Science Museum, London
(separate status formalised 1909)
Kensington & Chelsea London, SW7 2DD
|Public transit access|
|Science Museum Group|
The Science Museum is a major museum on Exhibition Road in South Kensington, London. It was founded in 1857 and to date is one of the city's major tourist attractions, attracting 3.3 million visitors annually.
Like other publicly funded national museums in the United Kingdom, the Science Museum does not charge visitors for admission, although visitors are asked for a donation if they are able. Temporary exhibitions may incur an admission fee. It is part of the Science Museum Group, having merged with the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester in 2012.
Origin and history
The museum was founded in 1857 under Bennet Woodcroft from the collection of the Royal Society of Arts and surplus items from the Great Exhibition as part of the South Kensington Museum, together with what is now the Victoria and Albert Museum. It included a collection of machinery which became the Museum of Patents in 1858, and the Patent Office Museum in 1863. This collection contained many of the most famous exhibits of what is now the Science Museum.
In 1883, the contents of the Patent Office Museum were transferred to the South Kensington Museum. In 1885, the Science Collections were renamed the Science Museum and in 1893 a separate director was appointed. The Art Collections were renamed the Art Museum, which eventually became the Victoria and Albert Museum.
When Queen Victoria laid the foundation stone for the new building for the Art Museum, she stipulated that the museum be renamed after herself and her late husband. This was initially applied to the whole museum, but when that new building finally opened ten years later, the title was confined to the Art Collections and the Science Collections had to be divorced from it. On 26 June 1909 the Science Museum, as an independent entity, came into existence.
The Science Museum's present quarters, designed by Sir Richard Allison, were opened to the public in stages over the period 1919–28. This building was known as the East Block, construction of which began in 1913 and temporarily halted by World War I. As the name suggests it was intended to be the first building of a much larger project, which was never realized. However, the Museum buildings were expanded over the following years; a pioneering Children's Gallery with interactive exhibits opened in 1931, the Centre Block was completed in 1961–3, the infill of the East Block and the construction of the Lower & Upper Wellcome Galleries in 1980, and the construction of the Wellcome Wing in 2000 result in the Museum now extending to Queen's Gate.
Parts of this article (those related to Collections) need to be updated.November 2019)(
The Science Museum now holds a collection of over 350, 000 items, including famous items such as Stephenson's Rocket, Puffing Billy (the oldest surviving steam locomotive), the first jet engine, the Apollo 10 command module, a reconstruction of Francis Crick and James Watson's model of DNA, some of the earliest remaining steam engines (Including an example of a Newcomen steam engine, the world's first steam engine), a working example of Charles Babbage's Difference engine, the first prototype of the 10,000-year Clock of the Long Now, and documentation of the first typewriter. It also contains hundreds of interactive exhibits. An IMAX 3D Cinema opened in 2001 showing science and nature documentaries, most of them in 3-D, and the Wellcome Wing which focuses on digital technology. Entrance has been free since 1 December 2001.
The Science Museum has a dedicated library, and until the 1960s was Britain's National Library for Science, Medicine and Technology. It holds runs of periodicals, early books and manuscripts, and is used by scholars worldwide. It was, for a number of years, run in conjunction with the Central Library of Imperial College, but in 2007 the Library was divided over two sites. Histories of science and biographies of scientists were kept at the Imperial College Library until February 2014 when the arrangement was terminated, the shelves were cleared and the books and journals shipped out, joining the rest of the collection, which includes original scientific works and archives, at the Science Museum at Wroughton, Wiltshire. The Imperial College library catalogue search system now informs searchers that volumes formerly held there are "Available at Science Museum Library Swindon Currently unavailable". A new Research Centre with library facilities is promised for late 2015 but is unlikely to have book stacks nearby.
Storage and archives
Between 1979 and 2019, the museum's main storage and archive facility was at Blythe House. As of 2019[update] 170,000 items which are not on current display are stored at the Science Museum at Wroughton, a 220-hectare (545-acre) former RAF base near Swindon owned by the Museum since 1979. The Science Museum will use £40m from the government to develop the Wroughton site and put many previously stored items on display there from 2023, in addition to storage, conservation labs, and research facilities.
