|Genres||Rock, Blues, Funk, R&B|
|Occupation(s)||Technologist, entrepreneur, musician, and songwriter|
|Instruments||Saxophone, guitar, flute, oboe, keyboards, percussion, vocals|
|Associated acts||Pink Floyd, Supertramp, Toto, Quincy Jones, Diana Ross, Spinal Tap, Spud Murphy|
As an entrepreneur, Page formed Walt Tucker Productions, an audio video post production company (1987) that produced projects for The Rolling Stones, Bon Jovi, Janet Jackson, Garth Brooks, Scorpions and others. He also co-founded 7th Level, Inc., an award-winning CD-ROM game and educational software company. At 7th Level he co-produced Tuneland, the world’s first interactive musical cartoon (starring Howie Mandel and including a guest appearance by David Gilmour), the globally lauded Monty Python interactive series, and was part of the development of QD7, an interactive multimedia joint venture with Quincy Jones and David Salzman (1992) that resulted from Jones' partnering with 7th Level. Page co-founded New Media Broadcasting Company, a social media and collaborative communications enterprise (2001) whose clients included, Will Smith, Monty Python, Toto, and Institute for Systems Biology, and co-founded and served as CEO of Direct2Care, an online healthcare presence management company (2011).
Page frequently serves as an invited guest lecturer and panelist at numerous new media conferences and university symposia. Currently, he is a featured "guest mentor" on the weekly syndicated radio show Business Rockstars, hosted by Ken Rutkowski. Before becoming CEO of Ignited Network, he had recently co-founded GetYourOPI, an online presence management company. As an artist, his continued work as a recording and as a session musician continues to draw interest from Pink Floyd fans and other music fans alike. Page is an adjunct professor at the University of Southern California's Thornton School of Music, in the Music Industry program.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Music
- 3 Business: Technologist and Entrepreneurship
- 4 Philanthropy
- 5 Awards
- 6 Discography
- 7 Citations
- 8 Sources
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Scott Page is the son of Bill Page, a musician and entrepreneur who is best known for his work as a reed player and member of the Lawrence Welk band. Bill Page also performed with Judy Garland, Frank Gorshin, Ted Mack, Barry Manilow, and on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson.
Scott Page's earliest nationally broadcast musical performance was on television network American Broadcasting Company's (ABC's) Lawrence Welk Show; he played trumpet, in an appearance with his father, Bill Page, on the December 24th, 1960 Christmas special (season five, episode 15).YouTube link
As a young adult, Page was cast in The Hardy Boys/Nancy Drew Mysteries and in The Young and the Restless. Page was featured in the April 10th, 1977 The Hardy Boys/Nancy Drew Mysteries episode titled "The Mystery of the Flying Courier," playing the part of a musician in character Joe Hardy's band.YouTube link On The Young and the Restless he played a musician, a member of characters Lauren Fenmore and Danny Romalotti's band; the episode aired on May 14, 1986.
Following his musical performances on the Lawrence Welk Show as a child, Page played in studio projects for Geronimo Black, The Alpha Band, and the Ladd McIntosh Big Band in his early adult years. Page played Oboe on the self-titled Geronimo Black album. He came to prominence, however, on Supertramp's 1983 ...Famous Last Words... Tour. Following that tour, Page would then go on to record with Supertramp on their 1985 album Brother Where You Bound. He played flute on the album. That production would become his first artistic intersection with Pink Floyd guitarist and vocalist David Gilmour, who also played on the album.
Scott Page joined Supertramp in support of the ...Famous Last Words... Tour (1983). It marked the first time additional musicians would join Supertramp as touring band members. The tour also featured Fred Mandel, among the added personnel.
In addition to his instrumental work on the tour, Page provided vocals, e.g., on the live version of the hit It's Raining Again, John Helliwell and Page sang the lower harmonies while Roger Hodgson sang higher harmonies.
Page's tenure with Supertramp was embedded in a transitional period for the band. The tour marked the first time Hodgson spoke to the audience during shows, thanking fans and announcing his forthcoming departure from the band. It was Supertramp's most ambitious tour, filling stadiums around the world and elevating Page's status as a recognizable figure in his own right.
