Science and technology in Canada

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The Canadian-built Space Shuttle robotic arm (left), referred to as Canadarm, transferred the P5 truss segment over to the Canadian-built space station robotic arm, referred to as Canadarm2

Science and technology in Canada consists of three distinct but closely related phenomena:

  • the diffusion of technology in Canada
  • scientific research in Canada
  • innovation, invention and industrial research in Canada

In 2018, Canada spent approximately C$34.5 billion on domestic research and development, of which around $2 billion was spent directly by the federal government in-house and an additional $5.7 billion was provided by provincial and federal sources in the form of grants.[1] This investment corresponds to about 1.57% of Canada's gross domestic product, a decline from 1.72% in 2014.[2]

Canada was ranked 17th in the Global Innovation Index in 2019 and 2020.[3][4][5][6]

The diffusion of technology in Canada[edit]

Scientific research in Canada[edit]

Innovation, invention, and industrial research in Canada[edit]

Technological and industrial history of Canada[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics (December 22, 2018). "The Daily – Spending on research and development, 2018 intentions". Retrieved September 19, 2019.
  2. ^ Schneegans, S.; Straza, T.; Lewis, J., eds. (11 June 2021). UNESCO Science Report: the Race Against Time for Smarter Development. Paris: UNESCO. ISBN 978-92-3-100450-6.
  3. ^ "Release of the Global Innovation Index 2020: Who Will Finance Innovation?". Retrieved 2021-09-02.
  4. ^ "Global Innovation Index 2019". Retrieved 2021-09-02.
  5. ^ "RTD - Item". Retrieved 2021-09-02.
  6. ^ "Global Innovation Index". INSEAD Knowledge. 2013-10-28. Retrieved 2021-09-02.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]