|Institut d'études politiques de Paris|
|École libre des sciences politiques|
|Location||Paris, Reims, Dijon, Le Havre, Nancy, Poitiers, Menton, France|
|Mascot||The lion and the fox|
Sciences Po (French pronunciation: [sjɑ̃s po]), or Paris Institute of Political Studies (French: Institut d'études politiques de Paris, French pronunciation: [ɛ̃s.ti.ty de.tyd pɔ.li.tik də pa.ʁi]) is a university (legally a Grande Ecole) located in Paris, France. The institution is a member of several academic consortia, including the APSIA.
Its main campus is Paris in the 7th arrondissement and there are another six campuses in different French cities. Sciences Po maintains departments in political science, economics, history, sociology and law.
Sciences Po is widely considered one of France's leading academic institutions and was ranked 4th globally in politics and international studies by the QS World University Subject Rankings 2017. Alumni include many notable public figures, including seven of the last eight French presidents, 12 foreign heads of state or government, a former United Nations Secretary-General, and a number of CEOs of France's 40 largest companies.
- 1 History
- 2 Campuses
- 3 Academics
- 4 Rankings and reputation
- 5 Notable Alumni and Academics
- 6 See also
- 7 References and notes
- 8 External links
1872 to 1945: École Libre des Sciences Politiques
Sciences Po was established in February 1872 as the École Libre des Sciences Politiques by a group of French intellectuals, politicians and businessmen led by Émile Boutmy, and including Hippolyte Taine, Ernest Renan, Albert Sorel and Paul Leroy Beaulieu. Following defeat in the 1870 war, the demise of Napoleon III, and the Paris Commune, these men sought to reform the training of French politicians. Politically and economically, people feared France's international stature was waning due to inadequate teaching of its political and diplomatic corps. ELSP was meant to serve as “the breeding ground where nearly all the major, non-technical state commissioners were trained.”
New disciplines such as International Relations, International Law, Political Economy and Comparative Government were introduced. In August 1894, the British Association for the Advancement of Science spoke out for the need to advance the study of politics along the lines of ELSP. Sidney and Beatrice Webb used the purpose and curriculum of Sciences Po as part of their inspiration for creating the London School of Economics in 1895.
1945 to 1997
- Fondation nationale des sciences politiques (English: National Foundation of Political Science) or FNSP, and
- Institut d'études politiques de Paris (English: Paris Institute of Political Studies) or IEP Paris.
Both entities were tasked by the French government to ensure “the progress and the diffusion, both within and outside France, of political science, economics, and sociology”.
The epithet Sciences Po was applied to both entities, which inherited the reputation previously vested in ELSP. France's Legislature entrusted FNSP with managing IEP Paris, its library, and budget, and an administrative council assured the development of these activities. The curriculum and methodology of the ELSP were also the template for creating an entire system of institutes of political studies (French: Institut d'études politiques) across France, namely in Strasbourg, Lyon, Aix, Bordeaux, Grenoble, Toulouse, and then in Rennes and Lille. They are not to be confounded with Sciences Po's satellite campuses.
FNSP further strengthened its role as a scientific publication center with significant donations from the Rockefeller Foundation. FNSP periodicals such as la Revue française de science politique, le Bulletin analytique de documentation, la Chronologie politique africaine, and the Cahiers de la Fondation as well as its seven research centres and main publishing house, Presses de Sciences Po, contribute to the reputation attained by Sciences Po research.
The Richard Descoings Era (1997-2012)
Sciences Po underwent various reforms under the directorship of Richard Descoings (1997–2012). In these years, Sciences Po introduced a compulsory year abroad component to its undergraduate degree, and began to offer a multilingual curriculum in French, English, and other languages. It was during this period that Sciences Po added its regional campuses.
Sciences Po also implemented reforms in its admissions process. Previously, Sciences Po recruited its students exclusively on the basis of a competitive examination. This system was seen to favor students from prestigious preparatory high schools or those who could afford year-long preparatory courses. In March 2001, the school's governing council widened its admissions policy. From September 2002, Sciences Po began accepting students from certain schools located in economically depressed suburbs on the basis of their school record and a 45-minute interview, rather than the name-blind examination all other students must pass to be admitted. But this process has been accused of being superficial and being in fact a "lotto for poor people"
Descoings was accused of "reigning as almighty master on his school, by distributing material advantages and "small envelopes", and setting up a clientelist and authoritarian "carrot system"" and to implement a "management of fear".
