|Preceded by:||Agosta-class submarine|
|Class & type:||Scorpène class|
|Beam:||6.2 m (20 ft)|
|Draught:||5.4 m (18 ft)|
|Draft:||5.8 m (19 ft)|
|Propulsion:||Diesel-electric, batteries, and AIP|
|Test depth:||>350 metres (1,150 ft) |
|Armament:||6 x 533-mm torpedo tubes for 18 Whitehead Alenia Sistemi Subacquei Black Shark heavyweight torpedoes or SM.39 Exocet antiship missiles, 30 mines in place of torpedoes|
The Scorpène-class submarines are a class of diesel-electric attack submarines jointly developed by the French DCN and the Spanish company Navantia and now by DCNS. It features diesel propulsion and an additional air-independent propulsion (AIP).
The Chilean Navy ordered two Scorpène-class, which replaced two Oberon-class submarines retired by the Chilean Navy. In 2005, the Indian Navy ordered six Scorpène-class; all the Indian boats will be built in India, at Mazagon Dock and elsewhere, and the last two are to be fitted with an Indian AIP module. For the follow-on requirement of six submarines, DCNS plans to offer a larger version of the submarine to the Indian Navy. In 2008, the Brazilian Navy ordered four Scorpènes.
The Chilean Scorpène-class O'Higgins and Carrera were completed in 2005 and 2006, respectively. In 2009, the Royal Malaysian Navy commissioned Tunku Abdul Rahman and Tun Abdul Razak.
The Scorpène-class of ships has four subtypes: the CM-2000 conventional diesel-electric version, the AM-2000 AIP derivative, the downsized CA-2000 coastal submarine, and the enlarged S-BR for the Brazilian Navy without AIP.
The French Module d'Energie Sous-Marine Autonome (MESMA) system is being offered by the French shipyard DCN for the Scorpène-class submarines. It is essentially a modified version of their nuclear propulsion system with heat being generated by ethanol and oxygen. A conventional turbine power plant powered by steam generated from the combustion of ethanol and stored oxygen at a pressure of 60 atmospheres. This pressure-firing allows exhaust carbon dioxide to be expelled overboard at any depth without an exhaust compressor.
Each MESMA system costs around $50–60 million. As installed on the Scorpène, it requires adding a new 8.3-m (27 ft), 305 tonne hull section to the submarine, and results in a submarine able to operate for greater than 21 days under water, depending on variables such as speed.
In 2003, the Spanish government ordered four Scorpène-AIP submarines worth €1,756 million. However, the order for the Spanish navy was canceled and four S-80-class submarines have been ordered, instead. This has caused conflicts and controversies between DCNS and Navantia, as the latter is still involved in the construction of the submarines sold to India, Malaysia, and Chile, while the S-80 is offered on the export market. As an answer to the competition from the S-80, DCNS designed its own enhanced version of the Scorpène called the Marlin-class, but little is known about this design and the Scorpène is still offered by France on the export market.
In 2005, India chose the Scorpène design; purchasing six submarines for US$3 billion ($500 million per boat). These submarines are to be manufactured under a technology transfer agreement by the state-owned Mazagon Docks in Mumbai and delivered between 2012 and 2016, however the project is running four years behind schedule. Construction started on 23 May 2009. India plans to incorporate the DRDO-developed air independent propulsion (AIP) system onto the last two submarines being built and also to equip the P75I submarines, of which the DCNS is participating in the tender process. It was reported in November 2014, that the DRDO-developed AIP system for the last two Scorpène submarines for the Indian Navy has been developed and is ready for testing in February 2015. The first Scorpène submarine, named INS Kalvari, was undocked for the purpose of starting sea trials in April 2015 and will be delivered in September 2016.
In 2009, Brazil purchased four enlarged Scorpènes for US$9.9 billion with a technology transfer agreement and a second agreement to develop a French/Brazilian nuclear-powered submarine. The hull of the first S-BR (S35) was laid down at Cherbourg on 27 May 2010 and is to be jumboized at Brazilian Navy Shipyard in Sepetiba in late 2012. The latter three submarines will be entirely built there and are planned to be commissioned in 2018, 2020, and 2021. The nuclear-powered submarine could be a variant of the Scorpène class (which would make it similar in concept to the Rubis-class submarine) or one of the more powerful Barracuda class.
