Science and technology in the Philippines
|Republic of the Philippines|
Science and technology in the Philippines represents the wide scientific and technological advances the country has made. The main managing agency responsible for science and technology (S&T) is the Department of Science and Technology. The department have consulting agencies for Forestry, Agriculture and Aquaculture, Metal Industry, Nuclear Research, Food and Nutrition, Health, Meteorological and the Volcalonogy and Seismology. However, the country is still developing in areas such as Life Sciences, Engineering and Social Sciences are not covered by these agencies.
Numerous national scientists have contributed in different fields of science including Fe del Mundo in the field of Pediatrics, Eduardo Quisumbing in the field of Plant taxonomy, Gavino Trono in the field of tropical marine Phycology, Maria Orosa in the field of Food technology and many more.
- 1 History
- 2 Fields of Science and Technology
- 3 Institutions
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Even before the colonization by the Spaniards in the Philippine islands, the natives of the archipelago already had practices linked to science and technology. Filipinos were already aware of the medicinal and therapeutic properties of plants and the methods of extracting medicine from herbs. They already had an alphabet, number system, a weighing and measuring system and a calendar. Filipinos were already engaged in farming, shipbuilding, mining and weaving. The Banaue Rice Terraces are among the sophisticated products of engineering by pre-Spanish era Filipinos.
Spanish Colonial Era
The colonization of the Philippines contributed to growth of science and technology in the archipelago. The Spanish introduced formal education and founded scientific institution. During the early years of Spanish rule in the Philippines. Parish schools were established where religion, reading, writing, arithmetic and music was taught. Sanitation and more advanced methods of agriculture was taught to the natives. Later the Spanish established colleges and universities in the archipelago including the oldest existing university in Asia, the University of Santo Tomas.
The study of medicine in the Philippines was given priority in the Spanish era, especially in the later years. The Spanish also contributed to the field of engineering in the islands by constructing government buildings, churches, roads, bridges and forts. Biology is given focus. Contributors to science in the archipelago during the 19th century were botanists, Fr. Ignacio Mercado., Dr. Trinidad Pardo de Tavera and Dr. Leon Ma Guerrero, chemist Anaclento del Rosario, and medicine scholars Dr. Manuel Guerrero, Dr, Jose Montes and Dr. Elrodario Mercado.
The Galleon Trade have accounted in the Philippine colonial economy. Trade was given more focus by the Spaniard colonial authorities due to the prospects of big profits. Agriculture and industrial development on the other hand were relatively neglected. The opening of the Suez Canal saw the influx of European visitors to the Spanish colony and some Filipinos were able to study in Europe who were probably influenced by the rapid development of scientific ideals brought by the Age of Enlightenment.
The progress of science and technology in the Philippines continued under American rule of the islands. On July 1, 1901 The Philippine Commission established the Bureau of Government Laboratories which was placed under the Department of Interior. The Bureau replaced the Laboratorio Municipal, which was established under the Spanish colonial era. The Bureau dealt with the study of tropical diseases and laboratory projects. On October 26, 1905, the Bureau of Government Laboratories was replaced by the Bureau of Science and on December 8, 1933, the National Research Council of the Philippines was established. The Bureau of Science became the primary research center of the Philippines until World War II.
Science during the American period was inclined towards agriculture, food processing, forestry, medicine and pharmacy. Not much focus was given on the development of industrial technology due to free trade policy with the United States which nurtured an economy geared towards agriculture and trade.
In 1946 the Bureau of Science was replaced by the Institute of Science. In a report by the US Economic Survey to the Philippines in 1950, there is a lack of basic information which were necessities to the country's industries, lack of support of experimental work and minimal budget for scientific research and low salaries of scientists employed by the government. In 1958, during the regime of President Carlos P. Garcia, the Philippine Congress passed the Science Act of 1958 which established the National Science Development Board.
During the 1970s, which was under the time of Ferdinand Marcos' presidency, the importance given to science grew. Under the 1973 Philippine Constitution, Article XV, Section 1, the government's role in supporting scientific research and invention was acknowledged. In 1974, a science development program was included in the government's Four-Year Development Plan which covers the years 1974–78. Funding for science was also increased. The National Science Development Board was replaced by the National Science and Technology Authority under Executive Order No. 784. A Scientific Career in the civil service was introiduced in 1983.