Following the successful ...Famous Last Words... Tour, Page stayed with Supertramp, entering the studio with the band and performing live with them through the album and tour for Brother Where You Bound (1985-1986). He then did studio work on the follow-up album, Free as a Bird (1987).
During that time, Page was also balancing work with Toto.
In 1985 Scott Page had the opportunity to tour with Toto (between the end of Supertramp's ...Famous Last Words... Tour and the band's return to the studio for work on Brother Where You Bound). This was a promotional tour for Toto's album Isolation. The 1985 leg of the tour spanned February through May of that year and two dates in April 1986.
In 1986 Page was approached by Pink Floyd's David Gilmour for work on an upcoming album in the band's new incarnation following Roger Waters' departure from the band in 1985. He was invited to record parts for what would become the track "Dogs of War" on the A Momentary Lapse of Reason album. He would eventually be asked to join the band on its extensive A Momentary Lapse of Reason Tour, marking the end of his stints with Toto and Supertramp.
In 1986, Scott Page was approached by David Gilmour to play on the new, Gilmour-led version of Pink Floyd. Page was asked to record the saxophone parts for the track The Dogs of War in what would become the A Momentary Lapse of Reason album.
Upon completion of the A Momentary Lapse of Reason album, as the band prepared for its first tour in its new incarnation, Gilmour, Nick Mason, and the band's management began looking for musicians that could add a combination of "musical skills" and showmanship in an effort to bring a new complexion to the band's stage presence. Page was hired and immediately joined the band in Toronto, Canada for rehearsals.YouTube link Page played for the duration of the A Momentary Lapse of Reason Tour with the exception of the band's last performance under that tour's umbrella: an isolated, special performance at Knebworth Park on June 30, 1990. Despite being cast as part of the A Momentary Lapse of Reason Tour, the Knebworth Park date took place nearly one year after the preceding tour date and included a number of guest musicians that were not part of the band's regular recording and touring team.
Mason referred to Scott Page as "another stage show in his own right." Page "would be rendered instantly recognizable to fans in even the cheapest stadium seats by his lavish mullet hairstyle." As Pink Floyd historian Mark Blake illustrates in Pigs Might Fly: The Inside Story of Pink Floyd, the band was specifically looking to add "the presence of younger and more flamboyant band members" and Page was a good fit with his "elaborately coiffured" look and a willingness to participate to the fullest extent possible in the band's live performance (often adding the texture of an additional rhythm guitar between saxophone performances). Producer Bob Ezrin would later state that Page "came with the territory;" the band meant for it "to be a more visual show."
He is featured in the television documentary and live concert Pink Floyd in Venice and the Pink Floyd Delicate Sound of Thunder concert film, both which document the band's A Momentary Lapse of Reason Tour. Delicate Sound of Thunder was also released as an album.
Page is also featured in additional recordings that were originally intended for release in what would have become the Delicate Sound of Thunder concert film and Delicate Sound of Thunder live album, including live material from Atlanta, Georgia, recorded at the Omni Coliseum in November 1987; unhappy with the results, the band used footage recorded the following year at Nassau Coliseum in Long Island, New York for what would become Delicate Sound of Thunder: the abandoned Atlanta material circulates widely as a video and an audio bootleg titled Pink Floyd: The Calhoun Tapes and Would You Buy a Ticket to This Show.YouTube link Another performance that circulates widely in several bootleg versions is the live Italian and worldwide broadcast of the band's performance on a barge, on the Grand Canal in Venice in July 1989.YouTube link
Post-Pink Floyd music career
Despite his current focus on business endeavors, Page continues to play live and as a session musician. After his tenure with Pink Floyd, Page has continued recording with artists as diverse as David Cassidy, Gorky Park, Bob Malone, Eddie Zip, Mickey Raphael, David Lee Roth, Jane's Addiction, and Seth Loveless; he has also played as a guest on a number of Pink Floyd tribute albums.
