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Scottish Australians

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Scottish Australians
Scots Australiens
Astràilianaich Albannach
Scottish Australian Flag
Total population
2,176,777 (by ancestry, 2021)[1]
(8.4% of the Australian population)
130,060 (by birth, 2021)
English, Scots
Related ethnic groups
Scottish people, Lowland Scots people, Anglo-Celtic Australians, Irish Australians, English Australians, Welsh Australians, Manx Australians[2]

Scottish Australians (Scots: Scots Australiens, Scottish Gaelic: Astràilianaich Albannach) are ‌‍‍‍‍residents of Australia who are fully or partially of Scottish descent.

According to the 2021 Australian census, 130,060 Australian residents were born in Scotland, while 2,176,777 claimed Scottish ancestry, either alone or in combination with another ancestry.[3]


The links between Scotland and Australia stretch back to the first British expedition of the Endeavour under command of Lieutenant James Cook who was himself the son of a Scottish ploughman. Cook navigated and charted the east coast of Australia, making first landfall at Botany Bay on 29 April 1770. His reports in Cook's expedition would lead to British settlement of the continent, and during the voyage Cook also named two groups of Pacific islands in honour of Scotland: New Caledonia and the New Hebrides.[4] The first European to die on Australian soil was a Scot; Forbey Sutherland from Orkney, an able seaman died on 30 April 1770 of consumption and was the first to be buried on the colony by Captain Cook, who named Sutherland Point at Botany Bay in his honour.

Colonial period[edit]

The first Scottish settlers arrived in Australia with the First Fleet in 1788,[5] including three of the first six Governors of New South Wales John Hunter, Lachlan Macquarie (often referred to as the father of Australia)[4][5] and Thomas Brisbane. The majority of Scots arriving in the early colonial period were convicts: 8,207 Scottish convicts, of the total 150,000 transported to Australia, made up about 5% of the convict population. The Scottish courts were unwilling to punish crimes deemed to be lesser offences in Scots Law by deportation to Australia. Scottish law was considered more humane for lesser offences than the English and Irish legal systems.[4] Although Scottish convicts had a poor reputation, most were convicted of minor property offences and represented a broad cross-section of Scotland's working classes. As such, they brought a range of useful skills to the colonies.[6]

From 1793 to 1795, a group of political prisoners later called the 'Scottish Martyrs', were transported to the colonies. They were not all Scots, but had been tried in Scotland. Their plight as victims of oppression was widely reported and the subsequent escape of one of them, Thomas Muir, in 1796 caused a sensation and inspired the poetry of Robert Burns.[4] The majority of immigrants, 'free settlers', in the late 18th century were Lowlanders from prominent wealthy families.[citation needed] Engineers like Andrew McDougall and John Bowman arrived with experience in building corn mills, while others were drawn to Australia by the prospects of trade. William Douglas Campbell, Robert Campbell, Charles Hook, Alexander Berry Laird of the Shoalhaven, were some of the first merchants drawn to the colonies.[citation needed]

At this time, several Scottish regiments were recorded in the colonies: Macquarie's unit or the 73rd Regiment, the Royal North British Fusiliers, and the King's Own Scottish Borderers. Three of the Deputy Commissaries-General (the highest rank in the colony) from 1813 to 1835 were Scots: David Allan, William Lithgow, Stewart.[citation needed]

By 1830, 15.11% of the colonies' total population were Scots, which increased by the middle of the century to 25,000, or 20-25% of the total population. The Australian Gold Rush of the 1850s provided a further impetus for Scottish migration: in the 1850s 90,000 Scots immigrated, far higher than other British or Irish populations at the time.[5] Literacy rates of the Scottish immigrants ran at 90-95%. By the 1830s a growing number of Scots from the poorer working classes joined the diaspora. Immigrants included skilled builders, tradesmen, engineers, tool-makers and printers. They settled in commercial and industrial cities, Sydney, Adelaide, Hobart and Melbourne. The migration of skilled workers increased, including bricklayers, carpenters, joiners, and stonemasons. They settled in the colonies of Victoria, New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania.

