Science and technology in the Ottoman Empire

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Science and technology in the Ottoman Empire covers the topics related to achievements and distinguished events that happened during the existence of the empire.

Translations and collections[edit]

The Ottomans managed to build a very large collection of libraries. The Ottoman contribution to science and technology during their six hundred years are small and measurable. To instantiate the Ottoman scientific contributions, two significant examples from astronomy and geography in the 16th century: the foundation of Istanbul Observatory and Taqi Al-Din's achievements therein, map making and mapmakers such as the famous sailors Piri Reis, Saydi Ali Reis and Macar Ali Reis. Another example is mathematician Ali Qushji from Samarkand, who wrote twelve volumes on mathematics.

Ottoman contributions to Science and Technology during a six hundred year rule over a huge domain are small and measurable. The above is merely a brief outline of some of the Ottoman scientific activities and related institutions that brought about the revival of culture, science, and learning in civilizations throughout the world. Many excellent works exist that can guide future researchers interested in this subject. Opportunities for further study abound, as the examples presented in this paper [?] could certainly be extended to cover a larger percentage of the vast contributions the Ottomans made over six hundred years. The classical scientific tradition that produced its finest works in the most magnificent period of the Empire was set forth in the scientific and educational institutions that have been briefly mentioned, in the scholarly circles established, and developed around these institutions. Still, the Ottoman classical tradition was preserved during this second phase of Ottoman science, when many more translations and transfers were made from European languages, and survived with some of its basic elements.

Geography[edit]

Main article: Piri Reis map
The Piri Reis map

The Piri Reis map was discovered in 1929 while the Topkapı Palace in Istanbul, Turkey was being converted into a museum. It consists of a map drawn on gazelle skin, primarily detailing the western coast of Africa and the eastern coast of South America. The map is considered to have been drawn in 1513 by Piri Reis, a famous admiral of the Turkish fleet.

Education[edit]

Advancement of the madrasah[edit]

For more details on this topic, see Madrasah.

The madrasah, which its first institution came forward during the Seljuk period, had reached its highest point during the Ottoman reign.

In 1773, Sultan Mustafa III founded the Imperial Naval Engineers' School (original name: Mühendishane-i Bahr-i Humayun), and it was originally dedicated to the training of ship builders and cartographers. In 1795 the scope of the school was broadened to train technical military staff for the modernizing Ottoman army. In 1845, the engineering function of the school was further widened with the addition of a program devoted to the training of architects. The scope and name of the school were extended and changed again in 1883 and in 1909 the school became a public engineering school which was aimed at training civil engineers who could provide the infrastructure for the rapidly building country.

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Science among the Ottomans: The Cultural Creation and Exchange of Knowledge by Miri Shefer-Mossensohn, 2015, University of Texas Press

References[edit]

  • Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu, "Ottoman Educational and Scholarly-Scientific Institutions," in vol. 2 of History of the Ottoman State, Society and Civilisation, ed. Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu (İstanbul: IRCICA, 2002), 361-512.
  • [2] Halil Inalcik, The Ottoman Empire: Conquest, Organization and Economy, (London: Variorum, 1978).
  • [3] Salim Aydüz, Tophâne-i Âmire ve Top Döküm Teknolojisi, (Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu, 2006).
  • [4] Cevat İzgi, Osmanli Medreselerinde İlim, vol. I, (İstanbul, İz Yayincilik, 1998), 224-226.
  • [5] Osman Turan, İstanbul'un Fethinden Önce Yazilmiş Tarihî Takvimler (Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu, 1984).
  • [6] Salim Ayduz, "Uluǧ Bey Zici'nin Osmanli Astronomi Çalişmalarindaki Yeri ve Önemi" Bilig, Ankara (Spring 2003), issue 25, pp. 139–172.
  • [7] Al-Hassani, Salim, and Al-Lawati, Mohammed A., The Six Cylinder Water Pump of Taqī al-Dīn. Published on www.MuslimHeritage.com (21 July 2008).
  • [8] J. H. Mordtmann, "Das Observatorium des Taqi ed-din zu Pera," Der Islam vol. 12 (1913): 93; Ramazan Şeşen, "Meşhur Osmanli Astronomu Takiyüddin El-Râsid'in Soyu Üzerine," Erdem 4, issue 10 (1988): 165-171; Cevat İzgi, Osmanli Medreselerinde İlim, vol. 1 (İstanbul: İz Yayincilik, 1997): 301-302, 327, 192; İzgi, vol. 2: 128-132; Salim Aydüz, "Takiyüddin Râsid," Yaşamlari ve Yapitlariyla Osmanlilar Ansiklopedisi, vol. 1 (İstanbul: Yapi Kredi Yayinlari, 1999): 603-605. See for Taqi Al-Din's list of manuscripts and related works: Aydüz, Salim, Taqī al-Dīn Ibn Ma'rūf: A Bio-Bibliographical Essay. Published on www.MuslimHeritage.com (26 June 2008).
  • [9] Ahmet Süheyl Ünver, İstanbul Rasathânesi (Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu, 1986): 43-47.
  • [10] J. L. E. Dreyer, Tycho Brahe: A Picture of Scientific Life and Work in the Sixteenth Century (New York/London: Dover Publications/Constable, 1963).
  • [11] Sevim Tekeli, "Nasiruddin, Takiyüddin ve Tycho Brahe'nin Rasat Aletlerinin Mukayesesi," Ankara Üniversitesi, Dil ve Tarih Coǧrafya Fakültesi Dergisi 16, no. 3-4 (1958): 224-259.
  • [12] Topkapi Palace Museum Library, MS Hazine no. 465/1. In addition, look: Sevim Tekeli, "Trigonometry in Two Sixteenth Century Works; The De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium and the Sidra al-Muntaha," History of Oriental Astronomy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987), 209-214.
  • [13] Sevim Tekeli, "İstanbul Rasathânesinin Araçlari," Araştirma 11 (1979): 29-44; S. Tekeli, "Takiyüddin'de Kiriş 2° ve Sin 1° nin Hesabi," Araştirma 3 (1965): 123-127; S. Tekeli, "Takiyüddin'in Delos Problemi ile ilgili Çalişmalari," Araştirma 6 (1968): 1-9; S. Tekeli, "Takiyüddin'in Sidret ül-müntehasinda Aletler Bahsi," Belleten 30, no. 98 (1961): 213-227.
  • [14] Sevim Tekeli, "Astronomical Instruments for the Zîj of Emperor," Arastirma 1 (1963): 86-97.
  • [15] Ibid.
  • [16] Aydin Sayili, The Observatory in Islam (Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu, 1991), 289–305; Aydin Sayili, "Alauddin Mansur'un İstanbul Rasathânesi Hakkindaki Şiirleri," Belleten 20, no. 79 (1956): 414, 466.
  • [17] Sevim Tekeli, "Meçhul bir yazarin İstanbul Rasathesi Aletlerinin Tasvirini veren: Alat-i Rasadiye li Zic-i Şehinşahiye Adli Eseri," Araştirma 1 (1963): 12–71.
  • [18] Egypt, Cairo National Library, falak no. 3845, miqat no. 557/4.
  • [19] He was also known as "Müneccimbaşi Mustafa Çelebi" and "Koca Saatçi".

[20] Yavuz Unat, "Mustafa Ibn Ali el-Muvakkît ve İ'lâm el-‘İbâd fî A'lâm el-Bilâd (Şehirler Aleminde Mesafelerin Bildirimi) Adli Risalesi", EJOS, VII, (2004), No. 10, pp. 1–47.

[21] History of geographical literature during the Ottoman period, Ekmeleddin İhsanoǧlu and others, (İstanbul: IRCICA, 2000).