Along with Supertramp member Carl Verheyen, he is also a founding member of Hang Dynasty, a band that brings together "sidemen" from larger bands and whose membership includes a rotating cast of musicians. In addition to Page and Verheyen, musicians that play or have played with the band include (Steely Dan's and The Doobie Brothers') Jeff Baxter, Ray Brinker, Kal David, Mike Finnigan, Steve Madaio, (David Sanborn's and Prince's) Ricky Peterson, Leland Sklar, Edgar Winter, Dave Woodford, (Steve Miller Band's) Kenny Lee Lewis and Billy Peterson, and (Tower of Power's) Stephen Kupka and Lee Thornburg. The band has also performed with guests musicians including Kenny Aronoff (drummer for John Mellencamp, Cinderella, and Chickenfoot), Reggie McBride (bass player for Stevie Wonder, Glenn Frey, and Elton John), and Dianne Steinberg-Lewis (also of Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band movie fame).
On June 17, 2015, Page made a surprise guest appearance during Brit Floyd's concert at the Orpheum Theatre in Los Angeles, California.YouTube link He played Money and Us and Them with Brit Floyd during his guest appearance.
Business: Technologist and Entrepreneurship
Through his various business and artistic ventures, Page has served as a video game music producer for the Ace Ventura video game and The Lion King franchise's Timon & Pumbaa's Jungle Games video game, as a composer for the movie Three Kinds of Heat, and as a supervising producer for Monty Python's Complete Waste of Time video game.
Walt Tucker Productions
Although Page made a fuller transition into technology entrepreneurship in the computer software industry in 1993 (after founding 7th Level), effectively culminating any potential commitments with Pink Floyd, he had already founded a Los Angeles based audio and video post-production company in 1987 called Walt Tucker Productions (specifically, headquartered in Glendale, California). He led and managed Walt Tucker Productions even while recording and touring with Pink Floyd. The two efforts overlapped during production of the "A Momentary Lapse of Reason" album and the subsequent, promotional A Momentary Lapse of Reason Tour. Walt Tucker specialized in CD/ROM technology and derived its name from an amalgamation of two of Page's "heroes": Walt Disney and Preston Tucker.
A few years into his tenure as president of Walt Tucker Productions, during a visit to COMDEX in the fall of 1992, Page talked about being at a crossroads with respect to the balance he was beginning to strike between his role as a musician and his role as an entrepreneur and businessman. In an interview with Joseph Panettieri, of Information Week, Page discussed "getting to a point where [he would] have to make a decision about what [he wanted] to dedicate [his] time to." He added: "I've done my music stint. Building an interactive multimedia company is my next challenge. I'm more concerned now about the multimedia business." Despite this, he would also state that (at the time) Pink Floyd may commit to another world tour and that he would find it difficult to "sit that... out."
A special Pink Floyd performance at Knebworth Park on June 30, 1990 (in Stevenage, England) included a number of guest musicians that were not part of the band's regular recording and touring roster. At this event, which is considered the band's last performance on the A Momentary Lapse of Reason Tour, Candy Dulfer played saxophone. Pink Floyd would not tour again until 1994, at which point Page was fully immersed in business endeavors and limiting his music work to studio sessions and some selected live performances. Ultimately, this would cement Page's performance with Pink Floyd on the penultimate date of the A Momentary Lapse of Reason Tour (July 18, of 1989) in Marseille, France, at the Stade Vélodrome, as his last with the band. Saxophonist Dick Parry, who had last recorded with Pink Floyd in 1975, during the Wish You Were Here album production effort and last toured with the band in 1977 during the In The Flesh Tour, rejoined the band for the recording of The Division Bell album as well as The Division Bell Tour that followed.
Page's new focus on entrepreneurship did not mean an end to his partnership with members of the Pink Floyd coterie: Page continued working with Walt Tucker Productions until joining forces with Pink Floyd producer Bob Ezrin to create a new business venture in 1993.
In 1993, Page formed 7th Level, Inc. with music/entertainment producer Bob Ezrin (Alice Cooper, KISS, Pink Floyd, Peter Gabriel, the The Mr. Holland's Opus Foundation, Music Rising) and Dallas, Texas technology entrepreneur George Grayson, whose first company (Micrografx, Inc.) pioneered PC-based graphics software development in the early 1980s. The company's first software venture was an edutainment product called “Li’l Howie’s TuneLand” starring comedian and "Deal Or No Deal" host Howie Mandel. "Tuneland" featured musical performances by Pink Floyd guitarist David Gilmour, Yes vocalist/songwriter Jon Anderson, Steely Dan/Doobie Brothers guitarist Jeff 'Skunk' Baxter and other popular musicians on such children’s songs as “The Little Green Frog.”
