Scorzoneroides

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Scorzoneroides
Nordschitz-Scorzoneroides muelleri.tif
Scorzoneroides muelleri
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Cichorieae
Genus: Scorzoneroides
Moench
Synonyms[1]
Scorzoneroides montana subsp. montana

Scorzoneroides or hawkbits is a genus of plants of dandelion tribe within the daisy family.[2][3]

Scorzoneroides used to be included in the genus Leontodon. Recent molecular studies revealed that Leontodon in the older, broader sense is an unnatural adhesion of two separate groupings. Therefore, the former subgenus Oporinia of the genus Leontodon had to be resurrected as a separate genus.[4] [5]

Secondary metabolites[edit]

In some members of the genus Scorzoneroides, germacranolides and costus lactone-type guaianolides were detected. The genus is a rich source of hieracin-type and lactucin-type guaianolides.[6]

Phenolics found in flowering heads of Scorzoneroides taxa include luteolin type flavonoids and caffeoyl quinic acid derivatives such as chlorogenic acid and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. Moreover, Scorzoneroides are source species of caffeoyl tartaric acid derivatives caffeoyl tartaric acid and cichoric acid.[7]

Species[edit]

accepted species[1][8]
  1. Scorzoneroides atlantica - Morocco
  2. Scorzoneroides autumnalis - Europe, Morocco, Russia, Kazakhstan, Caucasus; introduced in North America[9]
  3. Scorzoneroides cantabrica - Spain, Portugal
  4. Scorzoneroides carpetana - Spain
  5. Scorzoneroides cichoracea - Mediterranean
  6. Scorzoneroides crocea - Italy, Austria, Romania, Ukraine, Crimea
  7. Scorzoneroides duboisii - Spain, France
  8. Scorzoneroides garnironii - Morocco
  9. Scorzoneroides helvetica - France, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Slovenia, Italy
  10. Scorzoneroides hispidula - Mediterranean
  11. Scorzoneroides keretina - Ukraine, Finland
  12. Scorzoneroides kralikii - Tunisia. Libya
  13. Scorzoneroides laciniata - from Egypt to Iran
  14. Scorzoneroides microcephala - Spain
  15. Scorzoneroides montana - from Germany to Montenegro
  16. Scorzoneroides montaniformis - Austria, Italy, Albania
  17. Scorzoneroides muelleri - western Mediterranean
  18. Scorzoneroides nevadensis - Spain
  19. Scorzoneroides oraria - Morocco, Libya
  20. Scorzoneroides palisiae - Morocco, Canary Islands, Spain
  21. Scorzoneroides pseudotaraxaci - Poland, Slovakia, Romania, Ukraine, Crimea
  22. Scorzoneroides pyrenaica - Spain, France
  23. Scorzoneroides rilaensis - Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia
  24. Scorzoneroides salzmannii - Morocco, Canary Islands
  25. Scorzoneroides simplex - Egypt, Libya

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Flann, C (ed) 2009+ Global Compositae Checklist
  2. ^ Moench, Conrad. 1794. Methodus Plantas Horti Botanici et Agri Marburgensis 549 in Latin
  3. ^ Tropicos, Scorzoneroides Moench
  4. ^ Samuel, R; Gutermann, W; Stuessy, TF; Ruas, C F; Lack, H-W; Tremetsberger, K; Talavera, S; Hermanowski, B; Ehrendorfer, F (2006). "Molecular phylogenetics reveals Leontodon (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) to be diphyletic". American Journal of Botany. 93: 1193–1205. ISSN 0002-9122. PMID 21642184. doi:10.3732/ajb.93.8.1193. 
  5. ^ Greuter, W; Gutermann, W; Talavera, S (2006). "A preliminary conspectus of Scorzoneroides (Compositae, Cichorieae) with validation of the required names". Willdenowia (Berlin, Germany). 36: 689–692. ISSN 1868-6397. 
  6. ^ Zidorn, C (2008). "Sesquiterpene lactones and their precursors as chemosystematic markers in the tribe Cichorieae of the Asteraceae". Phytochemistry (Amsterdam, The Netherlands). 69: 2270–2296. ISSN 0031-9422. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2008.06.013. 
  7. ^ Zidorn, C; Stuppner, H (2001). "Chemosystematics of taxa from the Leontodon section Oporinia". Biochemical Systematics and Ecology (Amsterdam, The Netherlands). 29: 827–837. ISSN 0305-1978. 
  8. ^ Altervista Flora Italiana, genere Scorzoneroides
  9. ^ Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution map