orbit/Time Warner Book Group UK.
- Clute, John (1993). ""SF" (article by Peter Nicholls)". In Nicholls, Peter (ed.). Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. Orbit/Time Warner Book Group UK.
- Fi, in Sci; September 29th, Writing |; Comments, 2016 2. "Sci-Fi Icon Robert Heinlein Lists 5 Essential Rules for Making a Living as a Writer". Open Culture. Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2019.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- "Out of This World". www.news.gatech.edu. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- See, e.g., Fredericks, S.C.: "Lucian's True History as SF" Archived 16 July 2020 at the Wayback Machine, Science Fiction Studies, Vol. 3, No. 1 (March 1976), pp. 49–60; Georgiadou, Aristoula & Larmour, David H.J.: "Lucian's Science Fiction Novel True Histories. Interpretation and Commentary" Archived 13 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Mnemosyne Supplement 179, Leiden 1998, ISBN 90-04-10667-7, Introduction; Grewell, Greg: "Colonizing the Universe: Science Fictions Then, Now, and in the (Imagined) Future", Rocky Mountain Review of Language and Literature, Vol. 55, No. 2 (2001), pp. 25–47 (30f.); Gunn, James E., The New Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, Viking, 1988, ISBN 978-0-670-81041-3, p. 249, calls it "Proto-Science Fiction."; Swanson, Roy Arthur: "The True, the False, and the Truly False: Lucian's Philosophical Science Fiction" Archived 30 July 2020 at the Wayback Machine, Science Fiction Studies, Vol. 3, No. 3 (Nov. 1976), pp. 227–239
- Irwin, Robert (2003). The Arabian Nights: A Companion. Tauris Parke Paperbacks. pp. 209–13. ISBN 978-1-86064-983-7.
- Richardson, Matthew (2001). The Halstead Treasury of Ancient Science Fiction. Rushcutters Bay, New South Wales: Halstead Press. ISBN 978-1-875684-64-9. (cf. "Once Upon a Time". Emerald City (85). September 2002. Archived from the original on 11 September 2019. Retrieved 17 September 2008.)
- Dr. Abu Shadi Al-Roubi (1982), "Ibn al-Nafis as a philosopher", Symposium on Ibn al-Nafis, Second International Conference on Islamic Medicine: Islamic Medical Organization, Kuwait (cf. Ibnul-Nafees As a Philosopher, Encyclopedia of Islamic World )
- Creator and presenter: Carl Sagan (12 October 1980). "The Harmony of the Worlds". Cosmos: A Personal Voyage. PBS.
- Jacqueline Glomski (2013). Stefan Walser; Isabella Tilg (eds.). "Science Fiction in the Seventeenth Century: The Neo-Latin Somnium and its Relationship with the Vernacular". Der Neulateinische Roman Als Medium Seiner Zeit. BoD: 37. ISBN 9783823367925. Archived from the original on 15 April 2021. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
- White, William (September 2009). "Science, Factions, and the Persistent Specter of War: Margaret Cavendish's Blazing World". Intersect: The Stanford Journal of Science, Technology and Society. 2 (1): 40–51. Archived from the original on 27 December 2013. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
- Murphy, Michael (2011). A Description of the Blazing World. Broadview Press. ISBN 978-1-77048-035-3. Archived from the original on 6 May 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2015.
- "Margaret Cavendish's The Blazing World (1666)". Skulls in the Stars. 2 January 2011. Archived from the original on 12 December 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- Robin Anne Reid (2009). Women in Science Fiction and Fantasy: Overviews. ABC-CLIO. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-313-33591-4.
- Sterling, Bruce (17 January 2019). "Science Fiction". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 29 January 2012. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
- Khanna, Lee Cullen. "The Subject of Utopia: Margaret Cavendish and Her Blazing-World." Utopian and Science Fiction by Women: World of Difference. Syracuse: Syracuse UP, 1994. 15–34.
- "Carl Sagan on Johannes Kepler's persecution". YouTube. Archived from the original on 29 November 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2010.
- Asimov, Isaac (1977). The Beginning and the End. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-13088-2.
- Clute, John & Nicholls, Peter (1993). "Mary W. Shelley". Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. Orbit/Time Warner Book Group UK. Archived from the original on 16 November 2006. Retrieved 17 January 2007.
- Wingrove, Aldriss (2001). Billion Year Spree: The History of Science Fiction (1973) Revised and expanded as Trillion Year Spree (with David Wingrove)(1986). New York: House of Stratus. ISBN 978-0-7551-0068-2.
- Tresch, John (2002). "Extra! Extra! Poe invents science fiction". In Hayes, Kevin J. The Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan Poe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 113–132. ISBN 978-0-521-79326-1.
- Poe, Edgar Allan. The Works of Edgar Allan Poe, Volume 1, "The Unparalleled Adventures of One Hans Pfaal". Archived from the original on 27 June 2006. Retrieved 17 January 2007.
- Roberts, Adam (2000), Science Fiction, London: Routledge, p. 48, ISBN 9780415192057
- Renard, Maurice (November 1994), "On the Scientific-Marvelous Novel and Its Influence on the Understanding of Progress", Science Fiction Studies, 21 (64), archived from the original on 12 November 2020, retrieved 25 January 2016
- Thomas, Theodore L. (December 1961). "The Watery Wonders of Captain Nemo". Galaxy Science Fiction. pp. 168–177.