Sciences Po has seven campuses in France. The main campus is in Paris, and six smaller regional campuses are spread across the country.
The Paris campus is spread across several buildings concentrated around the Boulevard Saint-Germain in the 6th and 7th arrondissements (districts). The Paris campus is the home to all the graduate schools, the central library, the head administrative offices, and a few thousand undergraduates. The historic centre of Sciences Po at 27 rue Saint-Guillaume houses the head office and central library since 1879. It is also home to Sciences Po's two largest teaching halls, the Amphitheatres Émile Boutmy and Jacques Chapsal. Other buildings include:
- 117, boulevard Saint-Germain: School of Journalism
- 199, boulevard Saint-Germain: Doctoral School
- 174 and 224, boulevard Saint-Germain: offices and classrooms
- 13, rue de l'Université / The René Rémond building: Law School and administrative offices
- 8, rue Jean-Sébastien-Bach: Urban School
- 56, rue des Saints-Pères: Language Lab, audiovisual service and a cartography workshop.
- 56, rue Jacob: Research Center for History (Centre d'histoire de Sciences Po) and International Relations (Centre d'études et de recherches internationales)
- rue d'Assas and rue de la Cassette at the Institut Catholique
New Facility at L'Hôtel de l’Artillerie
In 2016 Sciences Po purchased the Hôtel de l’Artillerie, a 17th-century former monastery located 200 meters from its campus on Rue St.Guillaume. The building was previously the property of the French Ministry of Defense and is 14,000m2 in size. The university has announced its intention to refurbish the building as a major addition to its facilities in Paris. It is estimated that this project will cost around 200 million euros in total.
The Hôtel de l’Artillerie will house new facilities for Sciences Po’s graduate programs, including a courtroom for the Law School and a newsroom for the Journalism School. It will also incorporate a cafeteria, study areas and accommodation for 50 to 100 students on scholarships.
Frédéric Mion, the director of Sciences Po, stated his intention to create a campus comparable in quality and capacity to Sciences Po’s most prominent international partner universities such as Columbia University, the London School of Economics and Hong Kong University.
Work will begin at the site in 2018. It is scheduled to open in 2021.
The six regional campuses are home to undergraduate students, and a few very specialized departments within Sciences Po. Each campus has a specific focus on a different region of the world for the undergraduate programme taught there:
The academic bodies of Sciences Po consist of the University College, six professional schools, and the Doctoral School. The university also contains a library system, the Presses de Sciences-Po, and holds ties with a number of independent academic institutions, including Columbia University, the National University of Singapore, and the Sorbonne Paris Cité alliance.
The University College (Collège universitaire) is the home of all undergraduate students. At the graduate level, there are six professional schools:
- School of Public Affairs
- Paris School of International Affairs
- Law School
- Urban School
- School of Management and Innovation
- School of Journalism
The Doctoral School offers Master and PhD programmes in law, economics, history, political science, or sociology. The PhD programme contains roughly 600 doctoral candidates.
Research at Sciences Po covers economics, law, history, sociology and political science, while also taking in many interdisciplinary topics such as cities, political ecology, sustainable development, socio-economics and globalization.
Sciences Po is home to a research community that includes over 200 researchers and 350 PhD candidates. In 2015, 32% of the university’s budget was devoted to research. That year, 65% of its research publications were in French, 32% in English and 3% in other languages.
The university has numerous research centers, seven of which are affiliated with France’s National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS).
- Center for Socio-Political Data (CDSP), which provides scientifically-validated data for international survey programs. It also supports training in data collection and analysis.
- Centre d'études européennes (CEE), which focuses on inter-disciplinary European studies; participation, democracy and government; election analyses; the restructuring of the state and public action.
- Centre for International Studies (CERI), which produces comparative and historical analysis on foreign societies, international relations, and political, social and economic phenomena.