The Dana Library and Research Centre
In October 2007, the Science Museum cancelled a talk by the co-discoverer of the structure of DNA, James D. Watson, because he claimed that IQ test results showed black people to have lower intelligence than white people. The decision was criticised by some scientists, including Richard Dawkins, but supported by other scientists, including Steven Rose.
Around 450,000 young people visit the Science Museum on educational trips or benefit from its outreach programmes each year, more than any other UK museum.
The Science Museum also organises "Astronights", "all-night extravaganza with a scientific twist". Up to 380 children aged between 8 and 11, accompanied by adults, are invited to spend an evening performing fun "science based" activities and then spend the night sleeping in the museum galleries amongst the exhibits. In the morning, they're woken to breakfast and more science, watching a show before the end of the event.
On the evening of the last Wednesday of every month (except December) the museum organises an adults only evening with up to 30 events, from lectures to silent discos. Previous Lates have seen conversations with the actress activist Lily Cole and Biorevolutions with the Francis Crick Institute which attracted around 7000 people, mostly under the age of 35.
The Science Museum is made up of a number of galleries, some of which are permanent, and some of which are temporary.
The Energy Hall
The East Hall is the first area that most visitors see as they enter the building, stretching up through three floors. On the ground, the area is mostly filled with iconic steam engines of various sorts, including the oldest surviving James Watt beam engine, which together tell the story of the British industrial revolution.
Also on display is a recreation of James Watt's garret workshop from his home, Heathfield Hall, using over 8,300 objects removed from the room, which was sealed after his 1819 death, when the hall was demolished in 1927.
Exploring Space is a historical gallery, filled with rockets and exhibits that tell the story of human space exploration and the benefits that space exploration has brought us (particularly in the world of telecommunications).
Making the Modern World
Making the Modern World displays some of the museum's most iconic objects, including Watson and Crick's double helix, and the Apollo 10 command module are displayed along a timeline chronicling man's technological achievements.
Flight is on the western end of the third floor. Contained in the gallery are several full sized aeroplanes and helicopters, including Alcock and Brown's transatlantic Vickers Vimy (1919), Spitfire and Hurricane fighters, as well as numerous aero-engines and a cross-section of a Boeing 747. It opened in 1963 and was refurbished in the 1990s.
One of the most popular galleries in the museum is the interactive Wonderlab, formerly called Launch Pad. The gallery is staffed by Explainers who demonstrate how exhibits work, conduct live experiments and perform shows to schools and the visiting public.
The landmark gallery explores the six networks that have transformed global communications: The Cable, The Telephone Exchange, Broadcast, The Constellation, The Cell and The Web/ It was opened on 24 October 2014 by the Queen, Elizabeth II, who sent her first tweet.
Engineer your Future
Medicine: The Wellcome Galleries
This five-gallery medical exhibition spans ancient history to modern times with over 3000 exhibits and specially commissioned artworks. Many of the objects on display come from the Wellcome Collection started by Henry Wellcome. One of the commissioned artworks is a large bronze sculpture of Rick Genest titled Self-Conscious Gene by Marc Quinn. The galleries occupy the museum's entire first floor and opened on 16 November 2019.
The Science Museum has developed many touring exhibitions over the years. The Science Box contemporary science series toured various venues in the UK and Europe in the 1990s and from 1995 The Science of Sport appeared in various incarnations and venues around the World. In 2005 The Science Museum teamed up with Fleming Media to set up The Science of... who develop and tour exhibitions including The Science of Aliens, The Science of Spying and The Science of Survival
In 2008, The Science of Survival exhibition opened to the public and allowed visitors to explore what the world might be like in 2050 and how humankind will meet the challenges of climate change and energy shortages.
In 2014 the museum launched the family science Energy Show, which toured the country.
The same year it began a new programme of touring exhibitions which opened with Collider: Step inside the world’s greatest experiment to much critical acclaim. The exhibition takes visitors behind the scenes at CERN and explores the science and engineering behind the discovery of the Higgs Boson. The exhibition will tour until early 2017.
Media Space exhibitions also go on tour, notably Only in England which displays works by the great photographers Tony Ray-Jones and Martin Parr.
The museum has undergone many changes in its history with older galleries being replaced by new ones.
- Blythe House, 1979–2019, the museum's former storage facility in West Kensington, while not a gallery offered tours of the collections housed there. Objects formally housed there will be accessible at the National Collections Centre, at the Science Museum Wroughton, in Wiltshire from 2023.