- Margaret Drabble (8 May 2014). "Submarine dreams: Jules Verne's Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Seas". New Statesman. Archived from the original on 11 May 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- La obra narrativa de Enrique Gaspar: El Anacronópete (1887), María de los Ángeles Ayala, Universidad de Alicante. Del Romanticismo al Realismo : Actas del I Coloquio de la S. L. E. S. XIX, Barcelona, 24–26 October 1996 / edited by Luis F. Díaz Larios, Enrique Miralles.
- El anacronópete, English translation (2014), www.storypilot.com, Michael Main, accessed 13 April 2016
- Siegel, Mark Richard (1988). Hugo Gernsback, Father of Modern Science Fiction: With Essays on Frank Herbert and Bram Stoker. Borgo Pr. ISBN 978-0-89370-174-1.
- Wagar, W. Warren (2004). H.G. Wells: Traversing Time. Wesleyan University Press. p. 7.
- "HG Wells: A visionary who should be remembered for his social predictions, not just his scientific ones". The Independent. 8 October 2017. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
- Porges, Irwin (1975). Edgar Rice Burroughs. Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Press. ISBN 0-8425-0079-0.
- Originally published in the April 1926 issue of Amazing Stories
- Quoted in  in: Stableford, Brian; Clute, John; Nicholls, Peter (1993). "Definitions of SF". In Clute, John; Nicholls, Peter (eds.). Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. London: Orbit/Little, Brown and Company. pp. 311–314. ISBN 978-1-85723-124-3.
- Edwards, Malcolm J.; Nicholls, Peter (1995). "SF Magazines". In John Clute and Peter Nicholls. The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction (Updated ed.). New York: St Martin's Griffin. p. 1066. ISBN 0-312-09618-6.
- Dozois, Gardner; Strahan, Jonathan (2007). The New Space Opera (1st ed.). New York: Eos. p. 2. ISBN 9780060846756.
- Roberts, Garyn G. (2001). "Buck Rogers". In Browne, Ray B.; Browne, Pat (eds.). The Guide To United States Popular Culture. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green State University Popular Press. p. 120. ISBN 978-0-87972-821-2.
- Taormina, Agatha (19 January 2005). "A History of Science Fiction". Northern Virginia Community College. Archived from the original on 26 March 2004. Retrieved 16 January 2007.
- Codex, Regius (2014). From Robots to Foundations. Wiesbaden/Ljubljana. ISBN 978-1499569827.
- Asimov, Isaac (1980). In Joy Still Felt: The Autobiography of Isaac Asimov, 1954–1978. Garden City, New York: Doubleday. chapter 24. ISBN 978-0-385-15544-1.
- "1966 Hugo Awards". thehugoawards.org. Hugo Award. Archived from the original on 7 May 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
- "The Long List of Hugo Awards, 1966". New England Science Fiction Association. Archived from the original on 3 April 2016. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
- Nicholls, Peter (1981) The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, Granada, p. 258
- "Time and Space", Hartford Courant, 7 February 1954, p.SM19
- "Reviews: November 1975" Archived 22 March 2019 at the Wayback Machine, Science Fiction Studies, November 1975
- Aldiss & Wingrove, Trillion Year Spree, Victor Gollancz, 1986, p.237
- "Ivan Efremov's works". Serg's Home Page. Archived from the original on 29 April 2003. Retrieved 8 September 2006.
- "OFF-LINE интервью с Борисом Стругацким" [OFF-LINE interview with Boris Strugatsky] (in Russian). Russian Science Fiction & Fantasy. December 2006. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 29 February 2016.
- Gale, Floyd C. (October 1960). "Galaxy's 5 Star Shelf". Galaxy Science Fiction. pp. 142–146.
- McMillan, Graeme (3 November 2016). "Why 'Starship Troopers' May Be Too Controversial to Adapt Faithfully". Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 10 May 2017. Retrieved 8 May 2017.
- Liptak, Andrew (3 November 2016). "Four things that we want to see in the Starship Troopers reboot". The Verge. Archived from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
- Slusser, George E. (1987). Intersections: Fantasy and Science Fiction Alternatives. Carbondale, Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press. pp. 210–220. ISBN 9780809313747. Archived from the original on 22 March 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
- Mikołajewska, Emilia; Mikołajewski, Dariusz (May 2013). "Exoskeletons in Neurological Diseases – Current and Potential Future Applications". Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine. 20 (2): 228 Fig. 2. Archived from the original on 3 April 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
- Weiss, Peter. "Dances with Robots". Science News Online. Archived from the original on 16 January 2006. Retrieved 4 March 2006.
- "Unternehmen Stardust – Perrypedia". www.perrypedia.proc.org (in German). Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
- "Der Unsterbliche – Perrypedia". www.perrypedia.proc.org (in German). Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
- Mike Ashley (14 May 2007). Gateways to Forever: The Story of the Science-Fiction Magazines from 1970–1980. Liverpool University Press. p. 218. ISBN 978-1-84631-003-4.
- McGuirk, Carol (1992). "The 'New' Romancers". In Slusser, George Edgar; Shippey, T. A. (eds.). Fiction 2000. University of Georgia Press. pp. 109–125. ISBN 9780820314495.
- Caroti, Simone (2011). The Generation Starship in Science Fiction. McFarland. p. 156. ISBN 9780786485765.
- Peter Swirski (ed), The Art and Science of Stanislaw Lem, McGill-Queen's University Press, 2008, ISBN 0-7735-3047-9
- Stanislaw Lem, Fantastyka i Futuriologia, Wedawnictwo Literackie, 1989, vol. 2, p. 365
- Benét's Reader's Encyclopedia, fourth edition (1996), p. 590.