- Centre for Political Research (CEVIPOF), which investigates political attitudes, behaviour and parties, as well as political thought and the history of ideas.
- Centre for History (CHSP), whose research focuses on: arts, knowledge and culture; wars, conflicts and violence; states, institutions and societies; the political and cultural history of contemporary France; from local to global: international history and its levels.
- Centre for the Sociology of Organizations (CSO), which conducts research on the sociology of organizations, sociology of public policy, and economic sociology. It also studies issues related to higher education and research, healthcare, sustainable development, the evolution of firms, and the transformation of the state.
- Center for Studies in Social Change (OSC), which conducts research on topics such as urban, school and gender inequalities, stratification and social mobility, and ethno-racial or social segregation.
- Department of Economics, which investigates areas such as labor markets, international economics, political economy, microeconomics and development.
- Law School, whose research focuses on globalization, legal cultures and the economics of law. It has also produced work on the theory and history of law, public and private international law and intellectual property.
- Médialab, which studies the way data generated by new information technologies is produced, circulated and exploited.
- Observatoire Français des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE), which is both a research center and an independent economic forecasting body. Its stated mission is to “ensure that the fruits of scientific rigour and academic independence serve the public debate about the economy".
In addition to these research units, the university has recently established three major research programs – the LIEPP, DIME-SHS and MaxPo.
- The Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire d'Evaluation des Politiques Publiques (LIEPP) analyzes public policy based on qualitative, comparative, and quantitative methods. The laboratory has been selected by an international scientific jury as a "Laboratoire d'Excellence" (Labex) that will be financed for the next ten years by the French government.
- Données Infrastructures et Méthodes d'Enquête en Sciences Humaines et Sociales (DIME-SHS) aims to collect and disseminate data for use in humanities and social sciences research.
- The Max Planck Sciences Po Center on Coping with Instability in Market Societies (known as MaxPo), was founded in 2012 in co-operation with the Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies (MPIfG). It investigates how individuals, organizations, and nation-states deal with various forms of economic and social instability. It is located at Sciences Po’s Paris campus.
Network of universities
Sciences Po is part of a network of 410 partner universities. Partner universities include: Berkeley (USA), Cambridge (England), Columbia (USA), Freie Universität Berlin (Germany), Fudan (China), Keio (Japan), the London School of Economics (England), Tufts (USA) etc.
In 2005, it established a doctoral/post-doctoral partnership program with the University of Oxford to provide a platform for comparative analysis of political systems and societies. OxPo, as this program is now known, facilitates academic and student exchanges between the two universities, provides grants for research collaborations, and organizes joint workshops, graduate conferences and seminars.
Sciences Po co-founded the Global Public Policy Network in 2005 in co-operation with the London School of Economics and the School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University. The network provides dual degree programs that allow students to study at two institutions. It has since expanded to include the Hertie School of Governance in Berlin, the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy at the National University of Singapore, the Graduate School of Public Policy at the University of Tokyo and the Fundção Getúlio Vargas (FGV) at the Escola de Administração de Empresas in Brazil.
Sciences Po is a member of the Sorbonne Paris Cité alliance.
Library and publishing
Founded in 1871, the nucleus of the school’s research is Bibliothèque de Sciences Po. The library offers a collection of more than 950,000 titles in the field of social sciences.
In 1982, the National Ministry of Education made the Bibliothèque the Centre for Acquisition and Dissemination of Scientific and Technical Information in the field of political science, and since 1994, it has been the antenna associated with Bibliothèque Nationale de France. Bibliothèque de Sciences Po is also the main French partner in the International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, which is based at the London School of Economics.
Sciences Po organizes numerous public lecture events. Recent guest speakers have included Ban Ki-moon, General David Petraeus, Condoleeza Rice, former President of Brazil Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Eric Schmidt, Joseph Stiglitz, Sheryl Sandberg, Mario Draghi, UNESCO Director-General Irina Bokova and Harvard University professor Michael Sandel.
Since 2007 it has organized the Franco-British Dialogue Lecture Series in collaboration with the LSE and the French Embassy in London. The lectures are held every term at the LSE’s European Institute.