- The Children's Gallery, 1931–1995. Located in the basement, it was replaced by the under fives area called, The Garden.
- Glimpses of Medical History, 1981 to 2015. Located on the fourth floor, it contained reconstructions and dioramas of the history of practised medicine. It was not replaced, but subsumed into Medicine: The Wellcome Galleries which opened on the museum's first floor in November 2019
- Launchpad, 1986-2015. Originally opening on the ground floor, in 1989 it moved to the first floor replacing Textiles. Then in 2000 to the basement of the newly built Wellcome Wing. In 2007, it moved to its final location on the third floor, replacing the George III gallery. It was replaced by Wonderlab in 2016.
- Science and the Art of Medicine, 1981 to 2015. Located on the fifth floor, which featured exhibits of medical instruments and practices from ancient days and from many countries. It was not replaced, but subsumed into Medicine: The Wellcome Galleries which opened on the museum's first floor in November 2019
- Shipping, 1963–2012. Located on the second floor, its contents were 3D scanned and made available online. It was replaced by Information Age.
The Science Museum underwent a series of refurbishments as part of a vision to update the museum. The East Hall has been finished and the renovated museum shop opened in October 2005.
Centennial volume: Science for the Nation
The leading academic publisher Palgrave Macmillan published the official centenary history of the Science Museum on 14 April 2010. The first complete history of the Science Museum since 1957, Science for the Nation: Perspectives on the History of the Science Museum is a series of individual views by Science Museum staff and external academic historians of different aspects of the Science Museum's history. While it is not a chronological history in the conventional sense, the first five chapters cover the history of the museum from the Brompton Boilers in the 1860s to the opening of the Wellcome Wing in 2000. The remaining eight chapters cover a variety of themes concerning the Museum's development.
Directors of the Science Museum
The Directors of the South Kensington Museum were:
The Directors of the Science Museum have been:
- Major-General Edward R. Festing CB FRS (1893–1904)
- William I. Last (1904–1911)
- Sir Francis Grant Ogilvie CB (1911–1920)
- Colonel Sir Henry Lyons FRS (1920–1934)
- Colonel E. E. B. Mackintosh DSO (1933–1945)
- Dr Herman Shaw (1945–1950)
- Dr F. Sherwood Taylor (1950–1956)
- Sir Terence Morrison-Scott DSc FMA (1956–1960)
- Sir David Follett FMA (1960–1973)
- Dame Margaret Weston DBE FMA (1973–1986)
- Sir Neil Cossons OBE FSA FMA (1986–2000)
- Dr Lindsay Sharp (2000–2002)
The following have been Head/Director of the Science Museum in London, not including its satellite museums:
The following have been Directors of the National Museum of Science and Industry, (since April 2012 renamed the Science Museum Group) which oversees the Science Museum and other related museums, from 2002:
- Dr Lindsay Sharp (2002–2005)
- Jon Tucker (2005–06, Acting Director)
- Prof. Martin Earwicker FREng (2006–2009)
- Molly Jackson (2009)
- Andrew Scott CBE (2009–10)
- Ian Blatchford (2010–)
The Science Museum has been sponsored by major organisations including Shell, BP, Samsung and GlaxoSmithKline. Some have been controversial. It was criticised for accepting funds from Shell for its 2021 climate change exhibition. Scientists for Global Responsibility called the museum’s move "staggeringly out-of-step and irresponsible". Others, however, said the museum was 'performing a vital public service'. Some presenters, including George Monbiot, pulled out of climate talks on finding they were sponsored by BP and the Norwegian oil company Equinor.
Equinor is also the title sponsor of "Wonderlab: The Equinor Gallery", an exhibition for children, while BP is the funding partner of the museum's STEM Training Academy.
Previously Shell had sought to influence how the museum would present the climate change programme sponsored by the oil company.
The museum's director, Ian Blatchford, defended the museum's sponsorship policy, saying: "Even if the Science Museum were lavishly publicly funded I would still want to have sponsorship from the oil companies." The museum declined to give details of how much it receives from oil and gas sponsors.
- "ALVA - Association of Leading Visitor Attractions". www.alva.org.uk. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
- "Big Ambitions Serious science : Annual Review 2013–14" (PDF). Sciencemuseum.org.uk. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- "Science Museum | British History Online". British-history.ac.uk. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- "Museum history". About us. London: Science Museum. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
- Encyclopædia Britannica. "Science Museum (museum, London, United Kingdom) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 7 July 2010.