In 1986, during Corazon Aquino's presidency, the National Science and Technology Authority was replaced by the Department of Science and Technology, giving science and technology a representation in the cabinet. Under the Medium Term Philippine Development Plan for the years 1987-1992, science and technology's role in economic recovery and sustained economic growth was highlighted. During Corazon Aquino's State of the Nation Address in 1990, she said that science and technology development shall be one of the top three priorities of the government towards an economic recovery.
In August 8, 1988, Corazon Aquino created the Presidential Task Force for Science and Technology which came up with the first Science and Technology Master Plan or STMP. The goal of STMP was for the Philippines to achieve newly industrialized country status by the year 2000. The Congress did not put much priority in handling bills related to science and technology. The Senate Committee on Science and Technology was one of the committees that handles the least amount of bills for deliberation.
Former Science and Technology secretary, Ceferin Follosco, reported that the budget allocation for science and technology was increased to 1.054 billion pesos in 1989 from the previous year's 464 million pesos. However, due to the Asian financial crisis, budget allocation for the years 1990 and 1991 were trimmed down to 920 and 854 million pesos respectively. Budget allocation were increased to 1.7 billion pesos in 1992.
Fields of Science and Technology
Life Sciences is a very broad field, it encompasses numerous specializations. It is commonly defined by sciences that pertain to living organisms like microorganisms, plants, animals, and most importantly human beings. Some of the well-known fields in the Life Sciences are zoology, botany, biology, microbiology, biotechnology, and biomedical technologies.
In the Philippines, the various fields of the Life Sciences is under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). This government office is responsible for the coordination and funding of different researches by Filipino scientists and inventors, which can potentially help the progress of science and technology in the Philippines. There are different agencies under DOST which cater to specialized fields, these are the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), and the Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic, and Natural Resources Research Development (PCAARRD). The Secretary of Science and Technology is appointed by the president of the Republic of the Philippines, and this position has no fixed term. The incumbent Secretary of Science and Technology is Mario G. Montejo, a professor of the University of the Philippines Diliman, he was appointed by President Benigno Aquino III on June 29, 2010.
Botany and Biology
Botany and biology are one of the highly sought after research topics in the Philippines, given our rich biodiversity in flora and fauna.
Several Filipino scientist have pioneered in the field of biology. Eduardo Quisumbing, a biologist who graduated MS in Botany at the University of the Philippines Los Baños in 1921, and Ph. D. in Plant Taxonomy, Systematics and Morphology at the University of Chicago in 1923. He conducted research on taxonomic and morphological papers deal with orchids and authored the book Medicinal Plants of the Philippines. The species of Saccolabium quisumbingii was named after him. Dioscoro L. Umali, is an agriculturist that was dubbed as the Father of Philippine Plant Breeding due to the programs he conducted that are related to rainfed and upland agriculture, social forestry, and environmental preservation. Marine biologist helped improve the knowledge on aquatic resources like Angel Alcala, a biologist who was recognized for his research on amphibians and reptiles diversity and marine biodiversity in the country and served as consultant on marine and aquatic projects under the United Nations Environment Programme, World Bank, Asian Development Bank and others, Gavino Trono, a biologist who was dubbed as the Father of Kappaphycus farming for his contributions to the study of tropical marine phycology, focusing on seaweed biodiversity, established the largest phycological herbarium in the country – the G.T. Velasquez Herbarium in the University of the Philippines’ Marine Science Institute, and authored a book that was considered as the most authoritative books in the country on the seaweed flora titled Field guide and atlas of the seaweed resources of the Philippines.
The Philippines Biofuel Act of 2006, RA 0376 mandates an increase of the minimum 5% bioethanol blend (E5) in gasoline to 10% ethanol blend (E10). In 2011, 600 million liters of gasoline was consumed by car owners in the Philippines, if the 10% bioethanol blend would be followed, this would be equivalent to 1 million metric tons of sugar.
Ethanol is an alcohol produced from fermenting carbohydrates in plants. Bioethanol can be produced mainly from three different kinds of raw materials, namely simple sugars, starch, and lignocellulosic biomass. Since the prices of the raw materials are very volatile and can easily change, lignocellulosic biomass has been extensively studied due to its cheap price and abundance in agricultural countries like the Philippines. Some of the top sources of lignocellulosic biomass are forest residues, municipal solid wastes, and agricultural wastes like sugarcane baggase, nipa sap, rice straws, etc.