On 1 March 2011, the Naval Shipyard Gdynia of Poland and DCNS offered a license to build a yet undisclosed number of modified Scorpène class, and the Scorpène design is competing with that of the German Type 214 submarine.
|Pennant no.||Name||Country||Laid down||Launched||Commissioned||Homeport|
|SS-23||O'Higgins||Chile||18 November 1999||1 November 2003||8 September 2005||Talcahuano|
|SS-22||Carrera||Chile||November, 2000||24 November 2004||20 July 2006||Talcahuano|
|KD Tunku Abdul Rahman||Malaysia||25 April 2004||23 October 2007||January, 2009||Sepanggar|
|KD Tun Abdul Razak||Malaysia||25 April 2005||October, 2008||December, 2009||Sepanggar|
|S50||INS Kalvari||India||1 April 2009||06 April 2015 ||September 2016||Vishakhapatnam / Mumbai|
|S51||INS Khanderi||India||October, 2011||April 2016||Expected in 2017||Vishakhapatnam / Mumbai|
|S52||India||December, 2012||October, 2016||Expected in 2018||Vishakhapatnam / Mumbai|
|S53||India||TBD||Expected in 2019||Vishakhapatnam / Mumbai|
|S54||India||TBD||Expected in 2020||Vishakhapatnam / Mumbai|
|S55||India||TBD||Expected in August, 2021 ||Vishakhapatnam / Mumbai|
|S40||Riachuelo||Brazil||27 May 2010||Expected in mid-2018||Itaguaí|
|S41||Humaitá||Brazil||1 September 2013||Expected in 2016||Itaguaí|
- Andrasta-class submarine
- Gotland-class submarine
- Kilo-class submarine
- Lada-class submarine
- S1000-class submarines
- Type 212 submarine
- Type 214 submarine
- Nicolas von Kospot (2 June 2010). "First Steel Cut for Brazilian Submarine Programme". www.defpro.com. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
- DRDO working on cutting submarine vulnerability
- France to offer bigger Scorpenes for $5 billion Indian submarine order but Indian not shown interest with [DCNS (company)|DCNS]because project delayed 5 to 6 years this is effected to Indian Navy
- "The Market for Submarines" (PDF). Forecast International. August 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2010.[dead link]
- "Novas pistas sobre o ‘S-BR’, o novo submarino convencional Brasileiro". www.naval.com.br. 6 May 2010. Retrieved 13 May 2010.
- [dead link]
- "Scorpene Basic-AIP". Deagel.com. Retrieved 2011-12-28.
- "Scorpène : DCNS et Navantia en instance de divorce". Mer et Marine. Retrieved 2011-12-28.
- "India's first Scorpene submarine INS Kalvari launched for sea trials". 7 April 2015. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- "Defence minister Arun Jaitley reviews delayed Scorpene submarine project". Aug 28, 2014.
- DRDO developing onboard equipment monitoring system for submarines
- "Indian-built Scorpene to carry critical DRDO system (Air Independent Propulsion)". 3 November 2014.
- "Novos submarinos da MB: Senado aprova o empréstimo de 4,32 bilhões de euros | Poder Naval - Marinha de Guerra, Tecnologia Militar Naval e Marinha Mercante". Naval.com.br. Retrieved 2011-12-28.
- Sławomir Sowula (March 2011). "Gdyńska stocznia chce budować okręty podwodne". Gazeta Wyborcza (in Polish) (2011-03-03). Retrieved 2011-03-03.
- "New India submarine enters water". BBC. Retrieved 2015-04-06.
- Scorpene SUBTICS in action
- Scorpene promotional video
- DCN - Scorpène SSK
- Scorpène Diesel-Electric Patrol Submarine (Navy recognition)
- Naval Technology - Scorpène description
- Global Security - Scorpène
- Scorpène agreement with India
- Chilean Navy - SS O'higgins in service
- DID - India Looks to Modify Scorpene Subs With MESMA AIP Propulsion