[22] Abbas 'al-`Azzawi. Tarikh `ilm 'al-falak fi 'al-`Iraq wa-`alaqatihi bi-'al-'aqtar 'al-'Islamiyah wa-'al-`Arabiyah fi 'al-`uhud 'al-taliyah li-'ayyam 'al-`Abbasiyin: min sanat 656 H.=1258 M. 'ila sanat 1335 H.=1917 M. [Baghdad]: Matba`at 'al-Majma` 'al-`Ilmi 'al-`Iraqi, 1958, 254-257; Adivar, A. Adnan. Osmanli Turklerinde Ilim. Ankara: Remzi Kitabevi, 1970, pp. 85-89; Ak, Mahmut. "Saydī ‘Ali Reis". Yasamlari ve Yapitlariyla Osmanlilar Ansiklopedisi. Istanbul: Yapi Kredi Kultur Yayinlari, 1999, II, pp. 525–527; Bursali Mehmed Tahir. Osmanli Muellifleri. Istanbul: Matbaa-i Amire, 1923. III, 270-272; Diez, H. Friedrich. Denkwürdigkeiten von Asien. Berlin 1815, II, 133-267; Hajji Khalifa. Kashf al-Zunun ‘an isama al-kutub wa'l-funun. Ankara: Milli Egitim Bakanligi, 1941, I, 807; History of Astronomical Literature during the Ottoman Period. By. Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu and others. Istanbul: Research Center for Islamic History, Art and culture, 1997. I, 140-145; History of Geographical Literature during the Ottoman Period. By. Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu and others. Istanbul: Research Center for Islamic History, Art and culture, 2000. I, 35-38; Izgi, Cevat. Osmanli Medreselerinde Ilim. Istanbul: Iz Yayincilik, 1997, I, 344, 388, 394, 449, 450; II, 256, 257; King, David A. A survey of the scientific manuscripts in the Egyptian National Library. Winona Lake [Ind.]: Eisenbrauns, 1986. 171; Krachkovskiy, Ignatiy Yulianovich. Arabskaya Geograficheskaya Literatura. Izbrannyye sochineiniya. 4. M.-Lg., 1957. pp. 569-578; Mehmed Sureyya. Sijill-i Osmani. Istanbul: Matbaa-i Amire, 1308. II, 498-499; Ors, Hayrullah and Mustafa Nihad Ozon. Hindistan'dan Istanbul'a. Ankara 1935; Rosenfeld, Boris A. and Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu, Mathematicians, astronomers and other scholars of Islamic civilisation and their Works (7th -19th c.). Istanbul: Research Center for Islamic History, Art and culture, 2003, pp. 325-326, No. 977; Soucek, Svat. "Sidi ‘Ali Reis. (Saydī ‘Ali Reis)", Encyclopaedia of Islam. CD-ROM Edition 1999, Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands; C.A. Storey, Persian Literature: A Bio-bibliographical survey. Leiden: Published by the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Sole agents: E. J. Brill, 1977, II, 76-77; Süssheim, Karl. "‘Ali (Sidi ‘Ali) b. Husain", Encyclopeida of Islam, Ist ed., 1913, 301-302; Suter, Heinrich. "Die Mathematiker und Astronomen der Araber und ihre Werke", Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der mathematischen Wissenschaften mit Einschluss ihrer Anwendungen; 10. Hft. Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1900. A, 188-190; Turan, Serefeddin. "Saydī ‘Ali Reis", Islam Ansiklopedisi. Ankara: Milli Egitim Bakanligi, 1966, X, 528-531; Uzuncarsili, Ismail Hakki. Osmanli Tarihi. Ankara: Turk Tarih Kurumu, 1998, II, 398-400, 606.

[23] M. Bittner, "Die topographischen Capital des indischen Seespiegels, Mohit", Festschrift 1897; Comprehensive (Book) on the Science of Heavens and Seas (al-Muhīt fi ‘ilm al-aflak wa'l-abhur), Naples, Vienna 1277; Gabriel, Ferrand. L'amiral Sidi ‘Ali et le Muhit. Introduction à l'astronomie nautique Arabe. Paris 1936; Mir'at al-mamalik. The travels and adventures of the Turkish Admiral Sidi ‘Ali Reis in India, Afghanistan, Central Asia, and Persia, during the years 1553-1556. Trans. by. A. Vambéry. London: Luzac, 1899; Mir'atu'l-Memalik: Inceleme, metin, indeks, Saydī ‘Ali Reis. Published by Mehmet Kiremit. Ankara: Turk Dil Kurumu, 1999; Saydī ‘Ali Rais. Mir'atul mamolik (Mamlakatlar kuzgusi). By. S. Zumnunab. Tashkent, 1963; Saydī ‘Ali Reis, Mir'at al-Mamalik. By Ahmad Jawdat Pasha. Istanbul: Ikdam Matbaasi, 1313 (1895); Sidi Rais. Die topographische Capitel des indischen Seespiegel Mohit. Übers. Von M. Bittner, mit einer Einleitung von W. Tomaschek. Wien, 1897.

[24] William Brice, Colin Imber and Richard Lorch, The Da'ire-yi Mu'addel of Saydī ‘Ali Re'is, Seminar on Early Islamic Science, Monograph No. 1. Manchester: The University of Manchester, 1976.