Numerous studies have been done by Filipino scientists on what raw material should be used to achieve an efficient and cost-effective bioethanol production. Studies on nipa sap showed that molasses is still more advantageous to use, as for the same amount of bioethanol produced, a greater amount of nipa sap was needed compared to molasses. A study by Tan et al.reports on corn as being viable for bioethanol production, and could give a yield of around 0.37 Liters per kilogram of corn used. Other studies showed that sugarcane juice produced approximately 70 Liters per ton of sugar, but using sugracane juice as the primary feedstock for bioethanol production, would be problematic, as this would mean that it would be competing with the sugar production in the country. These problems have pushed Filipino scientists today, to continue searching for alternatives to sugarcane. One of the most promising fields is the study of lignocellulosic agricultural wastes, as they are abundant and very cheap.
A study by Del Rosario in 1982 identified sweet sorghum as a possible source of ethanol, it is a very adaptive crop which can withstand drought and grow in the low-lands as well as in the high lands. A study by the International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-arid Tropics (ICRISAT) showed that the production costs for sweet sorghum is higher than sugarcane by 4.28%, but this is balanced out by the grain yield of 1 ton per hectare. In 2007, the University of Philippines-Los Banos, together with the Bureau of Agricultural Research (BAR) and ICRISAT conducted studies on sweet sorghum as feedstock for bioethanol production.
In 2013 the Bureau of Agricultural Research (BAR) announced that the country may start producing its first sweet sorghum-based bioethanol. The Philippine National Oil Co. -Alternative Fuels Corp and the San Carlos Bioenergy Inc. are discussing on creating a 1,000 hectare sweet sorghum plantation solely for the purpose of using the produce as feedstock for bioethanol production.
Engineering is the field of science that applies both science and math to solve problems. It concerns the use of technology in practical ways that can advance the human condition. Some of the fields of engineering include mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, civil engineering, structural engineering, and industrial engineering.
In the Philippines, many organizations and research institutes for engineering were established, such as the National Engineering Center and the Philippine Institute of Civil Engineers.
The National Engineering Center (NEC) was first established on January 27, 1978 as the research arm of the University of the Philippines College of Engineering. It absorbed the UP Industrial Research Service Center, the National Hydraulic Research Center, the Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry, the Transport Training Center, and the Building Research Service.
The Philippine Institute of Civil Engineers (PICE) was the result of the merging of two separate civil engineer organizations, the Philippine Society of Civil Engineers (PSCE) and the Philippine Association of Civil Engineers (PACE), on December 11, 1973. It was given accreditation by the Professional Regulation Commission on August 13, 1975 as the only official recognized organization of civil engineers in the Philippines. It was established to advance the knowledge and research and to maintain high ethical standards of civil engineering.
The University of the Philippines also established the National Center for Transportation Studies (NCTS) to contribute to scholarly research and training in the field of transportation. They advocate sustainable transport, integrated transport system, road safety, and institutional development. They release advisories and feature studies by both undergraduate and graduate students on transportation. For example, the NCTS website links to downloads of Emer T. Quezon's research into the effects of flyover construction on traffic flow in Nagtahan and R. Magsaysay Boulevard intersection in 1994, as well as the research of Franklyn T. Amistad and Jose Regin F. Regidor, Dr. Eng. researched into ways to improve traffic management and congestion in Vigan without sacrificing its legacy as a World Heritage Site.
Ricardo G. Sigua is a professor who contributed to engineering research in the Philippines. Sigua, a professor at the Institute of Civil Engineering in the University of the Philippines, Diliman, wrote a book called The Fundamentals of Traffic Engineering due to the scarcity of textbooks on the traffic engineering relevant to the Philippine context. His book covers topics such as traffic management and regulations, traffic flow, traffic studies, intersection design and control, geometric design of highways, road safety, traffic accident analysis, travel demand forecasting, the origin-destination table (OD Matrix), and the intelligent transportation system.
Agriculture and Aquaculture
Agriculture is the field in science wherein it concerns with the different techniques of land cultivation, crop and livestock raising, or otherwise, farming. The Department of Agriculture (Philippines) (DA) is a government agency responsible for the development of the Philippine's agriculture by generating policies, investments, and support services which are significant in the local and export-oriented trade. In the Philippine Development Plan (PDP), Chapter 4: Competitive and Sustainable Agriculture and Fisheries Sector, both agriculture and fisheries sector provides the needs and raw materials for the market and surplus labor to the industry and service sectors. The focus for improvement would be to generate more opportunities of employments and increased income for the farmers which would encourage participation from them. Development of the agricultural sector is critical in maintaining an affordable price for food especially for the poor which, then, could be translated to inclusive growth and poverty reduction. Proceso J. Alcala is a former district representative and the recently appointed DA secretary by President Benigno Aquino III on 2010. He is considered the 'Father of Organic Agriculture' because of his work in the Organic Agricultural Act of 2010 (RA 10068).