- Roberts, Adam (2000). Science Fiction. New York: Routledge. pp. 85–90. ISBN 978-0-415-19204-0.
- Dragonriders of Pern, ISFDB.
- Publishers Weekly review of Robin Roberts, Anne McCaffrey: A Life with Dragons (2007). Quoted by Amazon.com Archived 1 June 2021 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2011-07-16.
- Sammon, Paul M. (1996). Future Noir: the Making of Blade Runner. London: Orion Media. p. 49. ISBN 0-06-105314-7.
- Wolfe, Gary K. "'Blade Runner 2049': How does Philip K. Dick's vision hold up?". chicagotribune.com. Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
- Stover, Leon E. "Anthropology and Science Fiction" Current Anthropology, Vol. 14, No. 4 (Oct. 1973)
- Reid, Suzanne Elizabeth (1997). Presenting Ursula Le Guin. New York, New York, USA: Twayne. ISBN 978-0-8057-4609-9, pp=9, 120
- Spivack, Charlotte (1984). Ursula K. Le Guin (1st ed.). Boston, Massachusetts, USA: Twayne Publishers. ISBN 978-0-8057-7393-4., pp=44–50
- "Brave New World of Chinese Science Fiction". www.china.org.cn. Archived from the original on 21 June 2018. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
- "Science Fiction, Globalization, and the People's Republic of China". www.concatenation.org. Archived from the original on 27 April 2018. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
- Fitting, Peter (July 1991). "The Lessons of Cyberpunk". In Penley, C.; Ross, A. Technoculture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. pp. 295–315
- Schactman, Noah (23 May 2008). "26 Years After Gibson, Pentagon Defines 'Cyberspace'". Wired. Archived from the original on 14 September 2008. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
- Hayward, Philip (1993). Future Visions: New Technologies of the Screen. British Film Institute. pp. 180–204. Archived from the original on 21 February 2007. Retrieved 17 January 2007.
- Walton, Jo (31 March 2009). "Weeping for her enemies: Lois McMaster Bujold's Shards of Honor". Tor.com. Archived from the original on 11 September 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
- Loud Achievements: Lois McMaster Bujold's Science Fiction Archived 25 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine in New York Review of Science Fiction, October 1998 (Number 122)
- Mustich, James (13 October 2008). "Interviews – Neal Stephenson: Anathem – A Conversation with James Mustich, Editor-in-Chief of the Barnes & Noble Review". barnesandnoble.com. Archived from the original on 11 August 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
I’d had a similar reaction to yours when I’d first read The Origin of Consciousness and the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind, and that, combined with the desire to use IT, were two elements from which Snow Crash grew.
- "Three Body". Ken Liu, Writer. 23 January 2015. Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
- says, Ed Benson (31 March 2015). "2015 Hugo Awards". Archived from the original on 9 May 2020. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
- Chen, Andrea. "Out of this world: Chinese sci-fi author Liu Cixin is Asia's first writer to win Hugo award for best novel Archived 3 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine." South China Morning Post. Monday 24 August 2015. Retrieved on 27 August 2015.
- Anders, Charlie Jane. "10 Recent Science Fiction Books That Are About Big Ideas". io9. Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
- "Science fiction in the 21st century". www.studienet.dk. Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
- Bebergal, Peter (26 August 2007). "The age of steampunk:Nostalgia meets the future, joined carefully with brass screws". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
- Pulver, David L. (1998). GURPS Bio-Tech. Steve Jackson Games. ISBN 978-1-55634-336-0.
- Paul Taylor. "Fleshing Out the Maelstrom: Biopunk and the Violence of Information". Journal of Media and Culture. Archived from the original on 17 June 2005. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
- "How sci-fi moves with the times". BBC News. 18 March 2009. Archived from the original on 28 February 2018. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
- Walter, Damien (2 May 2008). "The really exciting science fiction is boring". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 27 January 2018. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
- Dixon, Wheeler Winston; Foster, Gwendolyn Audrey (2008), A Short History of Film, Rutgers University Press, p. 12, ISBN 978-0-8135-4475-5, archived from the original on 22 March 2019, retrieved 19 December 2017
- Kramer, Fritzi (29 March 2015). "A Trip to the Moon (1902) A Silent Film Review". Movies Silently. Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
- Eagan, Daniel. "A Trip to the Moon as You've Never Seen it Before". Smithsonian. Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
- Schneider, Steven Jay (1 October 2012), 1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die 2012, Octopus Publishing Group, p. 20, ISBN 978-1-84403-733-9
- Dixon, Wheeler Winston; Foster, Gwendolyn Audrey (1 March 2008). A Short History of Film. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 9780813544755. Archived from the original on 15 April 2021. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
- SciFi Film History - Metropolis (1927) Archived 10 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine – Though most agree that the first science fiction film was Georges Méliès' A Trip to the Moon (1902), Metropolis (1926) is the first feature length outing of the genre. (scififilmhistory.com, retrieved 15 May 2013)
- "Metropolis". Turner Classic Movies. Archived from the original on 16 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
- "The 100 Best Films of World Cinema". empireonline.com. 11 June 2010. Archived from the original on 23 November 2015. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
- "The Top 100 Silent Era Films". silentera.com. Archived from the original on 23 August 2000. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
- "The Top 50 Greatest Films of All Time". Sight & Sound September 2012 issue. British Film Institute. 1 August 2012. Archived from the original on 1 March 2017. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
- "Introduction to Kaiju [in Japanese]". dic-pixiv. Archived from the original on 18 February 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
- 中根, 研一 (September 2009). "A Study of Chinese monster culture – Mysterious animals that proliferates in present age media [in Japanese]". 北海学園大学学園論集. Hokkai-Gakuen University. 141: 91–121. Archived from the original on 12 March 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
- Kazan, Casey (10 July 2009). "Ridley Scott: "After 2001 -A Space Odyssey, Science Fiction is Dead"". Dailygalaxy.com. Archived from the original on 21 March 2011. Retrieved 22 August 2010.