In the 1840s, Scots-born immigrants constituted 12 percent of the Australian population. Out of the 1.3 million migrants from Britain to Australia in the period from 1861 to 1914, 13.5 percent were Scots.[7] Much settlement followed the Highland Potato Famine, Highland Clearances and the Lowland Clearances of the mid-19th century. By 1860 Scots made up 50% of the ethnic composition of Western Victoria, Adelaide, Penola and Naracoorte. Other settlements in New south Wales included New England, the Hunter Valley and the Illawarra.

Highland Pipers, Newcastle, New South Wales, 5 November 1898

Their preponderance in pastoral industries on the Australian frontier and in various colonial administrative roles, meant that some Scottish migrants were involved in the injustices against Indigenous Australians throughout the colonial period, including: the dispossession of the indigenous from their lands, the creation of discriminatory administration regimes, and in killings and massacres.[8]

Throughout the 19th century, Scots invested heavily in the industries of the Australian colonies. In the 1820s, the Australian Company of Edinburgh & Leith exported a variety of goods to Australia, but a lack of return cargo led to the company's termination in 1831. The Scottish Australian Investment Company was formed in Aberdeen in 1840, and soon became one of the chief businesses in the colonies, making substantial investments in the pastoral and mining industries. Smaller companies, such as George Russel's Clyde Company and Niel & Company, also had a significant presence in the colonies. Before the 1893 Australian financial crisis, Scotland was the main source of private British loans to Australia.[9]

20th century[edit]

Anzac Day parade in Melbourne, 25 April 2013

A steady rate of Scottish immigration continued into the 20th century, with substantial numbers of Scots continuing to arrive after 1945.[4] Between 1910 and 1914, around 9000 Scots arrived each year, and in 1921 the Scottish population of Australia was 109,000. Due to economic decline in Scotland after the First World War, there was an over-representation of Scots among British migrants to Australia during the interwar period, and by 1933 there were 132,000 Scottish migrants living in Australia.[10]

By the 1920s and 1930s, a majority of Scottish migrants in Australia were living in Victoria and New South Wales. The urban working-class background of many British migrants to Australia in the early 20th century meant that Scots were most likely to settle in industrial portside suburbs, especially in Melbourne and Sydney, where they made notable contributions to the shipbuilding industry.[11] In the late-19th and early-20th century, Scottish-born workers had a significant influence in the labour movement, and played key roles in trade unions and the Australian Labor Party,[12] as well as becoming leaders in the Communist Party of Australia.[13][14] In 1928, a significant delegation of Scottish Australians to Scotland was influential in the opening of a direct trade route between Australia and Glasgow, and by 1932 traders on the Clyde had reported a three-fold increase in imports from Australia and New Zealand.[15]

Today, a strong cultural Scottish presence is evident in the Highland games, dance, Tartan day celebrations, Clan and Gaelic-speaking societies found throughout modern Australia. In the early 2000s, the number of Australians claiming to have Scottish ancestry increased almost three-fold; the majority of those who claim Scottish ancestry are third or later generation Australians.[16]


Scottish ancestry in Australia 1986–2021 (Census)
Year Ethnic group Population Percent of pop. Ref
1947 Anglo-Celtic 89.8% [17]
1986 Scottish 740,522 4.7% [18]
2001 Scottish 540,046 2.9% [18]
2006 Scottish 1,501,200 7.6% [19][20]
2011 Scottish 1,792,622 8.3% [20][21]
2016 Scottish 2,023,470 8.7% [22]
2021 Scottish 2,176,777 8.6% [23]
People with Scottish ancestry as a percentage of the population in Australia divided geographically by statistical local area, as of the 2011 census

2011 Census[edit]

According to the 2011 Australian census 133,432 Australian residents were born in Scotland, which was 0.6% of the Australian population. This is the fourth most commonly nominated ancestry and represents over 8.3% of the total population of Australia.[20]

2006 Census[edit]

At the 2006 Census 130,205 Australian residents stated that they were born in Scotland.[24] Of these 80,604 had Australian citizenship.[25] The majority of residents, 83,503, had arrived in Australia in 1979 or earlier.[25]


The Western Australia Police Pipe Band at Bridge of Allan Highland Games in Scotland

Some aspects of Scottish culture can be found in Australia:

Highland gatherings[edit]

Highland gatherings are popular in Australia. Notable gatherings include:

Scottish schools[edit]