Developments regarding the research and technology of Philippine agriculture are currently in the works. Most of the researches are inclined in solving the problem of increasing hunger in the country by creating a more efficient and cheaper process of yielding produce. The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) is an international research consortium, including the Philippines, which serves to improve the rice production and quality through biotechnology and research. One of their ongoing research involves changing the normal C3 carbon fixation mechanism of rice into a supercharged photosynthetic mechanism, C4 carbon fixation. Converting rice from a C3 plant into a C4 plant would be beneficial because the latter can efficiently produce more yield than the former in a given and limited amount of resources (land, water, and fertilizer) which bodes well to the Philippines' situation. IRRI have made calculations which shows that converting rice into a C4 plant would increase the yield at around 30-50%, demonstrating a double water-use efficiency, and providing more at less fertilizer usage. Other rice varieties have been developed to increase efficiency without sacrificing the quality too much. PSB Rc26H (Magat), PSB Rc72H (Mestizo), and PSB Rc76H (Panay) are some of the rice hybrids developed but only Mestizo is currently available for planting. The texture and taste quality of Mestizo is comparable to the normal grain, IR64.
Overall records and statistics about Philippine agricultural growth is provided by the CountrySTAT Philippines. In 2014, gross domestic product (GDP) increased by 6.13%. The gross value added (GVA) in agriculture and fishing went up by 1.60% and this accounted for 10% of the GDP increase. There was an increase in the production of livestock rated at 1.01%. Gross outputs of the following livestock showed an increase at different rates: hog, cattle, carabao, goat, chicken, duck, and other products such as chicken eggs and dairy. There was an increase in the prices of different produce such as crops, fruits, and livestock and a decrease in the prices of vegetables. Food and other non-alcoholic beverage had an increase of 6.68%. Earnings from exports increased by 5.78% and top earners were from coconut oil and banana. Expenditures for imports increased by 19.86% and the highest spending were from wheat and milk products. The labor force totaled to 40.05 million and 11.21 million were employed in the agriculture sector which was around 30% of the national employment.
This industry deals with the creation and innovation of metallic and steel products. The metal/steel industry have shown remarkable technological dynamism over the centuries and with the growing product innovation, there have been a great significance on the steels' economic and political influence. The Philippines have become part of the growing revolution of the industry. The Metal Industry Research and Development Center (MIRDC) is a government agency under the Department of Science and Technology that supports the local metals and engineering industry through support services enhancing the industry's competitive advantage. The agency's mission would consist of providing both public and private sectors with professional management and technical expertise,quality control, research and development, technology transfer, and business advisory services.
MIRDC have been cooperating with different organizations to create technology for various improvements and purposes. The Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) System and the Road Train were unveiled to the public during the annual Lantern Parade in the University of the Philippines Diliman. It was a collaboration between UP Diliman and MIRDC for the purpose of faster travel time for students in UP and the public. It had two stations, one located along C.P. Garcia and the other one is along the University Avenue. The Hand Tractor was from the works of both MIRDC and Center for Postharvest Development and Mechanization (PhilMech). The concept of the equipment is a transplanter-attached hand tractor and harvester-attached hand tractor wherein rice transplanting and harvesting implements are readily available from the tractor. Farmers would benefit from this because of the reduced cost and more utilization of hand tractor.
Statistics of recent steel and steel-related industry developments were published by the Census of Philippine Business and Industry (CPBI) of the National Statistics Office (NSO) with 2001 as the reference year. The industry totaled to 1,895 establishment which is 29.6% of the manufacturing firms. Of all the establishments, 403 or 21.3% of the steel industries were from intermediate steel sector and 1,246 were from manufacturing industries. The steel industry was able to contribute 369,985 worker to the manufacturing sector. Total compensation paid by the steel industry reached to P47.9 billion which was about 41.2% of the total salaries and employers' contributions SSS/GSIS. The total expenses made by the industry was valued at P692.6 billion which accounted for 48.8% of the costs made by the manufacturing establishments. The total output of the industry was estimated at P832 billion which accounted for 46.3% of the manufacturing output valued at P1,795.8 billion.