- In Focus on the Science Fiction Film, edited by William Johnson. Englewood Cliff, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1972.
- DeMet, George D. "2001: A Space Odyssey Internet Resource Archive: The Search for Meaning in 2001". Palantir.net (originally an undergrad honors thesis). Archived from the original on 26 April 2011. Retrieved 22 August 2010.
- Cass, Stephen (2 April 2009). "This Day in Science Fiction History – 2001: A Space Odyssey". Discover Magazine. Archived from the original on 28 March 2010. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
- Russo, Joe; Landsman, Larry; Gross, Edward (2001). Planet of the Apes Revisited: The Behind-The Scenes Story of the Classic Science Fiction Saga (1st ed.). New York: Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 0312252390.
- Star Wars: Episode IV - A New Hope (1977) - IMDb, archived from the original on 9 April 2019, retrieved 30 March 2019
- Bibbiani, William (24 April 2018). "The Best Space Operas (That Aren't Star Wars)". IGN. Archived from the original on 13 August 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
- "Star Wars – Box Office History". The Numbers. Archived from the original on 6 July 2013. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
- "Star Wars Episode 4: A New Hope | Lucasfilm.com". Lucasfilm. Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
- "Movie Franchises and Brands Index". www.boxofficemojo.com. Archived from the original on 25 July 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
- Escape Velocity: American Science Fiction Film, 1950–1982, Bradley Schauer, Wesleyan University Press, 3 January 2017, page 7
- Science Fiction Film: A Critical Introduction, Keith M. Johnston, Berg, 9 May 2013, pages 24–25. Some of the examples are given by this book.
- Science Fiction TV, J. P. Telotte, Routledge, 26 March 2014, pages 112, 179
- Telotte, J. P. (2008). The essential science fiction television reader. University Press of Kentucky. p. 210. ISBN 978-0-8131-2492-6. Archived from the original on 1 June 2021. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
- Suzanne Williams-Rautiolla (2 April 2005). "Captain Video and His Video Rangers". The Museum of Broadcast Communications. Archived from the original on 30 March 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2007.
- "The Twilight Zone [TV Series] [1959–1964]". Allmovie. Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- Stanyard, Stewart T. (2007). Dimensions Behind the Twilight Zone : A Backstage Tribute to Television's Groundbreaking Series ([Online-Ausg.] ed.). Toronto: ECW press. p. 18. ISBN 978-1550227444.
- "TV Guide Names Top 50 Shows". CBS News. CBS Interactive. 26 April 2002. Archived from the original on 4 September 2012. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
- "101 Best Written TV Series List". Archived from the original on 7 June 2013. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
- O'Reilly, Terry (24 May 2014). "21st Century Brands". Under the Influence. Season 3. Episode 21. Event occurs at time 2:07. CBC Radio One. Archived from the original on 8 June 2014. Transcript of the original source. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
The series had lots of interesting devices that marveled us back in the 1960s. In episode one, we see wife Jane doing exercises in front of a flatscreen television. In another episode, we see George Jetson reading the newspaper on a screen. Can anyone say tablet? In another, Boss Spacely tells George to fix something called a "computer virus." Everyone on the show uses video chat, foreshadowing Skype and Face Time. There is a robot vacuum cleaner, foretelling the 2002 arrival of the iRobot Roomba vacuum. There was also a tanning bed used in an episode, a product that wasn't introduced to North America until 1979. And while flying space cars that have yet to land in our lives, the Jetsons show had moving sidewalks like we now have in airports, treadmills that didn't hit the consumer market until 1969, and they had a repairman who had a piece of technology called... Mac.
- "Doctor Who Classic Episode Guide - An Unearthly Child - Details". BBC. Archived from the original on 25 October 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
- Deans, Jason (21 June 2005). "Doctor Who finally makes the Grade". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
- "The end of Olde Englande: A lament for Blighty". The Economist. 14 September 2006. Archived from the original on 17 June 2009. Retrieved 18 September 2006.
- "ICONS. A Portrait of England". Archived from the original on 3 November 2007. Retrieved 10 November 2007.
- Moran, Caitlin (30 June 2007). "Doctor Who is simply masterful". The Times. London. Archived from the original on 17 June 2011. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
[Doctor Who] is as thrilling and as loved as Jolene, or bread and cheese, or honeysuckle, or Friday. It's quintessential to being British.
- "Special Collectors' Issue: 100 Greatest Episodes of All Time". TV Guide (28 June – 4 July). 1997.
- British Science Fiction Television: A Hitchhiker's Guide, John R. Cook, Peter Wright, I.B.Tauris, 6 January 2006, page 9
- Gowran, Clay. "Nielsen Ratings Are Dim on New Shows." Chicago Tribune. 11 October 1966: B10.
- Gould, Jack. "How Does Your Favorite Rate? Maybe Higher Than You Think." New York Times. 16 October 1966: 129.