[25] Goodrich, Thomas D., "Old Maps in the Library of Topkapi Palace in Istanbul", Imago Mundi, vol. 45. (1993), pp. 120–133; Grabar, Oleg, "An Exhibition of High Ottoman Art". Muqarnas, vol. 6 (1989), pp. 1–11; History of Geography Literature during the Ottoman Period. Edited by Ekmeleddin İhsanoǧlu et al., Istanbul: IRCICA, 2000, I, 42-45; History of Mathematical Literature during the Ottoman Period. Edited by Ekmeleddin İhsanoǧlu et al., Istanbul: IRCICA, 1999, I, 68-73; History of Military Art and Science Literature During the Ottoman Period. Edited by. Ekmeleddin İhsanoǧlu et al., Istanbul: IRCICA, 2004, I, 10-11; İhsanoǧlu, Ekmeleddin, "The Ottoman Scientific-Scholarly Literature". In History of the Ottoman State, Society and Civilization, II, Istanbul: IRCICA, 2002, pp. 543, 567-568; Johnston, Norman J., "The Urban World of the Matraki Manuscript", Journal of Near Eastern Studies, vol. 30, No. 3. (July 1971), pp. 159–176; Kara, I., "Nasuh Matrakçi", Türk Dili ve Edebiyati Ansiklopedisi, Devirler, isimler, terimler. İstanbul: Dergah Yayinlari, 1977, VI, pp. 527–8; Mahir, Banu-İhsan Fazlioǧlu, "Nasuh (Matrakçi)", . Istanbul: YKB, 1999, II, 350-351; Matrakçi Nasuh Bey b. Abdulah (Karagöz) al-Silahi, Beyân-i Menâzil-i Sefer-i Irakeyn-i sultan süleyman han. Published by H. G. Yurdaydin. Ankara, 1976; Selen, H. S., "16inci asirda yapilmiş Anadolu atlasi: Nasuh Silahi'nin Menâzil'i", İkinci türk tarih kongresi, Istanbul 20-25 Eylül 1937 kongrenin çalişmalari, kongreye sunulan tebliǧler. Istanbul, 1943, pp. 813–817; Soucek, S., "Islamic Charting in the Mediterranean", in The History of Cartography: Cartography in the Traditional Islamic and South Asian Societies, edited by J. B. Harley and David Woodward. Chicago: The University of Chicago, 1992, pp. 235–253; Taeschner, Franz, "The Itinerary of the First Persian Campaign of Sultan Süleyman, 1534-36, According to Nasuh al-Matraki", Imago Mundi, vol. 13 (1956), pp. 53–55; Yurdaydin, H. G., "An Ottoman Historian of the XVIth Century: Nasuh al-Matrakî and his Beyân-i Menâzil-i Sefer-i ‘Irakeyn and its Importance for some Iraki Cities", Turcica, vii (1975), pp. 179–87; Yurdaydin, H. G., "Matrakçi Nasuh'un Minyatürlü iki yeni eseri". Atti II. Congree İnternational Acta Turca, Venezia, 1963. Venedik, 1965, pp. 283–286; Yurdaydin, H. G., "Matrakçi", Encyclopaedia of Islam, Leiden: Brill, CD version, 2001; Yurdaydin, H. G., Matrakçi Nasuh. Ankara, 1963.

[26] Nasuh b. Abdullah Matrakçi Nasuh, Beyan-i menazil-i sefer-i Irakeyn-i Sultan Süleyman Han, ed. Hüseyin G. Yurdaydin (Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu, 1976).

[27] Franz Taeschner, "The Itinerary of the First Persian Campaign of Sultan Süleyman, 1534-36, According to Nasuh al-Matraki", Imago Mundi, vol. 13 (1956), pp. 53–55.

[28] S. Soucek, "Islamic Charting in the Mediterranean", in The History of Cartography: Cartography in the Traditional Islamic and South Asian Societies, edited by J. B. Harley and David Woodward. Chicago: The University of Chicago, 1992, pp. 235–253.

[29] Thomas D. Goodrich, "Old Maps in the Library of Topkapi Palace in Istanbul", Imago Mundi, vol. 45. (1993), pp. 120–133.

[30] Norman J. Johnston, "The Urban World of the Matraki Manuscript", Journal of Near Eastern Studies, vol. 30, No. 3. (July 1971), pp. 159–176.

[31] Turkish history institution (Turk Tarih Kurumu) published the city paintings he made during the expedition (edited and published by H. G. Yurdaydin, in 1976).

[32] This manuscript is stored at the Beyazit Library, MS 4696.

[33] This book published as facsimile by Cultural Ministry of Turkey: Muhammed b. Emir el-Hasan Sudi, Tarih-i Hind-i Garbi veya Hadis-i Nev: A History of the Discovery of America, İstanbul: Kültür ve Turizm Bakanliǧi, 1987. Thomas D. Goodrich, The Ottoman Turks and the New World: A Study of Tarih-i Hind-i Garbi and Sixteenth-Century Ottoman Americana, Near and Middle East monographs, new series, vol. 3, Wiesbaden: O. Harrassowitz, 1990, pp. 1–3.