Food and Nutrition
Food science or nutritional science is the field of science studying the nature of foods and the natural changes in them resulting from handling and processing. It is the science concerned with food and nourishment and the role of nutrients in health. In the Philippines, food and nutrition research investigates the ideal diet for Filipinos to solve the problem of malnutrition and the current state of nutrition.
The Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI) is the principal research arm of the Philippine government in food and nutrition. It was first created in 1947 as the Institute of Nutrition to serve as a clearing-house of data and information regarding nutrition. In 1949, it was authorized to conduct research in the applied science of food, as well. The FNRI was reorganized in Executive Order No. 128, s. 1987 to redefine its mandate to research food and nutrition in order to research and identify solutions to malnutrition problems, develop programs, projects, and policies to address malnutrition, and disseminate these findings. In accordance with these functions, the Food Composition Laboratory was established. Now known as the Food Analytical Service Laboratory (FASL), it is the pioneering laboratory researching into the food and nutrient composition of Philippine foods. Their services include chemical testing, microbiological testing, physico-chemical testing, and research and consultancy services. FNRI also develops simple recipes for small scale and household use, especially for the consumption by infants and children. They provide the nutritional information, properties and even market potential.
Aside from the FNRI, Philippine scientists have been researching into food science. Patricia T. Arroyo, Ph.D., an assistant professor and chairman of the Department of Fisheries Technology of the University of the Philippines, Diliman wrote The Science of Philippine Foods as a reference for students of food chemistry and food technology to be used instead of foreign books. This book is a compilation of scattered literature about Philippine foods and contains information about the structure, composition, methods in preparation, standards of quality, preservation, and experiments about various food such as eggs, rice, red meat, poultry, fish, fruits, vegetables, fats, oils, milk, milk products, wheat, flour, and sugar.
Maria Ligaya T. Braganza, Ed.D, the Dean of the School of Food Science and Technology at the Philippine Women's University conducts applied researches on food and product development. One of her studies investigates the use of banana flour as a wheat flour extender in pan de sal and doughnuts.
Ame P. Garong, a museum researcher at the National Museum of the Philippines, published Ancient Filipino Diet: Reconstructing Diet from Human Remains Excavated in the Philippines based on her doctoral dissertation. Using isotope analysis, she reconstructed the diet from the archaeological human remains from different burial sites in the Philippines. Based on the bone, hair, muscle samples and plant and animal tissues, Garong traced the diet of ancient Filipinos. Filipinos in the pre-colonial and early colonial past ate mostly aquatic resources (such as marine fish, freshwater shellfish, and coral reef resources). Some samples showed that the ancient Filipinos practiced prolonged breast feeding.
One aspect of healthcare is the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases; the other pertains to provisions for medical care for people in the community. In the Philippines, healthcare is under the Department of Health (DOH). This government office is responsible for organizing public healthcare and making sure that all Filipino citizens have access to quality health services. This office is also responsible for supervising and funding researches pertaining to new medicines and medical devices. The DOH has different bureaus, all of which have different areas of specialization, these are the Bureau of Health Devices and Technology, Bureau of Health Facilities and Services, Bureau of International Health Cooperation, Bureau of Local Health Development, Bureau of Quarantine and International Health Surveillance, and Food and Drug Administration. The DOH has a budget of Php 87.6 billion for the year 2015. The Secretary of Health is nominated by the President of the Republic of the Philippines, the incumbent Secretary of Health is Janette Garin; she was appointed last February 17, 2015.
The DOH has recently implemented the Philippines eHealth Strategic Framework and Plan (2013-2017). This focuses on the application of Information and Communications Technologies for healthcare. It draws up a long-term strategic plan for the development and implementation of eHealth services in the Philippines. It looks into realizing a national electronic public-health information systems, if this is reached, it can greatly improve the surveillance and response to health emergencies, it can also impact researches of epidemiological nature, greatly speeding up the process as sampling would be very convenient already. Another program recently started by the DOH is the Universal Health Care high Impact Five (UHC-Hi-5), which focuses on the regional operations and its convergence in high priority poverty program areas. Its goal is for tangible outputs within a 15-month period of its implementation.