The Scots in Australia started a number of schools, some of which are state run, and some of which are private:

Scottish placenames[edit]

The Perth skyline viewed from Elizabeth Quay
The Balconies (formerly known as the 'Jaws of Death') - Grampians National Park, Victoria, Australia

In Australia, Scottish names make up 17 per cent of all non-Indigenous placenames. Many are of Lowland origins, but Highland names are also common in areas of concentrated Highland settlement. There are also many other landscape features, properties, and streets in Australia with Scottish origins.[32]

Notable Scottish placenames in Australia include:

Places named after Lachlan Macquarie[edit]

Many places in Australia have been named in Macquarie's honour (some of these were named by Macquarie himself). They include:

At the time of his governorship or shortly thereafter:

Many years after his governorship:

Notable Australians of Scottish descent[edit]

Name Born - Died Notable for Connection with Australia Connection with Scotland
John Mackay 1839–1914 Explorer, blackbirder, harbourmaster Came to Australia in 1854 Born Inverness, Scotland
Jimmy Chi 1948–2017 Australian composer, musician and playwright Born in Australia Ancestor were Scottish.
Isla Fisher 1976– Hollywood actress Emigrated to Australia from Scotland in 1982 with her family and was raised in Perth, Western Australia Born to Scottish parents in Muscat, Oman and spent her early childhood years in Bathgate, Scotland.
Jordan Smith 1989– Actor Arrived in 2003 Born and raised in Fife, Scotland. He emigrated to Australia from Scotland at age 14 with his family, where he later became an actor, best known for playing Andrew Robinson in the Australian soap opera Neighbours.
Captain James Cook 1728–1779 Cartographer, navigator and Captain of the Endeavour who made first landfall at Botany Bay and named New South Wales. Arrived on the Endeavour in 1770 Son of a Scottish ploughman
Air Chief Marshal Allan Grant "Angus" Houston, AC, AFC 1947– Retired senior officer of the Royal Australian Air Force. He served as Chief of Air Force (CAF) from 20 June 2001 and then as the Chief of the Defence Force (CDF) from 4 July 2005. He retired from the military on 3 July 2011. Since then Houston has been appointed to a number of positions, including chairman of Airservices Australia. In March 2014 he was appointed to head the Joint Agency Coordination Centre (JACC) during the search for Malaysia Airlines Flight 370. Houston was born on 9 June 1947 in Ayrshire, Scotland and educated at Strathallan School in Forgandenny, Perthshire, Scotland. He emigrated to Australia in 1968 at age 21.
James Boag I 1804–1890 Founder of Boag's Brewery in Tasmania Emigrated 1853, settled in Tasmania after some time on the Victorian Gold Fields. Founder and proprietor of J. Boag & Sons, owner of the Boag's Brewery in Launceston, Tasmania, Australia. Born Paisley, Renfrewshire, Scotland.
Robert McCracken 1813–1885 Brewer and founder of the Essendon Football Club in 1873 Emigrated from Ardwell Farm near Girvan in Ayrshire, Scotland in 1840. The Essendon Club was formed at a meeting at his family home "Ailsa" at Ascot Vale. Born Ayrshire, Scotland.
Keith Ross Miller 1919–2004 Legendary Australian Test cricketer and St Kilda and Victoria, Australian Rules Footballer Member of Bradmans 1948 Australian cricket 'Invincibles' touring team to England His paternal and maternal grandparents were Scottish.
Dave Bryden 1928–2013 Australian Rules Footballer Member of the 1954 Footscray now Western Bulldogs premiership team His father was Scottish.
Roy Cazaly 1893–1963 Australian Rules Footballer Roy Cazaly was a champion ruckman who played for St Kilda (1909–1920) and then South Melbourne (1921–1926). His teammate's constant cry of 'Up there Cazaly' entered the Australian idiom and became part of folk-lore'. His mother was Elizabeth Jemima, née McNee from Scotland.
Thomas Brisbane 1773–1860 Sixth governor of New South Wales Appointed governor in 1821 Born near Largs in Ayrshire; educated at University of Edinburgh
John Hunter 1737–1821 Second governor of New South Wales Arrived with the First Fleet in 1788 born in Leith