[34] On the page 4b there is one note about the author. It is a short sentence in Arabic along the right hard margin of the page, in the area of the Atlantic along the western coast of Spain; the approximate translation: ‘The Humble Ali Macar wrote it with the aid of the Lord of Decision (i.e., God) in the month of Safar, year 975', i.e., between August 7 and September 4, 1567. No other chart or atlas made by him is known. The first impression thus might be that an Ottoman seaman made this atlas on the basis of his maritime experience. And despite the date given of 1567, there is minor yet significant evidence that he drew this atlas before 1542; for on 6a, Scotland is separated from England by a channel which disappeared from Italian charts after that year.

[35] S. Soucek, "The ‘Ali Macar Reis Atlas' and The Deniz Kitabi: Their Place in the Genre of Portolan Charts and Atlases", Imago Mundi. A Review of Early Cartography, N. 25 (1971), pp. 17–27; Özdemir, Kemal. Ottoman Nautical Charts and the Atlas of Ali Macar Reis, A Marmara publication. Istanbul: Creative Yayincilik ve Tanitim, 1992.

[36] New Encyclopedia of Islam, vol. IV, p. 1082; N. Akmal Ayyubi, "Turkish Contributions to Islamic Geography", Erdem, vol IX, 26 (Ankara 2002) pp. 483–489.

half of the 19th century.Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu, "Ottoman Educational and Scholarly-Scientific Institutions," in vol. 2 of History of the Ottoman State, Society and Civilisation, ed. Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu (İstanbul: IRCICA, 2002), 361-512.

[2] Halil Inalcik, The Ottoman Empire: Conquest, Organization and Economy, (London: Variorum, 1978).

[3] Salim Aydüz, Tophâne-i Âmire ve Top Döküm Teknolojisi, (Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu, 2006).

[4] Cevat İzgi, Osmanli Medreselerinde İlim, vol. I, (İstanbul, İz Yayincilik, 1998), 224-226.

[5] Osman Turan, İstanbul'un Fethinden Önce Yazilmiş Tarihî Takvimler (Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu, 1984).

[6] Salim Ayduz, "Uluǧ Bey Zici'nin Osmanli Astronomi Çalişmalarindaki Yeri ve Önemi" Bilig, Ankara (Spring 2003), issue 25, pp. 139–172.

[7] Al-Hassani, Salim, and Al-Lawati, Mohammed A., The Six Cylinder Water Pump of Taqī al-Dīn. Published on www.MuslimHeritage.com (21 July 2008).

[8] J. H. Mordtmann, "Das Observatorium des Taqi ed-din zu Pera," Der Islam vol. 12 (1913): 93; Ramazan Şeşen, "Meşhur Osmanli Astronomu Takiyüddin El-Râsid'in Soyu Üzerine," Erdem 4, issue 10 (1988): 165-171; Cevat İzgi, Osmanli Medreselerinde İlim, vol. 1 (İstanbul: İz Yayincilik, 1997): 301-302, 327, 192; İzgi, vol. 2: 128-132; Salim Aydüz, "Takiyüddin Râsid," Yaşamlari ve Yapitlariyla Osmanlilar Ansiklopedisi, vol. 1 (İstanbul: Yapi Kredi Yayinlari, 1999): 603-605. See for Taqi Al-Din's list of manuscripts and related works: Aydüz, Salim, Taqī al-Dīn Ibn Ma'rūf: A Bio-Bibliographical Essay. Published on www.MuslimHeritage.com (26 June 2008).

[9] Ahmet Süheyl Ünver, İstanbul Rasathânesi (Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu, 1986): 43-47.

[10] J. L. E. Dreyer, Tycho Brahe: A Picture of Scientific Life and Work in the Sixteenth Century (New York/London: Dover Publications/Constable, 1963).

[11] Sevim Tekeli, "Nasiruddin, Takiyüddin ve Tycho Brahe'nin Rasat Aletlerinin Mukayesesi," Ankara Üniversitesi, Dil ve Tarih Coǧrafya Fakültesi Dergisi 16, no. 3-4 (1958): 224-259.

[12] Topkapi Palace Museum Library, MS Hazine no. 465/1. In addition, look: Sevim Tekeli, "Trigonometry in Two Sixteenth Century Works; The De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium and the Sidra al-Muntaha," History of Oriental Astronomy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987), 209-214.