- Hilmes, Michele; Henry, Michael Lowell (1 August 2007). NBC: America's Network. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520250796. Archived from the original on 4 July 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
- "A First Showing for 'Star Trek' Pilot". The New York Times. 22 July 1986. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 27 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
- Roddenberry, Gene (11 March 1964). Star Trek Pitch Archived 12 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine, first draft. Accessed at LeeThomson.myzen.co.uk.
- "STARTREK.COM: Universe Timeline". Startrek.com. Archived from the original on 3 July 2009. Retrieved 14 July 2009.
- Okada, Michael; Okadu, Denise (1 November 1996). Star Trek Chronology: The History of the Future. ISBN 978-0-671-53610-7.
- "The Milwaukee Journal - Google News Archive Search". news.google.com. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
- Star Trek: The Next Generation, archived from the original on 25 March 2021, retrieved 30 March 2019
- Andrew Whalen On 12/5/18 at 11:39 AM EST (5 December 2018). "'Star Trek' Picard series won't premiere until late 2019, after 'Discovery' Season 2". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
- "New Trek Animated Series Announced". www.startrek.com. Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
- "Patrick Stewart to Reprise 'Star Trek' Role in New CBS All Access Series". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 4 August 2018. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
- Bedell, Sally (1983-05-04). "'V' SERIES AN NBC HIT". The New York Times. p. 27
- Susman, Gary (17 November 2005). "Mini Splendored Things". Entertainment Weekly. EW.com. Archived from the original on 25 February 2014. Retrieved 7 January 2010.
- "Worldwide Press Office – Red Dwarf on DVD". BBC. Archived from the original on 27 February 2010. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
- Bischoff, David (December 1994). "Opening the X-Files: Behind the Scenes of TV's Hottest Show". Omni. 17 (3).
- Goodman, Tim (18 January 2002). "'X-Files' Creator Ends Fox Series". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on 15 June 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2009.
- "Gillian Anderson Confirms She's Leaving The X-Files | TV Guide". TVGuide.com. 10 January 2018. Archived from the original on 30 April 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
- Andreeva, Nellie (24 March 2015). "'The X-Files' Returns As Fox Event Series With Creator Chris Carter And Stars David Duchovny & Gillian Anderson". Deadline. Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
- Sumner, Darren (10 May 2011). "Smallville bows this week – with Stargate's world record". GateWorld. Archived from the original on 1 March 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- *Richardson, David (July 1997). "Dead Man Walking". Cult Times. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 17 January 2007. Nazarro, Joe. "The Dream Given Form". TV Zone Special (#30).
- "The 20 Best SyFy TV Shows of All Time". pastemagazine.com. 9 March 2018. Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
- "About Us". SYFY. Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
- Hines, Ree (27 April 2010). "So long, nerds! Syfy doesn't need you". TODAY.com. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
- Astounding Wonder: Imagining Science and Science Fiction in Interwar America, John Cheng, University of Pennsylvania Press, 19 March 2012 pages 1–12.
- "When Science Fiction Predicts the Future". Escapist Magazine. 1 November 2018. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- Kotecki, Peter. "15 wild fictional predictions about future technology that came true". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- Munene, Alvin (23 October 2017). "Eight Ground-Breaking Inventions That Science Fiction Predicted". Sanvada. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
- The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy: Themes, Works, and Wonders, Volume 2, Gary Westfahl, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2005
- Handwerk, Brian. "The Many Futuristic Predictions of H.G. Wells That Came True". Smithsonian. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- "Science and Technology: Public Attitudes and Public Understanding. Science Fiction and Pseudoscience". Science and Engineering Indicators–2002 (Report). Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics. April 2002. NSB 02-01. Archived from the original on 16 June 2016.
- Bainbridge, William Sims (1982). "The Impact of Science Fiction on Attitudes Toward Technology". In Emme, Eugene Morlock (ed.). Science fiction and space futures: past and present. Univelt. ISBN 978-0-87703-173-4. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2015.
- Sagan, Carl (28 May 1978). "Growing up with Science Fiction". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 11 December 2018. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- Aldiss, Brian; Wingrove, David (1986). Trillion Year Spree. London: Victor Gollancz. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-575-03943-8.
- Menadue, Christopher Benjamin; Cheer, Karen Diane (2017). "Human Culture and Science Fiction: A Review of the Literature, 1980–2016" (PDF). SAGE Open. 7 (3): 215824401772369. doi:10.1177/2158244017723690. ISSN 2158-2440. S2CID 149043845. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 July 2018. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
- Miller, Bettye (6 November 2014). "George Slusser, Co-founder of Renowned Eaton Collection, Dies". UCR Today. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- Murphy, Bruce (1996). Benét's reader's encyclopedia. New York: Harper Collins. p. 734. ISBN 978-0061810886. OCLC 35572906.
- Aaronovitch, David (8 February 2013). "1984: George Orwell's road to dystopia". BBC News. Archived from the original on 24 January 2018. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- Kelley, Sonaiya (28 March 2017). "As a Trump protest, theaters worldwide will screen the film version of Orwell's '1984'". latimes.com. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- "Nineteen Eighty-Four and the politics of dystopia". The British Library. Archived from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- Gross, Terry (18 February 2010). "James Cameron: Pushing the limits of imagination". National Public Radio. Archived from the original on 21 February 2010. Retrieved 27 February 2010.
- Science Fiction Film, Television, and Adaptation: Across the Screens, Jay Telotte, Gerald Duchovnay, Routledge, 2 August 2011
- Androids, Humanoids, and Other Science Fiction Monsters: Science and Soul in Science Fiction Films, Per Schelde, NYU Press, 1994, pages 1–10
- Elyce Rae Helford, in Westfahl, Gary. The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy: Greenwood Press, 2005: 289–290.
