The original formula for Scotchgard was discovered accidentally in 1952 by 3M chemists Patsy Sherman and Samuel Smith. Sales began in 1956, and in 1973 the two chemists received a patent for the formula.
In 1999, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began an investigation into the class of chemicals used in Scotchgard, after receiving information on the global distribution and toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), the "key ingredient" of Scotchgard. The compound perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA), a PFOS precursor, was an ingredient and also has been described as the "key ingredient" of Scotchgard. Under US EPA pressure, in May 2000 3M announced the phaseout of the production of PFOA, PFOS, and PFOS-related products.
3M reformulated Scotchgard and since June 2003 has replaced PFOS with perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS). PFBS has a much shorter half-life in people than PFOS (a little over one month vs. 5.4 years). In May 2009 PFOS was determined to be a persistent organic pollutant (POP) by the Stockholm Convention.
- Scotchgard Carpet Protector Use of Scotchgard and its benefits.
- U.S. Patent 3,574,791
- "The Invention of Scotchgard". About.com. Retrieved 2006-08-21.
- Aziz Ullah. "The Fluorochemical Dilemma: What the PFOS/PFOA fuss is all about" Cleaning & Restoration. www.ascr.org, (October, 2006). Accessed October 25, 2008.
- Kellyn S. Betts "Perfluoroalkyl Acids: What Is the Evidence Telling Us?" Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 115, Number 5, May 2007. Accessed October 25, 2008.
- Boulanger B, Vargo JD, Schnoor JL, Hornbuckle KC (August 2005). "Evaluation of perfluorooctane surfactants in a wastewater treatment system and in a commercial surface protection product". Environ. Sci. Technol. 39 (15): 5524–30. doi:10.1021/es050213u. PMID 16124283. Supporting Information (PDF).
- Stephen K. Ritter (January 2006). "Crystal Ball On The Environment: Detective work and expertise are used to evaluate environmental contaminants of emerging concern". Chemical & Engineering News 84 (5): 37–40. doi:10.1021/cen-v084n049.p037.
- Lee, Jennifer 8. (15 April 2003). "E.P.A. Orders Companies to Examine Effects of Chemicals". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 May 2009.
- 3M: "PFOS-PFOA Information: What is 3M Doing?" Accessed October 25, 2008.
- Renner R (January 2006). "The long and the short of perfluorinated replacements". Environ. Sci. Technol. 40 (1): 12–3. doi:10.1021/es062612a. PMID 16433328.
- "Governments unite to step-up reduction on global DDT reliance and add nine new chemicals under international treaty". Geneva: Stockholm Convention Secretariat. 8 May 2008.