[13] Sevim Tekeli, "İstanbul Rasathânesinin Araçlari," Araştirma 11 (1979): 29-44; S. Tekeli, "Takiyüddin'de Kiriş 2° ve Sin 1° nin Hesabi," Araştirma 3 (1965): 123-127; S. Tekeli, "Takiyüddin'in Delos Problemi ile ilgili Çalişmalari," Araştirma 6 (1968): 1-9; S. Tekeli, "Takiyüddin'in Sidret ül-müntehasinda Aletler Bahsi," Belleten 30, no. 98 (1961): 213-227.

[14] Sevim Tekeli, "Astronomical Instruments for the Zîj of Emperor," Arastirma 1 (1963): 86-97.

[15] Ibid.

[16] Aydin Sayili, The Observatory in Islam (Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu, 1991), 289–305; Aydin Sayili, "Alauddin Mansur'un İstanbul Rasathânesi Hakkindaki Şiirleri," Belleten 20, no. 79 (1956): 414, 466.

[17] Sevim Tekeli, "Meçhul bir yazarin İstanbul Rasathesi Aletlerinin Tasvirini veren: Alat-i Rasadiye li Zic-i Şehinşahiye Adli Eseri," Araştirma 1 (1963): 12–71.

[18] Egypt, Cairo National Library, falak no. 3845, miqat no. 557/4.

[19] He was also known as "Müneccimbaşi Mustafa Çelebi" and "Koca Saatçi".

[20] Yavuz Unat, "Mustafa Ibn Ali el-Muvakkît ve İ'lâm el-‘İbâd fî A'lâm el-Bilâd (Şehirler Aleminde Mesafelerin Bildirimi) Adli Risalesi", EJOS, VII, (2004), No. 10, pp. 1–47.

[21] History of geographical literature during the Ottoman period, Ekmeleddin İhsanoǧlu and others, (İstanbul: IRCICA, 2000).

[22] Abbas 'al-`Azzawi. Tarikh `ilm 'al-falak fi 'al-`Iraq wa-`alaqatihi bi-'al-'aqtar 'al-'Islamiyah wa-'al-`Arabiyah fi 'al-`uhud 'al-taliyah li-'ayyam 'al-`Abbasiyin: min sanat 656 H.=1258 M. 'ila sanat 1335 H.=1917 M. [Baghdad]: Matba`at 'al-Majma` 'al-`Ilmi 'al-`Iraqi, 1958, 254-257; Adivar, A. Adnan. Osmanli Turklerinde Ilim. Ankara: Remzi Kitabevi, 1970, pp. 85-89; Ak, Mahmut. "Saydī ‘Ali Reis". Yasamlari ve Yapitlariyla Osmanlilar Ansiklopedisi. Istanbul: Yapi Kredi Kultur Yayinlari, 1999, II, pp. 525–527; Bursali Mehmed Tahir. Osmanli Muellifleri. Istanbul: Matbaa-i Amire, 1923. III, 270-272; Diez, H. Friedrich. Denkwürdigkeiten von Asien. Berlin 1815, II, 133-267; Hajji Khalifa. Kashf al-Zunun ‘an isama al-kutub wa'l-funun. Ankara: Milli Egitim Bakanligi, 1941, I, 807; History of Astronomical Literature during the Ottoman Period. By. Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu and others. Istanbul: Research Center for Islamic History, Art and culture, 1997. I, 140-145; History of Geographical Literature during the Ottoman Period. By. Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu and others. Istanbul: Research Center for Islamic History, Art and culture, 2000. I, 35-38; Izgi, Cevat. Osmanli Medreselerinde Ilim. Istanbul: Iz Yayincilik, 1997, I, 344, 388, 394, 449, 450; II, 256, 257; King, David A. A survey of the scientific manuscripts in the Egyptian National Library. Winona Lake [Ind.]: Eisenbrauns, 1986. 171; Krachkovskiy, Ignatiy Yulianovich. Arabskaya Geograficheskaya Literatura. Izbrannyye sochineiniya. 4. M.-Lg., 1957. pp. 569-578; Mehmed Sureyya. Sijill-i Osmani. Istanbul: Matbaa-i Amire, 1308. II, 498-499; Ors, Hayrullah and Mustafa Nihad Ozon. Hindistan'dan Istanbul'a. Ankara 1935; Rosenfeld, Boris A. and Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu, Mathematicians, astronomers and other scholars of Islamic civilisation and their Works (7th -19th c.). Istanbul: Research Center for Islamic History, Art and culture, 2003, pp. 325-326, No. 977; Soucek, Svat. "Sidi ‘Ali Reis. (Saydī ‘Ali Reis)", Encyclopaedia of Islam. CD-ROM Edition 1999, Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands; C.A. Storey, Persian Literature: A Bio-bibliographical survey. Leiden: Published by the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Sole agents: E. J. Brill, 1977, II, 76-77; Süssheim, Karl. "‘Ali (Sidi ‘Ali) b. Husain", Encyclopeida of Islam, Ist ed., 1913, 301-302; Suter, Heinrich. "Die Mathematiker und Astronomen der Araber und ihre Werke", Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der mathematischen Wissenschaften mit Einschluss ihrer Anwendungen; 10. Hft. Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1900. A, 188-190; Turan, Serefeddin. "Saydī ‘Ali Reis", Islam Ansiklopedisi. Ankara: Milli Egitim Bakanligi, 1966, X, 528-531; Uzuncarsili, Ismail Hakki. Osmanli Tarihi. Ankara: Turk Tarih Kurumu, 1998, II, 398-400, 606.