7th Level's flagship product was a CD-ROM software 'edutainment thingie' called "Monty Python's Complete Waste of Time." It was produced in 1994 by British comedy troupe's animator and award-winning film director Terry Gilliam, and Ezrin. "Waste Of Time" included such elements as 'The Desktop Pythonizer' and 'Solve The Secret To Intergalactic Success.' The product included video clips from the absurdist icons' seminal BBC-TV series "Monty Python's Flying Circus" as well as new animation from Gilliam.
New Media Broadcasting Company
In 2004, Page launched New Media Broadcasting Company Inc. (NewMBC) www.newmbc.com with silicon valley technology veteran Russ Lujan. Initially NewMBC developed interactive distribution services for content creators and consumers. Its MashCast communications platform connected diverse audiences, artists, content owners through a collaborative online network. Mashcast helped users integrate and monetize Internet broadcasts and social networks, using an infrastructure that supported content creation and collaboration. NewMBC's most highly visible clients have included fan-based community sites for the international, Grammy-winning musical group Toto, as well as for Python (Monty) Ltd.
In 2011 Page launched and served as CEO of Direct2Care, an online healthcare presence management company. Direct2Care shared traits with New Media Broadcasting Company in its effort to leverage website and social media presence for its clients: it provided a "social business and presence management network for healthcare professionals." Page's next business project, GetYourOPI (to be founded three years later), would cast a wider net than this model and focus more specifically on indexing this online presence for its clients.
In 2014 Page launched GetYourOPI, an online presence management company: an endeavor focused on improving cyberspace presence for individuals and entities through analysis of their existing results on search engines. GetYourOPI "measures" and "manages" capabilities for these. This "online presence" is measured by the company through an index factoring the volume of cyberspace presence and its translation into "social influence," producing a score whereby the company tackles its management consultation. It provides its clients with a "track, manage, and follow" service that expands their ability to control what they project online with greater scrutiny.
Page has initiated several notable charity fundraising benefit events, concerts, recordings, film, video, and online projects. In November 1992 he created "The Grand Scientific Musical Theatre," a multimedia concert and fundraiser held at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas Thomas & Mack Center in Las Vegas, Nevada (as part of COMDEX/Fall, the computer industry's largest trade show) to benefit the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children. This was produced in conjunction with Micrografx, as an adjunct to the company's annual Chili Cook-Off, which tapped computer industry leaders such as Microsoft and IBM, as well as media organizations such as CMP, IDG and Ziff-Davis to sponsor and donate to selected nonprofit organizations. For that one-time/one-night event, he produced live as well as audio/video/film-recorded performances by a wide variety of entertainers, including: the Cirque du Soleil, Todd Rundgren, producer Alan Parsons (The Beatles, Pink Floyd, The Alan Parsons Project), The Turtles (AKA Flo & Eddie - Mark Volman and Howard Kaylan), Jon Anderson (lead vocalist/songwriter from British art-rock-classical group Yes), Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inductees Graham Nash (The Hollies, Crosby Stills Nash & Young), John Entwistle (The Who) and James Burton (Elvis Presley, Ricky Nelson), as well as the Tower Of Power, Edgar Winter, Jim Keltner, guitarist Jeff "Skunk" Baxter (Steely Dan, the Doobie Brothers) and others. The event raised more than $1.5 million.