- Hauskeller, Michael; Carbonell, Curtis D.; Philbeck, Thomas D. (13 January 2016). The Palgrave handbook of posthumanism in film and television. Hauskeller, Michael,, Philbeck, Thomas Drew, 1976-, Carbonell, Curtis D. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire. ISBN 9781137430328. OCLC 918873873.
- Glass, Rodge (31 May 2013). "Global Warning: The Rise of 'Cli-fi' Archived 27 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine" retrieved 3 March 2016
- Bloom, Dan (10 March 2015). "'Cli-Fi' Reaches into Literature Classrooms Worldwide". Inter Press Service News Agency. Archived from the original on 17 March 2015. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
- PÉREZ-PEÑA, RICHARD. "College Classes Use Arts to Brace for Climate Change". The New York Times (1 April 2014 pg A12). Archived from the original on 13 April 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- Tuhus-Dubrow, Rebecca (Summer 2013). "Cli-Fi: Birth of a Genre". Dissent. Archived from the original on 22 March 2015. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
- Raymond, Eric. "A Political History of SF". Archived from the original on 20 December 2015. Retrieved 4 December 2007.
- The Animal Fable in Science Fiction and Fantasy, Bruce Shaw, McFarland, 2010, page 19
- "Comedy Science Fiction". Sfbook.com. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 2 March 2016.
- Hartwell, David. Age of Wonders (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1985, page 42)
- Asimov, Isaac. ‘Forward 1 – The Second Revolution’ in Ellison, Harlan (ed.). Dangerous Visions (London: Victor Gollancz, 1987)
- "Critical Approaches to Science Fiction". www.sfcenter.ku.edu. Archived from the original on 26 July 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- "What Is The Purpose of Science Fiction Stories? | Project Hieroglyph". hieroglyph.asu.edu. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- "Index". www.depauw.edu. Archived from the original on 24 March 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- "Science Fiction Studies on JSTOR". Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- "Science Fiction Research Association - About". www.sfra.org. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- "About: Science Fiction Foundation". Science Fiction Foundation. Archived from the original on 24 October 2018. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
- "English: Science Fiction Studies MA - Overview - Postgraduate Taught Courses - University of Liverpool". www.liverpool.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- "Gunn Center for the Study of Science Fiction". Gunn Center for the Study of Science Fiction. Archived from the original on 1 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- "BCLS: Hard Versus Soft Science Fiction". Archived from the original on 23 August 2018. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
- "Ten Authors on the 'Hard' vs. 'Soft' Science Fiction Debate". 20 February 2017. Archived from the original on 29 December 2018. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
- Wilde, Fran (21 January 2016). "How Do You Like Your Science Fiction? Ten Authors Weigh In On 'Hard' vs. 'Soft' SF". Tor.com. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- "Ursula K. Le Guin Proved That Sci-Fi is for Everyone". 24 January 2018. Archived from the original on 23 August 2018. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
- Browne, Max. "Holst, Theodor Richard Edward von (1810–1844)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/28353. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Bennett, An Introduction, ix–xi, 120–21; Schor, Introduction to Cambridge Companion, 1–5; Seymour, 548–61.
- Ludwig von Mises (1944). Bureaucracy Archived 27 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, p 110
- "100 Best Novels". Random House. 1999. Archived from the original on 9 February 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2007. This ranking was by the Modern Library Editorial Board Archived 2 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine of authors.
- McCrum, Robert (12 October 2003). "100 greatest novels of all time". Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 18 December 2016. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- "BBC – The Big Read" Archived 28 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. BBC. April 2003, Retrieved 26 October 2012
- Allen, William R. "A Brief Biography of Kurt Vonnegut". Kurt Vonnegut Memorial Library. Archived from the original on 18 January 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
- Allen, William R. (1991). Understanding Kurt Vonnegut. University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-87249-722-1.
- Banach, Je (11 April 2013). "Laughing in the Face of Death: A Vonnegut Roundtable". The Paris Review. Archived from the original on 3 September 2015. Retrieved 13 August 2015.
- Jonas, Gerald (6 June 2012). "Ray Bradbury, Master of Science Fiction, Dies at 91". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 5 April 2019. Retrieved 5 June 2012.
- Barlowe, Wayne Douglas (1987). Barlowe's Guide to Extraterrestrials. Workman Publishing Company. ISBN 0-89480-500-2.
- Baxter, John (1997). "Kubrick Beyond the Infinite". Stanley Kubrick: A Biography. Basic Books. pp. 199–230. ISBN 0-7867-0485-3.
- Gary K. Wolfe and Carol T. Williams, "The Majesty of Kindness: The Dialectic of Cordwainer Smith", Voices for the Future: Essays on Major Science Fiction Writers, Volume 3, Thomas D. Clareson editor, Popular Press, 1983, pages 53–72.
- Barnett, David (28 January 2009). "Science fiction: the genre that dare not speak its name". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 12 August 2016. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
- Hazelton, Lesley (25 July 1982). "Doris Lessing on Feminism, Communism and 'Space Fiction'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 23 November 2013. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
- Galin, Müge (1997). Between East and West: Sufism in the Novels of Doris Lessing. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-7914-3383-6. Archived from the original on 23 November 2020. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
- Lessing, Doris (1994) . "Preface". The Sirian Experiments. London: Flamingo. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-00-654721-1.
