Scorpène-class submarine

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Tunku Abdul Rahman at Port Klang, September 2009
Royal Malaysian Navy's Scorpéne-class submarine KD Tunku Abdul Rahman
Class overview
Name: Scorpène class
Builders:
Operators:
Preceded by: Agosta class
Subclasses:
Cost: US$450 million
Building: 4
Planned: 19
Completed: 4
Cancelled: 4
General characteristics
Type: Submarine
Displacement:
  • 1,565 tonnes (1,725 short tons) (CM-2000)
  • 1,870 tonnes (2,060 short tons) (AM-2000)
  • 2,000 tonnes (2,200 short tons) (S-BR)[1]
Length:
  • 61.7 m (202 ft) (CM-2000)
  • 70 m (230 ft) (AM-2000)
  • 75 metres (246 ft) (S-BR)[1]
Beam: 6.2 m (20 ft)
Draught: 5.4 m (18 ft)
Draft: 5.8 m (19 ft)
Propulsion:
Speed:
  • 20 knots (37 km/h; 23 mph) (submerged)
  • 12 kn (22 km/h; 14 mph) (surfaced)
Range:
  • 6,500 nmi (12,000 km) at 8 kn (15 km/h; 9.2 mph) (surfaced)
  • 550 nmi (1,020 km; 630 mi) at 5 kn (9.3 km/h; 5.8 mph) (submerged)
Endurance:
  • 40 days (compact)
  • 50 days (normal)
  • 50+21 days (AIP)
Test depth: >350 metres (1,150 ft)[2]
Complement: 31
Armament: 6 x 533 mm (21 in) torpedo tubes for 18 Whitehead Alenia Sistemi Subacquei Black Shark heavyweight torpedoes or SM.39 Exocet anti-ship missiles, 30 mines in place of torpedoes

The Scorpène-class submarines are a class of diesel-electric attack submarines jointly developed by the French Direction des Constructions Navales (DCN) and the Spanish company Navantia, and now by DCNS. It features diesel propulsion and an additional air-independent propulsion (AIP).

The Chilean Navy ordered two Scorpène-class boats, which replaced two Oberon-class submarines retired by the Chilean Navy. In 2005, the Indian Navy ordered six Scorpène-class; all the Indian boats will be built in India, at Mazagon Dock and elsewhere, and the last two are to be fitted with an Indian Fuel cell AIP module.[3] For the follow-on requirement of six submarines, DCNS plans to offer a larger version of the submarine to the Indian Navy.[4] In 2008, the Brazilian Navy ordered four Scorpènes.

The Chilean Scorpène-class O'Higgins and Carrera were completed in 2005 and 2006, respectively. In 2009, the Royal Malaysian Navy commissioned Tunku Abdul Rahman and Tun Abdul Razak.

Scorpène characteristics[edit]

The Scorpène class of ships has four subtypes:[5] the CM-2000 conventional diesel-electric version, the AM-2000 AIP derivative, the downsized CA-2000 coastal submarine, and the enlarged S-BR for the Brazilian Navy, without AIP.[6]

The Chilean and Malaysian boats are fitted with the TSM 2233 Mk 2 sonar. The class can also be fitted with an 'S-Cube' sonar suite from Thales.[7]

Air-independent power[edit]

The French Module d'Energie Sous-Marine Autonome (MESMA) system is being offered by the French shipyard DCN for the Scorpène-class submarines. It is essentially a modified version of their nuclear propulsion system with heat being generated by ethanol and oxygen. The combustion of the ethanol and stored oxygen, at a pressure of 60 atmospheres, generates steam which powers a conventional turbine power plant. This pressure-firing allows exhaust carbon dioxide to be expelled overboard at any depth without an exhaust compressor.

Each MESMA system costs around US$50–60 million. As installed on the Scorpènes, it requires adding a new 8.3 metres (27 ft), 305 tonne hull section to the submarines, and enables a submarine to operate for more than 21 days under water, depending on variables such as speed.[citation needed]

Some of the submarines built for the Indian Navy will have Phosphoric acid fuel cell-powered AIP modules designed by the Naval Materials Research Laboratory of the Indian Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).[8][9]

DCNS is also developing second-generation hydrogen fuel cell AIP modules for future Scorpène models.

