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Scleropages Melbourne Aquarium.jpg
Scleropages jardinii
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Osteoglossiformes
Family: Osteoglossidae
Genus: Scleropages
Günther, 1864
Type species
Scleropages leichardti
Günther, 1864

Scleropages is a genus of fish in the family Osteoglossidae found in Asia and Australia.[1] All of these species are carnivorous and have great jumping ability. These species are highly valued as aquarium fish, particularly by those from Asian cultures. In 2003, a study redescribed several naturally occurring color varieties of S. formosus into four separate species.[2] The majority of researchers dispute these redescriptions, arguing that the published data are insufficient to justify recognizing more than one Southeast Asian species of Scleropages and that divergent haplotypes used to distinguish the color strains into isolated species were found within a single color strain, contradicting the findings. They are considered monotypic, consisting of closely related haplotypes based on color.[3][4] The ancestor of the Australian arowanas: S. jardinii and S. leichardti, diverged from the ancestor of the Asian arowanas about 140 million years ago, during the Early Cretaceous period. The morphological similarity of all six species shows that little evolutionary change has taken place recently for these ancient fish. The genus had a much wider distribution during the early Cenozoic, with fossil remains known from the Paleocene of Niger and Belgium,[5] and from the Eocene of China [6]


There are currently 4 recognized species in this genus:


Phylogeny based on the work of Pouyaud, Sudarto & Teugels 2003.[2]


Osteoglossum bicirrhosum

Osteoglossum ferreirai


Scleropages formosus (Green arowana)

Scleropages macrocephalus Pouyaud, Sudarto & Teugels 2003 (Silver Indonesian arowana)

Scleropages legendrei Pouyaud, Sudarto & Teugels 2003 (Super red/blood Indonesian arowana)

Scleropages aureus Pouyaud, Sudarto & Teugels 2003 (Indonesian/red-tailed golden arowana)


Scleropages leichardti

Scleropages jardinii


  1. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2016). Species of Scleropages in FishBase. October 2016 version.
  2. ^ a b Pouyaud, L.; Sudarto; Teugels, G.G. (2003). "The different colour varieties of the Asian arowana Scleropages formosus (Osteoglossidae) are distinct species: morphologic and genetic evidences". Cybium. 27 (4): 287–305. 
  3. ^ Mohd-Shamsudin, M.I.; Zahedi Fard, M.; Mather, P.B.; Suleiman, Z.; Hassan, R.; Othman, R.Y.; Bhassu, S. (2011). "Molecular characterization of relatedness among colour variants of Asian Arowana (Scleropages formosus)". Gene. 490 (1–2): 47–53. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2011.08.025. PMID 21945689. 
  4. ^ Mu, X.-D.; Song, H.-M.; Wang, X.-J.; Yang, Y.-X.; Luo, D.; Gu, D.-E.; Luo, J.-R.; Hu, Y.-C. (2012). "Genetic variability of the Asian arowana, Scleropages formosus, based on mitochondrial DNA genes". Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 44: 141–148. doi:10.1016/j.bse.2012.04.017. 
  5. ^ Taverne, L. (2009): On the presence of the osteoglossid genus Scleropages in the Paleocene of Niger, Africa (Teleostei, Osteoglossomorpha). Bulletin de l'Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Science de la Terre, 79: 161-167.
  6. ^ Jiang-Yong Zhang; Mark V. H. Wilson (2017). "First complete fossil Scleropages (Osteoglossomorpha)". Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 55 (1): 1–23. 
  7. ^ van Oijen, M.J.P.; van der Meij, S.E.T. (2013). "The types of Osteoglossum formosum Müller & Schlegel, 1840 (Teleostei, Osteoglossidae)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3722 (3): 361–371. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3722.3.5. 
  8. ^ Roberts, T.R. (2012): Scleropages inscriptus, a new fish species from the Tananthayi or Tenasserim River basin, Malay Peninsula of Myanmar (Osteoglossidae: Osteoglossiformes). aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology, 18 (2): 113-118.
  9. ^ Pusey, B.J.; Fisher, C.; Maclaine, J. (2016). "On the nature of Scleropages leichardti Günther, 1864 (Pisces: Osteoglossidae)". Zootaxa. 4173 (1): 75–84. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4173.1.7.