- Donoghue, Denis (22 September 1985). "Alice, The Radical Homemaker". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 15 July 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
- Le Guin, Ursula K. (1976) "Science Fiction and Mrs Brown," in The Language of the Night: Essays on Fantasy and Science Fiction, Perennial HarperCollins, Revised edition 1993; in Science Fiction at Large (ed. Peter Nicholls), Gollancz, London, 1976; in Explorations of the Marvellous (ed. Peter Nicholls), Fontana, London, 1978; in Speculations on Speculation. Theories of Science Fiction (eds. James Gunn and Matthew Candelaria), The Scarecrow Press, Inc. Maryland, 2005.
- Card, O. (2006). "Introduction". Ender's Game. Macmillan. ISBN 9780765317384.
- "Orson Scott Card | Authors | Macmillan". US Macmillan. Archived from the original on 5 January 2021. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- Lethem, Jonathan (1998), "Close Encounters: The Squandered Promise of Science Fiction", Village Voice, June. Also reprinted in a slightly expanded version under the title "Why Can't We All Live Together?: A Vision of Genre Paradise Lost" in the New York Review of Science Fiction, September 1998, Number 121, Vol 11, No. 1.
- Benford, Gregory (1998) "Meaning-Stuffed Dreams:Thomas Disch and the future of SF", New York Review of Science Fiction, September, Number 121, Vol. 11, No. 1
- Crisp, Julie (10 July 2013). "SEXISM IN GENRE PUBLISHING: A PUBLISHER'S PERSPECTIVE". Tor Books. Archived from the original on 30 April 2015. Retrieved 29 April 2015. (See full statistics)
- McCown, Alex (6 April 2015). "This year's Hugo Award nominees are a messy political controversy". The A.V. Club. The Onion. Archived from the original on 10 April 2015. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- "Awards". The World Science Fiction Society. 10 May 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- "Nebula Awards". www.fantasticfiction.com. Archived from the original on 31 May 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- "The John W. Campbell Award". www.sfcenter.ku.edu. Archived from the original on 26 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- "The Theodore Sturgeon Award". www.sfcenter.ku.edu. Archived from the original on 19 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- "The Academy of Science Fiction Fantasy and Horror Films". www.saturnawards.org. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- "Aurora Awards | Canadian Science Fiction and Fantasy Association". Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- "The Endeavour Award Home Page". osfci.org. Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- "ASFA". www.asfa-art.org. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- "Awards | World Fantasy Convention". Archived from the original on 27 October 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- "Awards – Locus Online". Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- "Conventions". Locus Online. 29 August 2017. Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
- "science fiction | Definiton, Examples, & Characteristics". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 29 January 2012. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
- Kelly, Kevin. "A History Of The Science Fiction Convention". io9. Archived from the original on 3 June 2020. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
- "ScifiConventions.com - Worldwide SciFi and Fantasy Conventions Directory - About Cons". www.scificonventions.com. Archived from the original on 8 April 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
- "FenCon XVI - September 20-22, 2019 |". www.fencon.org. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
- Mark A. Mandel, Conomastics: The Naming of Science Fiction Conventions ( 7–9 Jan. 2010), https://www.ldc.upenn.edu/sites/www.ldc.upenn.edu/files/ads2010-conomastics.pdf Archived 13 April 2018 at the Wayback Machine
- Lawrence Watt-Evans (15 March 1988). "What Are Science Fiction Conventions Like?". Archived from the original on 25 April 2015. Retrieved 17 January 2007.
- "The Hugo Awards". Worldcon 75. Archived from the original on 18 March 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
- "NESFA - New England Science Fiction Association". www.nesfa.org. Archived from the original on 30 May 2017. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
- "The Science Fiction Book Club (London, United Kingdom)". Meetup. Archived from the original on 1 March 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
- "Denver Science Fiction and Fantasy Book Club". www.denversfbookclub.com. Archived from the original on 14 April 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
- "Los Angeles Science Fantasy Society". Atlas Obscura. Archived from the original on 27 July 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
- "Science Fiction Club". lowercolumbia.edu. Archived from the original on 24 June 2018. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
- Glyer, Mike (November 1998). "Is Your Club Dead Yet?". File 770 (127). Archived from the original on 22 March 2019. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
- "Information About SFWA". Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America, Inc. Archived from the original on 24 December 2005. Retrieved 16 January 2006.
- Wertham, Fredric (1973). The World of Fanzines. Carbondale & Evanston: Southern Illinois University Press.
- "Fancyclopedia I: C – Cosmic Circle". fanac.org. 12 August 1999. Archived from the original on 12 September 2015. Retrieved 17 January 2007.
- Lynch, Keith (14 July 1994). "History of the Net is Important". Archived from the original on 14 August 2015. Retrieved 17 January 2007.
- "Usenet Fandom - Crisis on Infinite Earths". Archived from the original on 25 October 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
- "Vincent Docherty Discusses Online Hugo Eligibility". File 770. 8 December 2009. Archived from the original on 30 July 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
- Jackson, Matthew (4 June 2013). "11 of the best online sci-fi communities you should join now". SYFY WIRE. Archived from the original on 13 August 2018. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
- "The SF Site: The Best in Science Fiction and Fantasy". www.sfsite.com. Archived from the original on 5 April 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
- "SFcrowsnest". sfcrowsnest.blogspot.com. Archived from the original on 3 June 2020. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
- Hansen, Rob (13 August 2003). "British Fanzine Bibliography". Archived from the original on 22 March 2015. Retrieved 17 January 2007.
