Scoto-Norman

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The term Scoto-Norman (also Scoto-Normans, Scotto-Norman, Franco-Scottish or Franco-Gaelic) is used to describe people, families, institutions and archaeological artifacts that are partly Scottish (in some sense) and partly Norman or Anglo-Norman (in some sense). It is used to refer to people or things of Norman, Anglo-Norman, French or even Flemish or Breton origin, but who are associated with Scotland in the Middle Ages. It is also used for any of these things where they exhibit syncretism between French or Anglo-French culture on the one hand, and Gaelic culture on the other.

For instance, the Kings of Scotland between the reign of the David I and the Stewart period are often described as Scoto-Norman. A classic case of Gaelic and French cultural syncretism would be Lochlann, Lord of Galloway, who used both a Gaelic (Lochlann) and French name (Roland), and kept followers of both languages. Another example of a Scoto-Norman, would be Robert the Bruce, who had a dual Norman-Gaelic heritage.

The term is used by historians as an alternative to Anglo-Norman when that term pertains to Scotland.

Etymology

First usage: 1829, P. F. Tytler - History of Scotland[1][2]

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