Scott Page has received acknowledgments and awards, primarily for his technology companies' achievements. Named one of “50 Pioneers of Multimedia." His industry acknowledgments include being named one of “The Top 100 Multimedia Producers” by Multimedia Magazine; the “100 Coolest People in Los Angeles” by Buzz Magazine; and one of “50 New Media Innovators” profiled in Pioneer Electronics’ Multimedia Frontier. Page co-wrote Too Many Times: the duet by Earl Thomas Conley and R&B artist Anita Pointer was nominated "for Vocal Duo of the Year at the 1987 CMA Awards"
With Pink Floyd
- A Momentary Lapse of Reason (1987)
- Delicate Sound of Thunder (1989)
- Shine On (1992)
- Oh, by the Way (2007)
- Discovery (2011)
- Geronimo Black - Geronimo Black (1972)
- The Alpha Band - The Statue Makers of Hollywood (1978)
- Ladd McIntosh Big Band - Energy (1982)
- Roger Hodgson - In the Eye of the Storm (1984)
- Bob Siebenberg - Giants in Our Own Room (1986)
- Earl Thomas Conley - Too Many Times (1986)
- Various - Stairway to Heaven/Highway to Hell (1989)
- David Cassidy - Didn't You Used to Be... (1992)
- Gorky Park - Moscow Calling (1992)
- Bob Malone - Bob Malone (1999)
- Eddie Zip - New Orleans Live in Hollywood (2001)
- Mickey Raphael - Hand to Mouth (2001)
- David Lee Roth - Diamond Dave (2003)
- Jane's Addiction - Strays (2003)
- David Lee Roth - Diamond Dave (2003)
- The Pink Floyd Tribute Band - Breathe: A Tribute to Pink Floyd (2004)
- Various - Return to the Dark Side of the Moon: A Tribute to Pink Floyd (2005)
- The Pink Floyd Tribute Band - Breathe: A Tribute to Pink Floyd (2005)
- Giorgio - Party of the Century (2010)
- Various - A Collection of Delicate Diamonds: A Tribute to Pink Floyd (2011)
- Seth Loveless - Seth Loveless (2014)
- Scott Page: Chief Executive Officer/President/Co-Founder
- Lopez-Reyes, Ed (21 July 2015). "Brit Floyd joined by Scott Page at Los Angeles' Orpheum Theatre". Brain Damage - Pink Floyd News Resource. Matt Johns. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
- Povey, Glen; Russell, Ian (1997). Pink Floyd: In the Flesh: The Complete Performance History (1st US paperback ed.). St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-9554624-0-5.
- The Rise of the Artist Middle Class: Scott Page
- FestForward Conference Biography
- Panettieri, John (1992). "On Scott Page". Information Week: 46.
- In Search of 7th Level
- O'Malley, Chris (September 1995). "The Making of Multimedia; Popular Science". Popular Science. Retrieved 19 October 2014.
- Marilyn A. Gillen (20 May 1995). "Quincy's CD-ROM Explores Music's Roots; Billboard". Billboard Magazine. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
- Guest Appearances by David Gilmour
- Jarboe, Greg (2011). YouTube and Video Marketing: An Hour a Day (2nd US paperback ed.). Sybex. ISBN 978-0470945018.
- On the Next Business Rockstars: Scott Page, Rockstar Mentor of Pink Floyd
- Local Search Association Company Spotlight: GetYourOPI
- Hang Dynasty History
- Lopez-Reyes, Ed (1 October 2014). "Alan Parsons honoured, jams with Scott Page's Hang Dynasty". Brain Damage - Pink Floyd News Resource. Matt Johns. Retrieved 21 January 2016.
- Pink Floyd fan website Brain Damage UK Scott Page Index
- MUIN 420: DIY Music Marketing
- University of Southern California Thornton School of Music: Music Industry Program
- The Lawrence Welk Show Episode Guide
- Lawrence Welk Music Makers Bios
- The Welk Musical Family: Bill Page
- IMDb The Lawrence Welk Show: Season 5, Episode 15 Christmas (24 Dec. 1960) "The Dodge Dancing Party" Christmas (original title)
- "The Lawrence Welk Show: Christmas Clip (24 December 1960)". YouTube. 27 November 2009. Retrieved 21 January 2016.
- IMDb Scott Page Filmography
- IMDb The Hardy Boys/Nancy Drew Mysteries: Season 1, Episode 9 The Mystery of the Flying Courier (10 Apr. 1977)
- "The Hardy Boys/Nancy Drew Mysteries: Season 1, Episode 9 The Mystery of the Flying Courier (10 Apr. 1977)". YouTube. 27 November 2009. Retrieved 21 January 2016.
- IMDb The Young and the Restless: Season 1, Episode 3,349 (14 May 1986)
- Discogs: Geronimo Black - Geronimo Black Overview
- Artist Direct: The Alpha Band - Statue Makers of Hollywood Overview
- Discogs: Ladd McIntosh Big Band - Evergy Overview
- Who is Who in Pink Floyd: Scott Page
- 1983 ...Famous Last Words Tour...