- Latham, Rob; Mendlesohn, Farah (1 November 2014), "Fandom", The Oxford Handbook of Science Fiction, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199838844.013.0006, ISBN 9780199838844
- A Word About Zines and Printing, University of Georgia Library, https://www.libs.uga.edu/hargrett/pexhibit/brooks/a%20word%20about%20zines%20and%20printing.pdf
- "Zines, E-Zines: The History and Characteristics of Zines, Part I". zinebook.com. Archived from the original on 14 September 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
- "History · Fanzines Archive". fanzines.lmc.gatech.edu. Archived from the original on 14 April 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
- "Ansible Home/Links". news.ansible.uk. Archived from the original on 29 March 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
- "Culture : Fanzine : SFE : Science Fiction Encyclopedia". www.sf-encyclopedia.com. Archived from the original on 26 March 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
- "Hugo Awards by Year". The Hugo Awards. 19 July 2007. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
- Bunzl, Martin (June 2004). "Counterfactual History: A User's Guide". American Historical Review. 109 (3): 845–858. doi:10.1086/530560. Archived from the original on 13 October 2004. Retrieved 2 June 2009.
- Westfahl, Gary (2005). "Aliens in Space". In Gary Westfahl (ed.). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy: Themes, Works, and Wonders. Vol. 1. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. pp. 14–16. ISBN 978-0-313-32951-7.
|volume=has extra text (help)
- Parker, Helen N. (1977). Biological Themes in Modern Science Fiction. UMI Research Press.
- Card, Orson Scott (1990). How to Write Science Fiction and Fantasy. Writer's Digest Books. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-89879-416-8.
- Peter Fitting (2010), "Utopia, dystopia, and science fiction", in Gregory Claeys (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Utopian Literature, Cambridge University Press, pp. 138–139
- Hartwell, David G. (1996). Age of Wonders: Exploring the World of Science Fiction. Tor Books. pp. 109–131. ISBN 978-0-312-86235-0.
- Ashley, M. (April 1989). The Immortal Professor, Astro Adventures No.7, p.6.
- H. G. Stratmann (14 September 2015). Using Medicine in Science Fiction: The SF Writer's Guide to Human Biology. Springer, 2015. p. 227. ISBN 9783319160153.
- Aldiss, Brian. Billion Year Spree: The True History of Science Fiction, 1973.
- Aldiss, Brian, and Wingrove, David. Trillion Year Spree: The History of Science Fiction, revised and updated edition, 1986.
- Amis, Kingsley. New Maps of Hell: A Survey of Science Fiction, 1958.
- Barron, Neil, ed. Anatomy of Wonder: A Critical Guide to Science Fiction (5th ed.). Westport, Conn.: Libraries Unlimited, 2004. ISBN 1-59158-171-0.
- Broderick, Damien. Reading by Starlight: Postmodern Science Fiction. London: Routledge, 1995. Print.
- Clute, John Science Fiction: The Illustrated Encyclopedia. London: Dorling Kindersley, 1995. ISBN 0-7513-0202-3.
- Clute, John and Peter Nicholls, eds., The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. St Albans, Herts, UK: Granada Publishing, 1979. ISBN 0-586-05380-8.
- Clute, John and Peter Nicholls, eds., The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. New York: St Martin's Press, 1995. ISBN 0-312-13486-X.
- Disch, Thomas M. The Dreams Our Stuff Is Made Of. New York: The Free Press, 1998. ISBN 978-0-684-82405-5.
- Jameson, Fredric. Archaeologies of the Future: This Desire Called Utopia and Other Science Fictions. London and New York: Verso, 2005.
- Milner, Andrew. Locating Science Fiction. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2012.
- Raja, Masood Ashraf, Jason W. Ellis and Swaralipi Nandi. eds., The Postnational Fantasy: Essays on Postcolonialism, Cosmopolitics and Science Fiction. McFarland 2011. ISBN 978-0-7864-6141-7.
- Reginald, Robert. Science Fiction and Fantasy Literature, 1975–1991. Detroit, MI/Washington, D.C./London: Gale Research, 1992. ISBN 0-8103-1825-3.
- Roy, Pinaki. "Science Fiction: Some Reflections". Shodh Sanchar Bulletin, 10.39 (July–September 2020): 138-42.
- Scholes, Robert E.; Rabkin, Eric S. (1977). Science fiction: history, science, vision. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-502174-5.
- Suvin, Darko. Metamorphoses of Science Fiction: on the Poetics and History of a Literary Genre. New Haven : Yale University Press, 1979.
- Weldes, Jutta, ed. To Seek Out New Worlds: Exploring Links between Science Fiction and World Politics. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. ISBN 0-312-29557-X.
- Westfahl, Gary, ed. The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy: Themes, Works, and Wonders (three volumes). Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2005.
- Wolfe, Gary K. Critical Terms for Science Fiction and Fantasy: A Glossary and Guide to Scholarship. New York: Greenwood Press, 1986. ISBN 0-313-22981-3.
|Library resources about |
- Science Fiction (Bookshelf) at Project Gutenberg
- SF Hub—resources for science fiction research, created by the University of Liverpool Library
- Science fiction fanzines (current and historical) online
- SFWA "Suggested Reading" list
- Science Fiction Museum & Hall of Fame
- Science Fiction Research Association
- A selection of articles written by Mike Ashley, Iain Sinclair and others, exploring 19th-century visions of the future. from the British Library's Discovering Literature website.
- Merril Collection of Science Fiction, Speculation and Fantasy at Toronto Public Library
- Science Fiction Studies' Chronological Bibliography of Science Fiction History, Theory, and Criticism