Rankings and reputation
For the year 2016 the QS World University Rankings, based on English speaking publications, Sciences Po ranked globally 223 in the world (7th in France), 86 (4th in France) in social sciences and management, 149 (4th in France) in art and humanity, 4th (1st in France) for Politics and International studies, 50 in sociology (2nd in France) 51-100 (2nd in France) in Law, 51-100 (1st ex aequo in France) in Economics & Econometrics, 51-100 (2nd ex aequo in France) in History. Its Master in Public Policy (MPP) with a concentration in Economics and Public Policy was ranked 6th of Western Europe (1st in France) by Eduniversal among masters in Economics. The U.S. magazine Foreign Policy, for their 2015 rankings, ranked Sciences Po 21st in the world to obtain a master's degree for a policy career in International Relations. In the Times Higher Education World University Rankings for 2013/2014, Sciences Po ranked 98th in the world for Social Sciences. In the 2013 Times Higher Education Alma Mater Index of Global Executives, a ranking of an academic institution's number of degrees awarded to chief executives of the world’s biggest companies, Sciences Po is ranked 81st.
Reputation and criticism
However, it is criticised, as well as the École nationale d'administration, for creating in France an oligarchy of disconnected with reality, '...blinkered, arrogant and frequently incompetent people.'
Sciences Po is partly state-funded, and some have accused it of receiving a disproportionate share of public money. In 2012, student representatives at Sciences Po Lille alleged that, while Sciences Po Paris was receiving €8,700 of government funds per student per year, Sciences Po Lille was receiving just €2,600. The lawyer and academic Gilles Devers criticized the amount of public money allocated to the university in a blogpost the same year. The sociologist Nicolas Jounin, himself an alumnus of Sciences Po, has accused the university of being a "financial hold-up".
Critics have accused Sciences Po of prioritizing access to a professional networks over education and expertise. Some have referred to the school as "Sciences Pipeau" (pronounced and sometimes spelled "Sciences Pipo"). This nickname has also been employed by some students.
Sciences Po has also been accused of being unduly helped by the media. "Almost every French newspaper is run by an almunus of Sciences Po", and most of the journalists in France are alumni from Science Po, so it would give the school "a mediatic cover without equivalent" and permit it to "cultivate a culture of secrecy" about its internal affairs. "Sciences-Po is under-criticized," analyzes a professor. Former students are unlikely to criticize it. "Those who teach there have no interest, and not necessarily the urge, to do so. Those who are not there can hope to be there one day." The journalist Ariane Chemin stated in 2013 that, because most of journalists are coming from Sciences Po, the school has an undue good publicity.
Political and financial scandals
During World War II (1939–45), the then-private institution demonstrated an ambiguous behaviour. Philippe Pétain, head of the Vichy Régime, had been honorary president of Sciences Po's board of directors before the war. In 1945, it was decided to semi-nationalize the École Libre des Sciences Politiques.
Descoing, president from 1997 to 2012, had been criticized for offering large sums of money (through salary rise, free accommodation, etc.) to diverse members of staff, included his wife, in spite of the fact that Sciences Po in partly stately funded.
Descoing was found dead in his luxury hostel in a Manhattan luxury hotel room, police thought the cause of death would be an overdose linked to his controversial gay lifestyle, the final coronary report concluded to natural death but his energy the day of the death and the missing phones and computer have raised suspicion.
In February 2012, it has been found that an inspector of the French Court of Audit, in charge of investigating the financial behaviour of Sciences Po, was in the same time employed by Sciences Po.
In October 2012, the French Court of Audit castigated the serious financial mismanagement in Sciences Po. It strongly denounced the large use of public money for personal use of the staff, the tax evasions, the absence of doing of contractual work by most of the lecturers, the infringement of financial regulation on public works contract, the absence of any control from the State, and even the rise of 33% of the public funding in the last 5 years. Sciences Po has also been accused to prevail results over morals. The French Court of Audit has appealed to the public attorney for bringing a lawsuit for some of these facts. Hervé Crès the interim manager of Sciences Po (now head of the doctoral school of Sciences Po) has promised to change while preserving its identity
In November 2012, Hervé Crès has been dismissed by the government, but he sought to president of Sciences Po anyway, saying that Alain Lancelot and Richard Descoings have been found guilty too, but it doesn’t matter for what concerns the presidency of Sciences Po.