Soybean is a very sought after crop, as its by products are used to generate bioethanol, and most importantly it is linked with cancer research. During the past decade, soybean has been extensively studied due to its 43-amino acid polypeptide called Lunasin. The anti-cancer properties of Lunasin was first discovered by Dr Alfredo Galvez and Dr. Benito de Lumen, both Filipino doctors, when they were enhancing the nutritional properties of soy protein. Dr. Galvez observed mitotic disruptive properties of Lunasin in mammalian cancer cells, he saw that it prevented normal cells from turning into cancerous cells. This eventually lead to more research about its anti-cancer properties. In 2005, Dr. de Lumen conducted an experiment on Lunasin using skin cancer mouse models, he discovered that Lunasin internalizes in mammals within minutes of exogenous application, it eventually ends up in the nucleus wherein it inhibits the acetylation of core histones. Dr de Lumen observed that in spite of Lunasin’s anti-cancer properties, it does not inhibit the growth of normal mammalian cell lines.
A very recent study on Lunasin showed that at certain doses, it reduced non-small cell lung cancer tumor volume by 63%, it also showed a capability of inhibiting non-small cell lung cancer cells by suppressing the cell-cycle dependent phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein. More studies of Lunasin also showed that that it possesses antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and a cholesterol regulating role; all of which makes it a very good potential source of dietary supplements. All of these researches would have not been at the level of where it is now, if not for the Filipino doctors who first discovered Lunasin.
Notable Filipino scientist have been contributors in the field of social science in the country. Raul V. Fabella was an academic, economist and scientist that graduated in Seminario Mayor-Recoletos (Bachelor of Philosophy; 1970); the University of the Philippines School of Economics (Master of Arts; 1975); and Yale University (Doctor of Philosophy; 1982). He had written articles in both theoretical and applied fields: political economy and rent-seeking; the theory of teams; regulation; international economics; and mathematical economics and was associated with the concepts of "Olson ratio" in rent-seeking, egalitarian Nash bargainng solutions, and debt-adjusted real effective exchange rate. Teodoro Agoncillo, a 20th-century Filipino historian, and received the national scientist award for his contributions in the field of history. He graduated from the University of the Philippines (Bachelor of Philosophy; 1934) and finished his Master of Arts degree in the same university in 1935. He also wrote books regarding the Philippine History like History of the Filipino People. Encarnacion Alzona, a pioneering Filipino historian, educator and suffragist became the first filipina to obtain a Doctor of Philosophy. She got her degree in history and a master's degree from the University of the Philippines and later obtained another master's degree in history from Radcliffe College in 1920, and a Ph.D. from Columbia University in 1923. She was an advocate of women suffrage in the Philippines and authored the book The Filipino Woman: Her Social, Economic and Political Status (1565-1933). that stated a stable account for women despite their lack in political and social rights.
Forestry is the field of science that practice planting, managing and taking care of trees. The governing body for the Philippine forestry is the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). This department started way back in 1863, when the Spanish Royal Decree established the Inspeccion General de Montes. This was transformed into the Department of Interior in 1901. Then when the government reorganized, it became the Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources. During 1987, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources was formally established. Under this department, the Forest Management Bureau was the sector that focuses on preserving the forest and the harvesting of its resources.
|Forest area in forest land||% of Total Land Area||Forest area in A&D lands||% of Total Land Area||Total forest cover|
|Total||6, 521, 548||22.08||646,852||2.19||7, 168,400|
|Closed Forest||2,495, 833||8.45||65,039||0.22||2,560, 872|
|Open Forest||3.578, 526||12.12||452, 062||1.53||4, 030, 588|
Source: Forest Resources Assessment Report, 2003.
The Philippines have an actual forest cover at 6.5 million hectares (ha) or 24% of the total land area. A lot of Filipinos rely on these resources for their survival. The country's goal is to have a sustainable forest-based industry that can contribute to the socio-economic development and support the disadvantaged sectors of society. Several projects have been started by the Forest Products Research and Development and Institute (FPRDI) to accomplish this goal. It starts with the identification of the nation's tree species. and subsequently developing the products-based industry of wood and lumber. The Institute also covers the sustainable creation of furnishings using wood, bamboo, rattan and vines.
- Philippine Association of Institutions for Research
- International Rice Research Institute
- Irrigated Rice Research Consortium
- CPU Research Center
- Philippine Rice Research Institute
- Philippine Carabao Center
- National Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology
- "Briefer on the Order of National Scientists". Retrieved October 6, 2014.
- Reyes, Francisco (1972). "Historical Background of Science and Technology in the Philippines". Science & Technology in Philippine Society. Manila: UST Publication.
