|Preceded by:||Agosta class|
|Beam:||6.2 m (20 ft)|
|Draught:||5.4 m (18 ft)|
|Draft:||5.8 m (19 ft)|
|Test depth:||>350 metres (1,150 ft)|
|Armament:||6 x 533 mm (21 in) torpedo tubes for 18 Whitehead Alenia Sistemi Subacquei Black Shark heavyweight torpedoes or SM.39 Exocet anti-ship missiles, 30 mines in place of torpedoes|
The Scorpène-class submarines are a class of diesel-electric attack submarines jointly developed by the French DCN and the Spanish company Navantia and now by DCNS. It features diesel propulsion and an additional air-independent propulsion (AIP).
The Chilean Navy ordered two Scorpène-class boats, which replaced two Oberon-class submarines retired by the Chilean Navy. In 2005, the Indian Navy ordered six Scorpène-class; all the Indian boats will be built in India, at Mazagon Dock and elsewhere, and the last two are to be fitted with an Indian Fuel cell AIP module. For the follow-on requirement of six submarines, DCNS plans to offer a larger version of the submarine to the Indian Navy. In 2008, the Brazilian Navy ordered four Scorpènes.
The Chilean Scorpène class O'Higgins and Carrera were completed in 2005 and 2006, respectively. In 2009, the Royal Malaysian Navy commissioned Tunku Abdul Rahman and Tun Abdul Razak.
The Scorpène class of ships has four subtypes: the CM-2000 conventional diesel-electric version, the AM-2000 AIP derivative, the downsized CA-2000 coastal submarine, and the enlarged S-BR for the Brazilian Navy without AIP.
The French Module d'Energie Sous-Marine Autonome (MESMA) system is being offered by the French shipyard DCN for the Scorpène-class submarines. It is essentially a modified version of their nuclear propulsion system with heat being generated by ethanol and oxygen. A conventional turbine power plant powered by steam generated from the combustion of ethanol and stored oxygen at a pressure of 60 atmospheres. This pressure-firing allows exhaust carbon dioxide to be expelled overboard at any depth without an exhaust compressor.
Each MESMA system costs around $50–60 million. As installed on the Scorpènes, it requires adding a new 8.3 metres (27 ft), 305 tonne hull section to the submarines, and results in a submarine able to operate for greater than 21 days under water, depending on variables such as speed.
Some of the submarines built for the Indian Navy will have Phosphoric acid fuel cell powered AIP modules designed by Naval Materials Research Laboratory of Indian Defence Research and Development Organisation.
DCNS also is developing a second-generation hydrogen fuel cell AIP modules for future Scorpène models.
In 2003, the Spanish government ordered four Scorpène AIP submarines worth €1,756 million. However, the order for the Spanish navy was canceled and four S-80-class submarines have been ordered, instead. This has caused conflicts and controversies between DCNS and Navantia, as the latter is still involved in the construction of the submarines sold to India, Malaysia, and Chile, while the S-80 is offered on the export market. As an answer to the competition from the S-80, DCNS designed its own enhanced version of the Scorpène called the Marlin class, but little is known about this design and the Scorpène is still offered by France on the export market.
In 2005, India chose the Scorpène design; purchasing six submarines for US$3 billion ($500 million per boat). These submarines are to be manufactured under a technology transfer agreement by the state-owned Mazagon Docks in Mumbai and delivered between 2012 and 2016, however the project is running four years behind schedule. Construction started on 23 May 2009. India plans to incorporate the DRDO-developed air independent propulsion (AIP) system onto the last two submarines being built and also to equip the P75I submarines, of which the DCNS is participating in the tender process. It was reported in November 2014, that the DRDO-developed AIP system for the last two Scorpène submarines for the Indian Navy has been developed and is ready for testing in February 2015. The first Scorpène submarine, named INS Kalvari, was undocked for the purpose of starting sea trials in April 2015 and will be delivered in September 2016.
In 2009, Brazil purchased four enlarged Scorpènes for US$9.9 billion with a technology transfer agreement and a second agreement to develop a French/Brazilian nuclear-powered submarine. The hull of the first S-BR (S35) was laid down at Cherbourg on 27 May 2010 and is to be jumboized at Brazilian Navy Shipyard in Sepetiba in late 2012. The latter three submarines will be entirely built there and are planned to be commissioned in 2018, 2020, and 2021. The nuclear-powered submarine could be a variant of the Scorpène class (which would make it similar in concept to the Rubis-class submarine) or one of the more powerful Barracuda class.