Scorpène information leak[edit]

In mid-August 2016, The Australian newspaper reported that design details of the Scorpène-class submarine and other ships had been leaked.[10] The leaked information spreads over 22,400 pages and includes detailed information about the submarine's combat and stealth capabilities.[11] The leak also included information about noise levels, submarine frequencies and more.[12] Despite all the information leaks, Indian Navy chief Admiral Sunil Lanba was quoted as saying that the leaks were being viewed "very seriously", but were "not a matter of much worry".[13] The report also suggested that an ex-French Navy officer working as a sub-contractor for DCNS may have been the source of the leak, and that the leaked data may have been written in France in 2011.[14] However, on 30 August 2016, a court in New South Wales temporarily banned The Australian from releasing any more confidential data on the Indian Scorpène-class submarines.[15]

Orders[edit]

Spain[edit]

In 2003, the Spanish government ordered four Scorpène AIP submarines worth €1,756 million.[16] However, the Spanish navy canceled the order, and ordered four S-80-class submarines, instead. This has caused conflicts and controversies between DCNS and Navantia, as the latter is still involved in the construction of the submarines sold to India, Malaysia, and Chile, while the S-80 is offered on the export market.[17] As an answer to the competition from the S-80, DCNS designed its own enhanced version of the Scorpène called the Marlin class, but little is known about this design and the Scorpène is still offered by France on the export market.

India[edit]

In 2005, India chose the Scorpène design; purchasing six submarines for US$3 billion (US$500 million per boat). Under a technology transfer agreement, the state-owned Mazagon Docks in Mumbai will manufacture the submarines, and deliver them between 2012 and 2016,[18] however the project is running four years behind schedule.[19] Construction started on 23 May 2009.[7] India plans to incorporate the DRDO-developed air independent propulsion (AIP) system onto the last two submarines being built and also to equip the P75I submarines, of which the DCNS is participating in the tender process.[20] In November 2014, DefenceRadar.com reported that the DRDO-developed AIP system for the last two Scorpène submarines for the Indian Navy has been developed and would be ready for testing in February 2015.[21] The first Scorpène submarine, named INS Kalvari, was undocked for the purpose of starting sea trials in April 2015 and will be delivered in September 2016.[18] In August 2016, over 20,000 confidential pages of the submarine's manual were leaked by Australian media,[22] stirring up a controversy about the impact to India's ambitions of fielding a blue-water navy. [23] DCNS answered that those documents were not crucial. [24]

Brazil[edit]

In 2009, Brazil purchased four enlarged Scorpènes for US$9.9 billion with a technology transfer agreement and a second agreement to develop a French/Brazilian nuclear-powered submarine. The hull of the first S-BR (S35) was laid down at Cherbourg on 27 May 2010 and is to be jumboized at the Brazilian Navy Shipyard in Sepetiba in late 2012.[1] The latter three submarines will be built there entirely, and are planned to be commissioned in 2018, 2020, and 2021. The nuclear-powered submarine could be a variant of the Scorpène class (which would make it similar in concept to the Rubis-class submarine) or one of the more powerful Barracuda class.[25]

Poland[edit]

On 1 March 2011, the Naval Shipyard Gdynia of Poland and DCNS offered a license to build a yet undisclosed number of modified Scorpène class boats. The Scorpène design is competing with that of the German Type 214 submarine.[26]

Boats[edit]

Pennant no. Name Country Laid down Launched Commissioned Homeport
SS-23 O'Higgins  Chile 18 November 1999 1 November 2003 8 September 2005 Talcahuano
SS-22 Carrera  Chile November 2000 24 November 2004 20 July 2006 Talcahuano
KD Tunku Abdul Rahman  Malaysia 25 April 2004 23 October 2007 January 2009 Sepanggar
KD Tun Abdul Razak  Malaysia 25 April 2005 October, 2008 December, 2009 Sepanggar
S50 INS Kalvari  India 1 April 2009 6 April 2015 [27] December 2016[28] Vishakhapatnam / Mumbai
S51 INS Khanderi  India October 2011 April 2016 Expected in 2017 Vishakhapatnam / Mumbai
S52  India December 2012 October 2016 Expected in 2018 Vishakhapatnam / Mumbai
S53  India TBD Expected in 2019 Vishakhapatnam / Mumbai
S54  India TBD Expected in 2020 Vishakhapatnam / Mumbai
S55  India TBD Expected in August 2021 [29] Vishakhapatnam / Mumbai
S40 Riachuelo  Brazil 27 May 2010 Expected in 2018[30] TBD Itaguaí
S41 Humaitá  Brazil 1 September 2013 Expected in 2020[30] TBD Itaguaí
S42 Tonelero  Brazil TBD Expected in 2021[30] TBD Itaguaí
S43 Angostura  Brazil TBD Expected in 2022[30] TBD Itaguaí