- Rodriguez, Socorro M. (1996). "The Early Years of Philippine Science and Technology". Philippine science and technology : economic, political and social events shaping their development. Quezon City: Giraffe Books. pp. 9–10. ISBN 9718967281.
- Cariño, Virginia S. (1993). "Science and Technology in the Philippines - Past to Present". Philippine science and technology : time for bold moves. Diliman, Quezon City: UP Center for Integrative and Development Studies in cooperation with the University of the Philippines Press. ISBN 9718797084.
- "Eduardo Quisumbing 1895 -1986". Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- Quisumbing, Eduardo A. (1978). Medicinal Plants of the Philippines. Katha Publishing Company. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- "Dioscoro L. Umali". Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- "Gomez, Edgardo D.". National Academy of Science and Technology, Philippines. Archived from the original on August 27, 2014. Retrieved August 25, 2014.
- Gavino, Trono (1997). Field guide and atlas of the seaweed resources of the Philippines. Bookmark. ISBN 9715692524. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- Balat, Mustafa (2011-02-01). "Production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic materials via the biochemical pathway: A review". Energy Conversion and Management 52 (2): 858–875.doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2010.08.013
- Lirag, R., Jr and R. Umali (1980). Pre-feasibility Studies on the Use of Nypa Fruticans as Alcohol Source to Fuel Fishing Boats. A Joint Project of the Natural Resources Management Center and Center for Development Studies, Unpublished Report.
- Tan, R. R., A. B. Culaba, J. Tanchuco, A. Fillone and M. P. Ang (2005). Techno-Economic Assessment of Ethanol as an Alternaitve Transportation Fuel. Final Report to the Sustainable 75 Energy Development Program. Center for Engineering & Sustainable Development Research, De La Salle University-Manila, Unpublished Report
- Del Rosario, E.J. (1982). Biotechnological Research Applied to the Utilization of Some Coconut By-Products. Coconut By-Product Utilization and Socio-Economic Research. PCARRD.
- "PHL may produce sweet sorghum bioethanol by 2013". GMA News Online.https://plus.google.com/116241361588652310259. Retrieved 2015-10-28.
- "What is Engineering? | Types of Engineering". LiveScience.com. Retrieved 2015-11-11.
- Presidential Decree No. 1295 of January 27, 1978, Creating the National Engineering Center. http://www.lawphil.net/statutes/presdecs/pd1978/pd_1295_1978.html
- "History | Philippine Institute of Civil Engineers". www.pice.org.ph. Retrieved 2015-11-11.
- "Objectives | Philippine Institute of Civil Engineers". www.pice.org.ph. Retrieved 2015-11-11.
- "About Us". ncts.upd.edu.ph. Retrieved 2015-11-01.
- "Downloads - Graduate Research - A Study on the Effects of Flyover Construction on Traffic Flow: The Case of Metro Manila". ncts.upd.edu.ph. Retrieved 2015-11-01.
- Amistad, Franklyn T.; Regidor, Jose Regin F. (2005). "Traffic Management in a City with U.N. World Heritage Site". Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies 6: 2291–2306. Retrieved November 1, 2015.
- Sigua, Ricardo G. (2008). The Fundamentals of Traffic Engineering. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-971-542-552-0.
- "the definition of agriculture". Dictionary.com. https://plus.google.com/117428481782081853923. Retrieved 2015-11-12.
- "Mission/Vision". www.da.gov.ph. Retrieved 2015-11-12.
- National Economic and Development Authority. 2011. “Competitive and Sustainable Agriculture and Fisheries Sector”Philippine Development 2011-2016. Philippines: National Economic and Development Authority.
- "Science of C4 Rice". c4rice.irri.org. Retrieved 2015-11-12.
- "Home". www.da.gov.ph. Retrieved 2015-11-12.
- "steel industry Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about steel industry". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2015-11-12.
- "The Official Website of Metals Industry Research and Development Center". The Official Website of Metals Industry Reseach and Development Center. Retrieved 2015-11-01.
- "MIRDC Treats the Public a Free Ride on the AGT". The Official Website of Metals Industry Reseach and Development Center. Retrieved 2015-11-12.
- "Hand Tractor (Harvester and Transplanter)". The Official Website of Metals Industry Reseach and Development Center. Retrieved 2015-11-12.
- Garcia, Marissa M. and Vicente, Sandy. Competitiveness in the Philippine Steel Industry. Accessed October 3, 2015. http://www.dlsu.edu.ph/
- "the definition of food-science". Dictionary.com. https://plus.google.com/117428481782081853923. Retrieved 2015-11-11.