[23] M. Bittner, "Die topographischen Capital des indischen Seespiegels, Mohit", Festschrift 1897; Comprehensive (Book) on the Science of Heavens and Seas (al-Muhīt fi ‘ilm al-aflak wa'l-abhur), Naples, Vienna 1277; Gabriel, Ferrand. L'amiral Sidi ‘Ali et le Muhit. Introduction à l'astronomie nautique Arabe. Paris 1936; Mir'at al-mamalik. The travels and adventures of the Turkish Admiral Sidi ‘Ali Reis in India, Afghanistan, Central Asia, and Persia, during the years 1553-1556. Trans. by. A. Vambéry. London: Luzac, 1899; Mir'atu'l-Memalik: Inceleme, metin, indeks, Saydī ‘Ali Reis. Published by Mehmet Kiremit. Ankara: Turk Dil Kurumu, 1999; Saydī ‘Ali Rais. Mir'atul mamolik (Mamlakatlar kuzgusi). By. S. Zumnunab. Tashkent, 1963; Saydī ‘Ali Reis, Mir'at al-Mamalik. By Ahmad Jawdat Pasha. Istanbul: Ikdam Matbaasi, 1313 (1895); Sidi Rais. Die topographische Capitel des indischen Seespiegel Mohit. Übers. Von M. Bittner, mit einer Einleitung von W. Tomaschek. Wien, 1897.

[24] William Brice, Colin Imber and Richard Lorch, The Da'ire-yi Mu'addel of Saydī ‘Ali Re'is, Seminar on Early Islamic Science, Monograph No. 1. Manchester: The University of Manchester, 1976.

[25] Goodrich, Thomas D., "Old Maps in the Library of Topkapi Palace in Istanbul", Imago Mundi, vol. 45. (1993), pp. 120–133; Grabar, Oleg, "An Exhibition of High Ottoman Art". Muqarnas, vol. 6 (1989), pp. 1–11; History of Geography Literature during the Ottoman Period. Edited by Ekmeleddin İhsanoǧlu et al., Istanbul: IRCICA, 2000, I, 42-45; History of Mathematical Literature during the Ottoman Period. Edited by Ekmeleddin İhsanoǧlu et al., Istanbul: IRCICA, 1999, I, 68-73; History of Military Art and Science Literature During the Ottoman Period. Edited by. Ekmeleddin İhsanoǧlu et al., Istanbul: IRCICA, 2004, I, 10-11; İhsanoǧlu, Ekmeleddin, "The Ottoman Scientific-Scholarly Literature". In History of the Ottoman State, Society and Civilization, II, Istanbul: IRCICA, 2002, pp. 543, 567-568; Johnston, Norman J., "The Urban World of the Matraki Manuscript", Journal of Near Eastern Studies, vol. 30, No. 3. (July 1971), pp. 159–176; Kara, I., "Nasuh Matrakçi", Türk Dili ve Edebiyati Ansiklopedisi, Devirler, isimler, terimler. İstanbul: Dergah Yayinlari, 1977, VI, pp. 527–8; Mahir, Banu-İhsan Fazlioǧlu, "Nasuh (Matrakçi)", . Istanbul: YKB, 1999, II, 350-351; Matrakçi Nasuh Bey b. Abdulah (Karagöz) al-Silahi, Beyân-i Menâzil-i Sefer-i Irakeyn-i sultan süleyman han. Published by H. G. Yurdaydin. Ankara, 1976; Selen, H. S., "16inci asirda yapilmiş Anadolu atlasi: Nasuh Silahi'nin Menâzil'i", İkinci türk tarih kongresi, Istanbul 20-25 Eylül 1937 kongrenin çalişmalari, kongreye sunulan tebliǧler. Istanbul, 1943, pp. 813–817; Soucek, S., "Islamic Charting in the Mediterranean", in The History of Cartography: Cartography in the Traditional Islamic and South Asian Societies, edited by J. B. Harley and David Woodward. Chicago: The University of Chicago, 1992, pp. 235–253; Taeschner, Franz, "The Itinerary of the First Persian Campaign of Sultan Süleyman, 1534-36, According to Nasuh al-Matraki", Imago Mundi, vol. 13 (1956), pp. 53–55; Yurdaydin, H. G., "An Ottoman Historian of the XVIth Century: Nasuh al-Matrakî and his Beyân-i Menâzil-i Sefer-i ‘Irakeyn and its Importance for some Iraki Cities", Turcica, vii (1975), pp. 179–87; Yurdaydin, H. G., "Matrakçi Nasuh'un Minyatürlü iki yeni eseri". Atti II. Congree İnternational Acta Turca, Venezia, 1963. Venedik, 1965, pp. 283–286; Yurdaydin, H. G., "Matrakçi", Encyclopaedia of Islam, Leiden: Brill, CD version, 2001; Yurdaydin, H. G., Matrakçi Nasuh. Ankara, 1963.

