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Schleromystax barbatus5015.jpg
Scleromystax barbatus
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Siluriformes
Family: Callichthyidae
Subfamily: Corydoradinae
Genus: Scleromystax
Günther, 1864
Type species
Callichthys barbatus
Quoy & Gaimard, 1824

Scleromystax is a genus of fish in the family Callichthyidae endemic to small tributaries from several coastal river basins draining the southern and southeastern regions in Brazil.[1] Most of the species of Scleromystax are highly sexually dimorphic; males have developed odontodes inserted in fleshy papillae on the preopercular-opercular region and the dorsal and pectoral fins are 2–3 times as long as those of females.[1] S. salmacis is an exception, as its sexually dimorphic features are subtle and non-remarkable.


The species of Scleromystax were previously classified within the genus Corydoras. However, Scleromystax species are now thought to be more closely related to Aspidoras in a tribe called Aspidoradini.[2] Although the monophyly of Scleromystax has been demonstrated, phylogenetic relationships of its species remains obscure. In addition, the taxonomic status of its species are only partially resolved.[1]


There are currently 5 recognized species in this genus:


  1. ^ a b c Britto, M.R. & Reis, R.E. (2005): A new Scleromystax species (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae) from coastal rivers of Southern Brazil. Neotropical Ichthyology, 3 (4): 481–488.
  2. ^ Britto, M.R. (2003): Phylogeny of the subfamily Corydoradinae Hoedeman, 1952 (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae), with a definition of its genera. Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 153 (1): 119–154.
  3. ^ Britto, M.R., Fukakusa, C.K. & Malabarba, L.R. (2016): New species of Scleromystax Günther, 1864 (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae) - extending the meridional distribution of genera endemic to the Atlantic Forest. Neotropical Ichthyology, 14 (3): e150158.