On 1 March 2011, the Naval Shipyard Gdynia of Poland and DCNS offered a license to build a yet undisclosed number of modified Scorpène class, and the Scorpène design is competing with that of the German Type 214 submarine.
|Pennant no.||Name||Country||Laid down||Launched||Commissioned||Homeport|
|SS-23||O'Higgins||Chile||18 November 1999||1 November 2003||8 September 2005||Talcahuano|
|SS-22||Carrera||Chile||November 2000||24 November 2004||20 July 2006||Talcahuano|
|KD Tunku Abdul Rahman||Malaysia||25 April 2004||23 October 2007||January 2009||Sepanggar|
|KD Tun Abdul Razak||Malaysia||25 April 2005||October, 2008||December, 2009||Sepanggar|
|S50||INS Kalvari||India||1 April 2009||06 April 2015 ||September 2016||Vishakhapatnam / Mumbai|
|S51||INS Khanderi||India||October 2011||April 2016||Expected in 2017||Vishakhapatnam / Mumbai|
|S52||India||December 2012||October 2016||Expected in 2018||Vishakhapatnam / Mumbai|
|S53||India||TBD||Expected in 2019||Vishakhapatnam / Mumbai|
|S54||India||TBD||Expected in 2020||Vishakhapatnam / Mumbai|
|S55||India||TBD||Expected in August 2021 ||Vishakhapatnam / Mumbai|
|S40||Riachuelo||Brazil||27 May 2010||Expected in mid-2018||Itaguaí|
|S41||Humaitá||Brazil||1 September 2013||Expected in 2016||Itaguaí|
- Type 039A submarine
- Andrasta-class submarine
- Gotland-class submarine
- Kilo-class submarine
- Lada-class submarine
- S1000-class submarines
- Type 212 submarine
- Type 214 submarine
- Nicolas von Kospot (2 June 2010). "First Steel Cut for Brazilian Submarine Programme". www.defpro.com. Retrieved 7 June 2010.[dead link]
- "Scorpene® 1000". DCNS. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- Anandan, S. (30 December 2010). "DRDO working on cutting submarine vulnerability". The Hindu. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- France to offer bigger Scorpenes for $5 billion Indian submarine order but Indian not shown interest with DCNS because project delayed 5 to 6 years this is effected to Indian Navy [dead link]
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- "Novas pistas sobre o ‘S-BR’, o novo submarino convencional Brasileiro". www.naval.com.br. 6 May 2010. Retrieved 13 May 2010.
- [dead link]
- "What's New". Defence Research & Development Organization, India. 3 August 2015. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
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- "Scorpene Basic-AIP". Deagel.com. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- "Scorpène : DCNS et Navantia en instance de divorce". Mer et Marine. Retrieved 2011-12-28.[dead link]
- N, Ganesh (7 April 2015). "India's first Scorpene submarine INS Kalvari launched for sea trials". Daily Mail. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- Pandit, Rajat (28 August 2014). "Defence minister Arun Jaitley reviews delayed Scorpene submarine project". Times of India. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- Anandan, S. (25 March 2014). "DRDO developing onboard equipment monitoring system for submarines". The Hindu. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- "Indian-built Scorpene to carry critical DRDO system (Air Independent Propulsion)". 3 November 2014.[dead link]
- "Novos submarinos da MB: Senado aprova o empréstimo de 4,32 bilhões de euros" (in Portuguese). Naval.com.br. 2 September 2009. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- Sowula, Sławomir (March 2011). "Gdyńska stocznia chce budować okręty podwodne". Gazeta Wyborcza (in Polish) (2011-03-03). Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- "New India submarine enters water". BBC News. 6 April 2015. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- Индия одновременно строит шесть подводных лодок типа Scorpene. flotprom.ru (in Russian). 5 May 2012. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- Scorpene SUBTICS in action
- Scorpene promotional video
- DCN - Scorpène SSK
- Scorpène Diesel-Electric Patrol Submarine (Navy recognition)
- Naval Technology - Scorpène description
- Global Security - Scorpène
- Scorpène agreement with India
- Chilean Navy - SS O'higgins in service
- DID - India Looks to Modify Scorpene Subs With MESMA AIP Propulsion