Science and technology in Canada
Science and technology in Canada consists of three distinct but closely related phenomena:
- the diffusion of technology in Canada
- scientific research in Canada
- innovation, invention and industrial research in Canada
In 2018, Canada spent approximately C$34.5 billion on domestic research and development, of which around $2 billion was spent directly by the federal government in-house and an additional $5.7 billion was provided by provincial and federal sources in the form of grants.
The diffusion of technology in Canada
Scientific research in Canada
Innovation, invention, and industrial research in Canada
Technological and industrial history of Canada
- Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics (December 22, 2018). "The Daily – Spending on research and development, 2018 intentions". statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved September 19, 2019.
- Council of Canadian Academies (2012). The State of Science and Technology in Canada, 2012. Council of Canadian Academies. ISBN 978-1-926558-47-9.
- G. Bruce Doern; Peter W. B. Phillips; David Castle (2016). Canadian Science, Technology, and Innovation Policy: The Innovation Economy and Society Nexus. McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 978-0-7735-4724-7.
- Edward Jones-Imhotep; Tina Adcock (2018). Made Modern: Science and Technology in Canadian History. UBC Press. ISBN 978-0-7748-3726-2.
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