Rt Hon. Andrew Fisher 1862–1928 Prime Minister three times, the most successful of Australia's early politicians and started the Commonwealth Bank. Arrived in Queensland 1885 Born at Crosshouse, Ayrshire, Scotland.
Right Honourable John Malcolm Fraser 1930–2015 Prime Minister. Born Australia Father was Scottish
Forby Sutherland c. 1741–1770 First British born national to be buried in Australia by Captain Cook on his voyage on the Endeavour. arrived on the Endeavour in 1770 Born Orkney Islands Scotland
James Busby 1801–1871 Grew up in Australia and was key to the peace treaty and negotiations between the British and the united tribes of the Maori in New Zealand. Arrived in 1824 Born Edinburgh
James Grant 1772–1833 British Royal Navy officer who was the first to sail through Bass Strait from west to east, charting the then unknown coastline and the first European to land on Phillip Island where the south west point is named after him, and Churchill Island. Arrived in Australia 1800 Born Morayshire Scotland
William Balmain 1762–1803 Naval surgeon who sailed as an assistant surgeon with the First Fleet to establish the first European settlement in Australia, and later became its principal surgeon. Arrived Port Jackson in January 1788 From Rhynd Perthshire Scotland
Peter Miller Cunningham 1789–1864 Scottish naval surgeon and pioneer in Australia. Arrived in 1819 From Dumfriesshire Scotland
Robert Campbell 1982– Australian Rules footballer. Born in Australia Ancestors were Scottish.
Elle Macpherson 1964– Australian supermodel, actress and business woman. Born in Australia Ancestors from Scotland.
Sir Francis Forbes 1784–1841 First Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of New South Wales. Arrived 1820 Parents were Scottish
John Murray 1827–1876 Lieutenant in the Native Police force. Arrived in Australia 1843 Born Langholm, Scotland
William Lithgow 1784–1864 Auditor General of the colony of Sydney in Australia. The city of Lithgow in New South Wales was named in honour. Arrived in Sydney 1824 Born Scotland
Colonel William Paterson 1755–1810 Scottish soldier, explorer, and botanist best known for leading early settlement in Tasmania. Arrived to Australia 1789 Born Montrose Scotland
Charles Frazer 1788–1831 Colonial botanist of New South Wales who collected and catalogued numerous Australian plant species, and participated in a number of exploring expeditions. Arrived in 1815 From Blair Atholl Perthshire Scotland
Andrew McDougall 1983– Australian Rules footballer. Born Australia Ancestors were Scottish
Rod Wishart 1968– Australian former rugby league footballer who played for Illawarra Steelers, St. George Illawarra Dragons, New South Wales and Australia. Born Australia Ancestors were Scottish
James Alpin McPherson 1842–1895 Explorer and bush ranger, best known as the 'Wild Scotchman'. Arrived in 1855 Born Inverness-shire Scotland
Paul McGregor 1967– Australian rugby league footballer, he played for the Illawarra Steelers and, St George Illawarra Dragons and has represented New South Wales in the State of Origin and the Australian national rugby league team. Born Australia Ancestors were Scottish
George Reid 1845–1918 Prime Minister of Australia Arrived Victoria 1852 Born Renfrewshire
Sir Thomas Livingstone Mitchell 1792–1855 Surveyor-General and explorer. Arrived 1811 From Stirlingshire Scotland
Andrew Petrie 1798–1872 Engineer who made important contributions as a private builder and was the first white Australian to climb Mount Beerwah. Arrived 1831 Born Fife Scotland
Alexander McLeay 1767–1848 Appointed Colonial Secretary for New South Wales and was the foundation president of the Australian Club. Arrived with family in 1826 Born Ross-shire Scotland
Margie Abbott 1958– Spouse of the Prime Minister of Australia and wife of Tony Abbott. Born in New Zealand and emigrated to Australia Scottish ancestry from both her parents
Campbell Drummond Riddell 1796–1858 Public servant who served as Colonial Treasurer. Arrived Sydney 1830 Born Argyllshire, Scotland
John Murray 1775–1807 Scottish naval officer, seaman and explorer, who also made a marked contribution to medicine. Arrived 1800 Born Edinburgh