[26] Nasuh b. Abdullah Matrakçi Nasuh, Beyan-i menazil-i sefer-i Irakeyn-i Sultan Süleyman Han, ed. Hüseyin G. Yurdaydin (Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu, 1976).

[27] Franz Taeschner, "The Itinerary of the First Persian Campaign of Sultan Süleyman, 1534-36, According to Nasuh al-Matraki", Imago Mundi, vol. 13 (1956), pp. 53–55.

[28] S. Soucek, "Islamic Charting in the Mediterranean", in The History of Cartography: Cartography in the Traditional Islamic and South Asian Societies, edited by J. B. Harley and David Woodward. Chicago: The University of Chicago, 1992, pp. 235–253.

[29] Thomas D. Goodrich, "Old Maps in the Library of Topkapi Palace in Istanbul", Imago Mundi, vol. 45. (1993), pp. 120–133.

[30] Norman J. Johnston, "The Urban World of the Matraki Manuscript", Journal of Near Eastern Studies, vol. 30, No. 3. (July 1971), pp. 159–176.

[31] Turkish history institution (Turk Tarih Kurumu) published the city paintings he made during the expedition (edited and published by H. G. Yurdaydin, in 1976).

[32] This manuscript is stored at the Beyazit Library, MS 4696.

[33] This book published as facsimile by Cultural Ministry of Turkey: Muhammed b. Emir el-Hasan Sudi, Tarih-i Hind-i Garbi veya Hadis-i Nev: A History of the Discovery of America, İstanbul: Kültür ve Turizm Bakanliǧi, 1987. Thomas D. Goodrich, The Ottoman Turks and the New World: A Study of Tarih-i Hind-i Garbi and Sixteenth-Century Ottoman Americana, Near and Middle East monographs, new series, vol. 3, Wiesbaden: O. Harrassowitz, 1990, pp. 1–3.

[34] On the page 4b there is one note about the author. It is a short sentence in Arabic along the right hard margin of the page, in the area of the Atlantic along the western coast of Spain; the approximate translation: ‘The Humble Ali Macar wrote it with the aid of the Lord of Decision (i.e., God) in the month of Safar, year 975', i.e., between August 7 and September 4, 1567. No other chart or atlas made by him is known. The first impression thus might be that an Ottoman seaman made this atlas on the basis of his maritime experience. And despite the date given of 1567, there is minor yet significant evidence that he drew this atlas before 1542; for on 6a, Scotland is separated from England by a channel which disappeared from Italian charts after that year.

[35] S. Soucek, "The ‘Ali Macar Reis Atlas' and The Deniz Kitabi: Their Place in the Genre of Portolan Charts and Atlases", Imago Mundi. A Review of Early Cartography, N. 25 (1971), pp. 17–27; Özdemir, Kemal. Ottoman Nautical Charts and the Atlas of Ali Macar Reis, A Marmara publication. Istanbul: Creative Yayincilik ve Tanitim, 1992.

[36] New Encyclopedia of Islam, vol. IV, p. 1082; N. Akmal Ayyubi, "Turkish Contributions to Islamic Geography", Erdem, vol IX, 26 (Ankara 2002) pp. 483–489.

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