In July 2015, the public attorney sued Jean-Claude Casanova, the head of the institution which was supposed to supervise Sciences Po, for a trial before the Court of Financial and Budgetary Discipline. Sciences Po, with Frédéric Mion as new director, tried to defend Casanova. The Court of Financial and Budgetary Discipline eventually found Casanova guilty, but sentenced him with leniency because the procedures had some part of regularity and because it wasn’t customary in Sciences Po to follow all the financial rules.
Notable Alumni and Academics
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Over 65,000 people have studied at Science Po, and alumni and former staff include twenty-eight heads of state or government, specifically the last five French presidents (Emmanuel Macron, François Hollande, Nicolas Sarkozy - although he didn't graduate -, Jacques Chirac, and François Mitterrand), thirteen past or present French prime ministers, twelve past or present foreign heads of state or government, a former United Nations Secretary-General, the former head of the International Monetary Fund, the former head of the European Central Bank and the former head of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Former Portuguese Prime Minister, José Socrates was a doctoral student at this institution in 2012.
Among the alumni are CEOs of France's forty largest companies (Frédéric Oudéa of banking group Societe Generale, Michel Bon of Carrefour, Jean-Cyril Spinetta of Air France, Serge Weinberg of PPR, Gérard Mestrallet of Suez, Philippe Camus of Alcatel-Lucent), private bankers such as David René de Rothschild, the CEO of Lazard Italy, the CFO of Morgan Stanley Europe, the Director of Credit Suisse World, Co-founder, Chairman and CEO of TradingScreen and the Chairman of Credit Suisse Europe as well as the current head of the European Federation of Businesses, Industries and Employers and the current head of the French Businesses and Employers Union and many others. Influential cultural figures such as the writer Marcel Proust and the founder of the modern olympics Pierre de Coubertin also graduated from Sciences Po.
Instructors included or still include former French Prime Minister Dominique de Villepin, former WTO president Pascal Lamy, current French President Francois Hollande, former French Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin, former French foreign minister Hubert Védrine, Nobel Prize Laureate economist Joseph Stiglitz and former Economics minister as well as former Managing Director of IMF Dominique Strauss-Kahn. The philosopher, anthropologist and sociologist Bruno Latour has taught there since 2006. Emmanuel Gaillard also teaches at the Law School.
- 1987–96: Alain Lancelot
- 1997–2012: Richard Descoings
- 2012: Hervé Crès (interim)
- 2012–13: Jean Gaeremynck (interim)
- 2013–present: Frédéric Mion
- Paris School of International Affairs
- École nationale d'administration
- Instituts d'études politiques
- Grands établissements
- Grandes écoles
- Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs
References and notes
- La façade de Sciences Po de nouveau taguée
- "Politics & International Studies". Top Universities. March 2, 2017. Retrieved May 5, 2017.
- “Sciences Po 1945–1979” Centre d’histoire de Sciences Po
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- "Consolidation de L'autonomie de Sciences Po" Sénat, 1996.
- "Le statut juridique de Sciences Po: la dualité FNSP et IEP de Paris" Centre d’histoire de Sciences Po
- "[Il y a 7 ans] Emmanuel Macron : "Je ne suis pas un héritier"". Emile Magazine. Retrieved May 7, 2017.
- "Emmanuel Macron, Class of 2001". Sciences Po. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
- "Sciences Po ― an elite institution's introspection on its power, position and worth in French society" NYU Department of Journalism, September 9, 2003.
- "Richard Descoings ou la loterie des pauvres », Marianne 2, January 15, 2009".
- Sciences-Po: bienvenue à la Cour du roi Richard!
- Sciences-Po: un «new management» version «management de la peur»
- "Our campuses". Sciences Po. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- "Le campus". Sciences Po and University of Toronto. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
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- "Sciences Po Paris Overview: Introducing Sciences Po" Sciences Po Website, 2001.