Sir Charles Menzies 1783–1866 Officer of marines who became the first commandant at Newcastle secondary Penal establishment. Arrived 1810 Born at Bal Freike, Perthshire, Scotland
Patrick Logan 1791–1830 Arrived Sydney 1825 From Berwickshire Scotland
John Stephen 1771–1833 First Puisne Judge of New South Wales who also became the first Solicitor-General. Arrived 1824 Born Aberdeen Scotland
Robert Brown 1773–1858 Botanist who made extensive collections during Flinders' coastal surveys. Held in high regard by his contemporaries, he received numerous academic honours and made several major discoveries in his subject, including molecular agitation now called 'Brownian movement'. Arrived 1800 From Aberdeen Scotland
Francis Melville 1822–1857 Francis McCallum, calling himself Captain Francis Melville and posing as a gentleman, he reached Victoria about October 1851. He became a bushranger and claimed leadership of the Mount Macedon gang. Arrived in the 1830s Born Inverness-shire
James Macpherson Grant 1822–1885 Politician and prosperous Melbourne solicitor, who became vice-president of the land and works board and commissioner of railways and roads in 1864. Arrived 1850 Born Scotland
John Flynn (minister) 1880–1951 Presbyterian minister and aviator who founded the Royal Flying Doctor Service, the world's first air ambulance. Appears on the Australian $20 dollar note Born Melbourne, Victoria. Minister of the Church of Scotland
Catherine Helen Spence 1825–1910 Author, teacher, journalist, politician (Australia's first female political candidate) and leading suffragette. Appears on the Australian $5 dollar note Emigrated to South Australia in 1839 Born Melrose Scotland
John Dunmore Lang 1799–1878 Presbyterian clergyman, writer, politician and activist Arrived Australia 1823 and lived there since that time Born Scotland
Mary Gilmore 1865–1962 Prominent Australian socialist, poet and journalist. Appears on the Australian $10 dollar note Born New South Wales Family were from Scotland
Andrew Barton Paterson 1864–1941 Composer of Australia's most widely known country folk song, Waltzing Matilda features on the Australian $10 dollar note Born Orange, New South Wales Father was Andrew Bogle Paterson, a Scottish immigrant from Lanarkshire.
Lachlan Macquarie 1762–1824 Fifth governor of New South Wales Appointed governor in 1809 (often referred to as the Father of Australia) Born on the island of Ulva off the coast of the Isle of Mull; buried on the Isle of Mull
Thomas Mitchell 1792–1855 Surveyor and explorer Arrived Australia 1827 Born Scotland
Nellie Melba 1861–1931 Legendary Australian opera soprano and one of the most famous sopranos, and the first Australian to achieve international recognition in the form. Appears on the Australian $100 dollar note Born in Melbourne Victoria Father was a Scottish building contractor
John McDouall Stuart 1815–1866 Surveyor and the most accomplished and most famous of all Australia's inland explorers Born Dysart, Fife Scotland
David Lennox 1788–1873 Australian bridge builder, responsible for the construction of historic Lansdowne Bridge over Prospect Creek, Lennox Bridge over the Parramatta River and Lennox Bridge over Brookside Creek at Lapstone as well as a further fifty-three bridges in Victoria. Arrived 1832 in New South Wales Born Ayr Scotland
Peter Dodds McCormick 1834?–1916 Composer of the Australian national anthem Advance Australia Fair Arrived Australia 1855 Born Port Glasgow
Bill Dundee 1943– Professional wrestler Arrived Australia 1959 Born Dundee
Bon Scott 1946–1980 AC/DC vocalist Arrived Australia 1952 Born Forfar and lived in Kirriemuir until the age of 6
Angus Young 1955– AC/DC guitarist Arrived Australia 1963 Born Glasgow
Malcolm Young 1953–2017 AC/DC guitarist Arrived Australia 1963 Born Glasgow
George Young (rock musician) 1946–2017 Easybeats guitarist Arrived Australia 1963 Born Glasgow
Colin Hay 1953– Men at Work vocalist Arrived Australia 1967 Born North Ayrshire
Fely Irvine 1989– Member of Hi-5 from 2009–11 and successor to Kathleen de Leon Jones and Sun Park Born in Aberdeen, Scotland Of half-Filipino and half-Scottish ancestry