- Brother Where You Bound Overview
- Está lloviendo de nuevo: Supertramp
- Supertramp: The Story So Far Overview
- 1985/86 Brother Where You Bound Tour
- Tourdates: TOTO 1979 - 2007
- Roger Waters on Pink Floyd: ‘It Was Over in 1985′
- Pink Floyd: A Momentary Lapse of Reason Songbook U.K. ISBN 978-0-7119-1340-0
- Floydian Slip Discography: Delicate Sound of Thunder
- Mason 2005, p. 295
- Live At Knebworth 1990 (with Pink Floyd) DVD Review
- Blake 2008, p. 329.
- Blake 2008, p. 331.
- Lopez-Reyes, Ed (8 December 2013). "Pink Floyd's Delicate Sound of Thunder: 25 Years Later". Brain Damage - Pink Floyd News Resource. Matt Johns. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
- Scott Page, musicminder Biographical Profile
- Scott Page: About
- Business Rockstars, Scott Page: PINK FLOYD Interview and Profile
- CD Universe Discography
- Seth Loveless to Perform New Music at Cooperstown
- Hang Dynasty Official Band Members
- TEMECULA: Film and Music fest ready for second act
- "Scott Page (Pink Floyd) Money sax solo Live with Brit Floyd (17 June 2015)". YouTube. 21 October 2015. Retrieved 21 January 2016.
- The Imagination Station's Management Information
- BizRockers: Scott Page Profile
- Information Week, Joseph Panettieri Interview with Scott Page at COMDEX 1992
- 7th Heaven
- Business Rockstar: This Week's Rockstar Guests: Scott Page, Thursday, September 4th
- "The Imagination Station's management information". Retrieved 2007-03-07.
- Raskin, Robin (March 1994). "Starstruck Games; PC Mag". PC Mag. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
- Real-Time Internet Innovator New Media Broadcasting Company Launches MashCast(R), The Online Platform Redefining Collaboration, Communication, Distribution and Commerce
- Company Overview of Direct2Care Communications, Inc.
- About Scott Page
- Direct2Care Communications, Inc.
- LSA:14 Company Spotlight (GetYourOPI) Presentation Video
- Pacific Northwest BC Canada People: Scott Page
- "SCIENTIFIC MUSICAL THEATRE; The Straits Times". The Straits Times. 24 November 1992. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
- Merrick, Richard (2010). The History of The Grand Scientific Musical Theatre (PDF) (1st US paperback ed.). ISBN 978-1-61658-597-6.
- Empower Logic Studio Artist Scott Page (Artist Profile)
- Bloomberg Business Week Executive Profile
- Earl Thomas Conley
- 21st Annual CMA Awards: Nominees, Vocal Duo of the Year
- Pink Floyd - A Momentary Lapse of Reason Songbook (1st US paperback ed.). Music Sales America. 1992. ISBN 9780711913400.
- Supertramp: The Story So Far... (DVD). A&M. March 26, 2002.
- Blake, Mark (2008). Comfortably Numb: The Inside Story of Pink Floyd (1st US paperback ed.). Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-81752-6.
- Caffey, Michael (Director) (April 10, 1977). The Hardy Boys/Nancy Drew Mysteries (Television series). Los Angeles: Glen A. Larson Productions (co-production) University Television (co-production).
- Hobson, James (Director) (December 24, 1960). Lawrence Welk Show (Television series). Los Angeles: Teleklew Productions (1955-1982) American Broadcasting Company (ABC) (1955-1971) (co-production).
- Mason, Nick (2005). Inside Out: A Personal History of Pink Floyd (1st US paperback ed.). Chronicle Books. ISBN 978-0-8118-4824-4.
- Pacelli, Frank (Director) (May 14, 1986). The Young and the Restless (Television series). Los Angeles: CBS.
- Povey, Glen (2008). Echoes: The Complete History of Pink Floyd (2nd UK paperback ed.). 3C Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-0-9554624-1-2.
- Schaffner, Nicholas (1991). Saucerful of Secrets: the Pink Floyd Odyssey (1st US paperback ed.). Dell Publishing. ISBN 978-0-385-30684-3.