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- Lane, Philippe (July 8, 2011). Franco-British Academic Partnerships: The Next Chapter (1 ed.). Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. p. 12. ISBN 9781781386569. Retrieved May 23, 2017.
- "Global university rankings and their impact,". "European University Association". Retrieved September 3, 2012.
- "QS World University Rankings by Subject 2016". Top Universities.
- "France Best Masters Ranking in Economics".
- "Foreign Policy - The Best International Relations Schools in the World". Foreign Policy.
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- "Alma Mater Index: Global Executives 2013". Times Higher Education.
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- Koh, Aaron (2016). Elite Schools: Multiple Geographies of Privilege. New York; Oxon: Routledge. pp. 193,. ISBN 978-1--138-77940-2.
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- "Sciences Po, ENA : ces fabriques d'élites déconnectées". November 29, 2012.
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- Gilles Devers, Sciences-Pipeau : Plus rentable que de braquer une banque !
- Nicolas Jounin, in Il est temps d'en finir avec Sciences Po !
- Sciences Po pour les Nuls, Chapter 18
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- « Ce qui ne se dit jamais sur Sciences-Po et les médias », Marianne, January 13, 2010.
- « Sciences-Po : une stratégie de communication qui élimine les questions gênantes », Mediapart, October 16, 2009.
- « Sciences-Po : une stratégie de communication qui élimine les questions gênantes », Mediapart, October 16, 2009.
- Ariane Chemin in France Inter, L'école de l'élite : Sciences Pipo ?
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- "Sciences Po : l'Etat repousse la nomination d'Hervé Crès".
- "Dossier: Sciences-Po, la fuite en avant et les scandales - Mediapart".
- "La dérive financière de Sciences Po et la complaisance de l'État". October 12, 2012.
- "Les dirigeants de Sciences-Po touchent des superbonus".
- "Cops Believe French Scholar Accidentally Overdosed".
- CNN, By Jethro Mullen. "French educator found dead in New York was dynamic, controversial figure - CNN.com".
- "Richard Descoings est mort". May 30, 2012 – via Le Monde.
- "Quand Sciences-Po salarie son contrôleur".
- Sciences Po Paris : la grande gabegie de l'ère Descoings
- Floc'h, Benoît (July 8, 2012). "La Cour des comptes fustige la gestion de Sciences Po" – via Le Monde.
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- Document : la réponse de Sciences-Po à la Cour des comptes
- "Scandale des salaires à Sciences Po : Jean-Claude Casanova renvoyé devant la Cour de discipline budgétaire". July 24, 2015 – via Le Monde.
- "Affaire Descoings : Sciences po fait bloc derrière Jean-Claude Casanova".
- Floc'h, Benoît (December 4, 2015). "Jean-Claude Casanova condamné dans l'" affaire Sciences Po "" – via Le Monde.
- http://www.cmjornal.xl.pt/detalhe/noticias/ultima-hora/jose-socrates-mais-1-ano-em-paris José Sócrates: 1 more year in Paris (Portuguese)
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- A Sciences-Po, les voyages forment la jeunesse, Monde Diplomatique, Février 2006
- Pierre Favre, Cent dix années de cours à l'École libre des sciences politiques et à l'Institut d'études politiques de Paris (1871–1982), thèse de doctorat, 2 volumes, 1986
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- Anne Muxel (direction), Les Étudiants de Sciences Po, Paris: Presses de Sciences Po, 2004, ISBN 2-7246-0937-9: Résultats d'une grande enquête menée en janvier 2002 auprès des élèves par le Cevipof
- Comité national d'évaluation des établissements publics à caractère scientifique, culturel et professionnel, Rapport d'évaluation de l'Institut d'études politiques de Paris, Septembre 2005
- Cyril Delhay, Promotion ZEP. Des quartiers à Sciences Po, Paris: Hachette, 2006, ISBN 2-01-235949-3
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris.|
- Sciences Po (FNSP and IEP Paris) official English-version website
- Histoire@Politique (journal published by the IEP-Paris)
- In France, a Bastion of Privilege No More New York Times, September 2011