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Nicolas von Kospot (2 June 2010). "First Steel Cut for Brazilian Submarine Programme". www.defpro.com. Archived from the original on July 17, 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2010. 
  2. ^ "Scorpene® 1000". DCNS. Retrieved 24 October 2015. 
  3. ^ Anandan, S. (30 December 2010). "DRDO working on cutting submarine vulnerability". The Hindu. Retrieved 24 October 2015. 
  4. ^ France to offer bigger Scorpenes for $5 billion Indian submarine order but Indian not shown interest with DCNS because project delayed 5 to 6 years this is effected to Indian Navy Archived February 13, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ "The Market for Submarines" (PDF). Forecast International. August 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 17, 2012. Retrieved 13 May 2010. 
  6. ^ "Novas pistas sobre o 'S-BR', o novo submarino convencional Brasileiro". www.naval.com.br. 6 May 2010. Retrieved 13 May 2010. 
  7. ^ a b [1] Archived March 30, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ "What's New". Defence Research & Development Organization, India. 3 August 2015. Retrieved 24 October 2015. 
  9. ^ "Indian-built Scorpene to carry critical DRDO system". The Hindu. 3 November 2014. Retrieved 24 October 2015. 
  10. ^ Siegel, Matt; Irish, John (24 August 2016). "France's DCNS says India submarine data leak may be 'economic warfare'". Reuters.com. 
  11. ^ Laskar, Rezaul H (24 August 2016). "Secret data on Indian Navy's Scorpene-class submarines leaked". Hindustan Times. 
  12. ^ Stewart, Cameron (25 August 2016). "What the Scorpene leak reveals". The Indian Express. 
  13. ^ http://www.newindianexpress.com/nation/Scorpene-Leak-serious-not-a-matter-of-worry-says-Navy-Chief/2016/08/30/article3603108.ece
  14. ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/French-ex-naval-officer-behind-Scorpene-leak/articleshow/53851448.cms
  15. ^ http://www.ndtv.com/india-news/scorpene-leak-the-australian-cant-release-confidential-data-says-court-1451867
  16. ^ "Scorpene Basic-AIP". Deagel.com. Retrieved 24 October 2015. 
  17. ^ "Scorpène : DCNS et Navantia en instance de divorce". Mer et Marine. Archived from the original on September 29, 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-28. 
  18. ^ a b N, Ganesh (7 April 2015). "India's first Scorpène submarine INS Kalvari launched for sea trials". Daily Mail. Retrieved 24 October 2015. 
  19. ^ Pandit, Rajat (28 August 2014). "Defence minister Arun Jaitley reviews delayed Scorpene submarine project". Times of India. Retrieved 24 October 2015. 
  20. ^ Anandan, S. (25 March 2014). "DRDO developing onboard equipment monitoring system for submarines". The Hindu. Retrieved 24 October 2015. 
  21. ^ "Indian-built Scorpene to carry critical DRDO system (Air Independent Propulsion)". 3 November 2014. Archived from the original on November 3, 2014. 
  22. ^ Som, Vishnu. "The $3.5 Billion Leak: Scorpene Submarines Exposed, India Assesses Damage". 
  23. ^ http://www.hindustantimes.com/analysis/india-s-next-generation-of-submarines-are-now-more-vulnerable/story-goZcuLMtwDUGrqlrj4ASuM.html
  24. ^ http://www.lexpress.fr/actualite/monde/oceanie/fuite-de-documents-chez-dcns-nous-sommes-en-guerre-economique_1824233.html
  25. ^ "Novos submarinos da MB: Senado aprova o empréstimo de 4,32 bilhões de euros" (in Portuguese). Naval.com.br. 2 September 2009. Retrieved 24 October 2015. 
  26. ^ Sowula, Sławomir (March 2011). "Gdyńska stocznia chce budować okręty podwodne". Gazeta Wyborcza (in Polish) (2011–03–03). Retrieved 24 October 2015. 
  27. ^ "New India submarine enters water". BBC News. 6 April 2015. Retrieved 24 October 2015. 
  28. ^ "Commissioning of INS Kalvari delayed | The Asian Age". The Asian Age. Retrieved 2016-10-16. 
  29. ^ Индия одновременно строит шесть подводных лодок типа Scorpene. flotprom.ru (in Russian). 5 May 2012. Retrieved 24 October 2015. 
  30. ^ a b c d "NUCLEP delivers stern section for new Brazilian Navy submarine". IHS Jane's 360. 21 July 2016. Retrieved 31 July 2016. 

External links[edit]