- Executive Order No. 94 of October 4, 1947, Reorganizing the Different Executive Departments, Bureaus, Offices, and Agencies of the Philippines, Making Certain Readjustments of Personnel and Reallotments of Funds in Connection Therewith, and For Other Purposes. http://www.gov.ph/1947/10/04/executive-order-no-94-s-1947/
- Administrative Order No. 81 of January 25, 1949, Authorizing the Institute of Nutrition to Conduct Researches and Investigations in the Applied Science of Food and Nutrition and in Other Activities Towards Effective Improvement of Nutrition in the Philippines. http://www.gov.ph/1949/01/25/administrative-order-no-81-s-1949/
- Executive Order No. 128 of January 30, 1987, Reorganizing the National Science and Technology Authority. http://www.gov.ph/1987/01/30/executive-order-no-128-s-1987/
- "Food Laboratory". FNRI Website. Retrieved 2015-11-01.
- "FNRI Food Technologies". FNRI Website. Retrieved 2015-11-01.
- Arroyo, Patricia T. (1974). The Science of Philippine Foods. Quezon City: Abaniko Enterprises.
- "School of Food Science and Technology | Philippine Women’s University". www.pwu.edu.ph. Retrieved 2015-11-01.
- Braganza, Maria Ligaya T.; Tolentino, Edilborga H. (November 2013). "Banana (Musa Sapientum Var. Cavendish) Flour As Wheat Flour Extender in Selected Bakery Products" (PDF). European International Journal of Science and Technology 2 (9): 27–28. ISSN 2304-9693. Retrieved November 1, 2015.
- Garong, Ame P. (2013). Ancient Filipino Diet: Reconstructing Diet from Human Remains Excavated in the Philippines. Cebu City: University of San Carlos Press. pp. 29, 183–184. ISBN 978-971-539-037-8.
- e Lumen, Ben O. (2005-01-01). "Lunasin: a cancer-preventive soy peptide". Nutrition Reviews 63 (1): 16–21. ISSN 0029-6643. PMID 15730231
- McConnell, Elizabeth J.; Devapatla, Bharat; Yaddanapudi, Kavitha; Davis, Keith R. (2015-03-10)."The soybean-derived peptide lunasin inhibits non-small cell lung cancer cell proliferation by suppressing phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein".Oncotarget 6 (7): 4649–4662. ISSN 1949-2553
- Lule, Vaibhao Kisanrao; Garg, Sheenam; Pophaly, Sarang Dilip; Hitesh, null; Tomar, Sudhir Kumar (2015-03-01). ""Potential health benefits of lunasin: a multifaceted soy-derived bioactive peptide"". Journal of Food Science 80 (3): R485–494. doi:10.1111/1750-3841.12786. ISSN 1750-3841. PMID 25627564
- Santos, Tina G. (July 28, 2011). "Academician and economist Raul Fabella is National Scientist". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved October 6, 2014.
- "Raul V. Fabella". Retrieved October 6, 2014.
- Agoncillo, Teodoro (1975). History of the Filipino People. Garotech Publishing. ISBN 9718711066.
- Alzona, Encarnacion (1932). The Filipino Woman: Her Social, Economic and Political Status (1565-1933). University of the Philippines Press. OCLC 3164551.
- Alzona, Encarnacion; Camagay, Maria Luisa T. (1996). Encarnacion Alzona: An Anthology. Office of Research Coordination, University of the Philippines. ISBN 9718729070.
- "History". www.denr.gov.ph. Retrieved 2015-11-12.
- Cariño, Virginia S. (1993). Philippine science and technology: time for bold moves. UP Center for Integrative and Development Studies in cooperation with the University of the Philippines Press.
- Librero, Aida R. (1990). Technology assessment for agriculture in the Philippines. Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development, Dept. of Science and Technology.
- Ogena, Ester B.; Brawner, Filma G. (2005). Science Education in the Philippines: Challenges for Development. Science Education Institute, National Academy of Science and Technology, Center for Integrative Development Studies, University of the Philippines. ISBN 9718600205.
- Science, technology, and everyday culture in the Philippines. Institute of Philippine Culture, Ateneo de Manila University. 2003.
- Advanced Science and Technology Institute website
- Department of Science and Technology Philippines website
- National Academy of Science and Technology website
- Philippine Social Science Council website