-  Archived 11 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine
-  Archived 16 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- "Library and Archives – About us". Science Museum. 3 February 2010. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
- Mark Brown (17 May 2019). "Science Museum plans 200 hectare site to show off lost treasures". The Guardian.
- "Dana Centre, Wellcome Wolfson Building". Mjparchitects.co.uk. Archived from the original on 28 June 2009. Retrieved 27 August 2009.
- McKie, Robin; Harris, Paul (21 October 2007). "Disgrace: How a giant of science was brought low". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
- Rose, Steven (21 October 2007). "Watson's bad science". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- "Hawking joins British astronauts in hailing record figures for educational visits to Science Museum – About us". Science Museum. 21 February 2012. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
-  Archived 2 January 2020 at the Wayback Machine
- "Impossible trees grow in the Science Museums". Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- "Record-breaking attendance at Crick event | The Francis Crick Institute". Crick.ac.uk. 27 February 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- "Watt's workshop". Science Museum, London. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
- NASA Apollo 10 summary page
- Rooney, David. "How did we get the planes in?". Science Museum. Science Museum. Retrieved 4 October 2020.
- "Media Space". Sciencemuseum.org.uk. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- "Information Age Gallery".
- "Her Majesty The Queen sends her first tweet to unveil the Information Age". Blog.sciencemuseum.org.uk. 24 October 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- "Engineer Your Future". Sciencemuseum.org.uk. 17 December 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- Burns, Corrinne (13 December 2019). "Original Victorian pharmacy recreated in full at the Science Museum". Pharmaceutical Journal. 303 (7932). Retrieved 10 February 2021.
- Wong, Henry (14 November 2019). "The Science Museum's £24 million exhibition gives medicine a human face". Design Week. Centaur Media plc. Retrieved 10 February 2021.
- Dobson, Juliet (2019). "The marvellous history of medicine". BMJ (367). Retrieved 10 February 2021.
- "Codebreaker wins Great Exhibition award | Inside the Science Museum". Blog.sciencemuseum.org.uk. 17 December 2012. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- "Unlocking Lovelock: Scientist, Inventor, Maverick". Sciencemuseum.org.uk. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- "Science Museum Live: The Energy Show". Sciencemuseum.org.uk. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- "Blythe House – About us – Science Museum London". Retrieved 21 September 2011.
- "Our collection". Science Museum Group. Science Museum Group. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
- Science for the nation perspectives on the history of the Science Museum. London: Palgrave Macmillan. 2010. p. 194. ISBN 978-1-349-31119-4.
- Moorhead, Joanna (25 October 2019). "A journey through medicine: the new galleries at the Science Museum". The Guardian. The Guardian. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
- Wilson, Anthony. "Launch Pad" (PDF). Science Projects. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
- "Launchpad through the ages". Science Museum. Science Museum, London. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
- "Shipping Gallery".
- "Science Museum's Launchball game adds prestigious 'Best of the Web' title to awards haul – About us". Science Museum. 23 April 2008. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- "10:10 stories". Google Maps. 25 January 2011. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- "Image of jon tucker, head of science museum, 2002. by Science & Society Picture Library". Scienceandsociety.co.uk. 23 April 2008. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- "After staunch criticism, Science Museum defends oil company Shell's sponsorship of its climate exhibition". www.theartnewspaper.com. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
- Letters (22 April 2021). "The Science Museum's carbon capture exhibition is not 'greenwash' | Letter". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
- "George Monbiot pulls out of climate change talk at Science Museum over fossil fuel sponsors". inews.co.uk. 26 February 2021. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
- "Oil sponsorship of the Science Museum". Culture Unstained. 23 February 2021. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
- "Shell sought to influence direction of Science Museum climate programme". The Guardian. 31 May 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
- "Science Museum defends oil and gas sponsorship". www.ft.com. 1 August 2019. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Science Museum, London.|
- Official website
- Albertopolis: Science Museum — architecture and history of the Science Museum
- ScienceMuseum.org.uk (SMG) — a group of British museums that includes the Science Museum
- Mapping the World's Science Museums from Nature Publishing Group's team blog