Sean Wight 1964–2011 Australian rules footballer Arrived Australia mid-1980s Born in Scotland
Roseanna Cunningham 1951– Scottish National Party politician serving as a Member of the Scottish Parliament Raised in Perth, Australia Born in Glasgow
Mary MacKillop 1842–1909 Roman Catholic nun only Australian to be beatified Born Fitzroy, Victoria Daughter of Scottish immigrants
Mary, Crown Princess of Denmark 1972– Crown Princess of Denmark Born Hobart, Tasmania Father is Scottish-born John Dalgleish Donaldson. Née Mary Donaldson.
Robert Menzies 1894–1978 Prime Minister of Australia Born Jeparit, Victoria Scottish grandparents.
Ralph Abercrombie 1881–1957 Public servant who became auditor-general for the Commonwealth. Born Mount Duneed Victoria Father was Scottish
Doug Cameron 1951– Australian Labor Party politician who served as Senator for New South Wales 2008-2019 Arrived in 1973 Born Bellshill, Scotland
Kaiya Jones 1996– Actress Arrived in 2004 Born Glasgow, Scotland
Jamie Young 1985– Footballer Born in Brisbane Of Scottish descent[34]
Jackson Irvine 1993– Footballer Born in Melbourne. Began career with Scottish-Australian club Frankston Pines and plays for the Australian national football team Father is Scottish. Played for Celtic F.C. in the Scottish Premiership
Miranda Kerr 1983– Model Born in Sydney. Victoria's Secret Angel from 2007 to 2012. Kerr stated that her ancestry is mostly English, with smaller amounts of Scottish and French.
Calum Hood 1996– Bassist Born in Sydney. Bassist and backing singer in Australian band 5 Seconds Of Summer. Hood has stated that his dad is of Scottish descent.
Catriona Gray 1994– Model, beauty pageant titleholder represented the Philippines including Miss Universe 2018 Born in Cairns Father is of Scottish descent.
Steven M. Smith 1951- Biologist Worked at CSIRO Canberra 1980-82, Migrated in 2005 as an Australian Research Council Federation Fellow. Australian citizen 2007. Employed at the University of Western Australia and subsequently at the University of Tasmania. Mother born in Paisley, wife born in Falkirk, daughter born in Edinburgh. Employed at the University of Edinburgh 1983-2004. Married in Glasgow 1997. Drummer in the City of Hobart Highland Pipe Band.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "2021 Australia, Census All persons QuickStats". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
  2. ^ "Scots - The Dictionary of Sydney". Dictionaryofsydney.org. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  3. ^ "2021 Australia, Census All persons QuickStats". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
  4. ^ a b c d e The Scots in Australia (2008) M. Prentis UNSW Press.
  5. ^ a b c The Australian People: An Encyclopedia of the Nation, Its People and Their Origins. (2001) James Jupp p650 Cambridge University Press.
  6. ^ Wilkie, Benjamin (November 2014). "Scottish convicts in Australia". History Scotland. 14: 22–27.
  7. ^ "Invest and Migrate in Brisbane, Queensland" (PDF). Qldmigrationheritage.com.au. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  8. ^ Wilkie, Benjamin (October 2017). "Unsettling History: Scots and Indigenous Australians". CABLE Magazine. 4.
  9. ^ Wilkie, Benjamin (2017), The Scots in Australia 1788-1938, Boydell & Brewer, Woodbridge, ISBN 9781783272563, pp. 33-35.
  10. ^ Wilkie, Benjamin (2016). "Lairds of Suburbia: Scottish Migrant Settlement and Housing in Australian Cities, 1880–1930". Journal of Scottish Historical Studies. 36 (1): 84–87. doi:10.3366/jshs.2016.0169. hdl:10536/DRO/DU:30081073.
  11. ^ Wilkie, Benjamin (2016). "Lairds of Suburbia: Scottish Migrant Settlement and Housing in Australian Cities, 1880-1930". Journal of Scottish Historical Studies. 36 (1): 81–102. doi:10.3366/jshs.2016.0169. hdl:10536/DRO/DU:30081073.
  12. ^ Wilkie, Benjamin (July 2017). "Scots and the early Australian labour movement". The Scottish Australian. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
  13. ^ Wilkie, Benjamin (January 2013). "Scottish communists in 1930s Australia". History Scotland. 13 (1): 26–32.
  14. ^ Wilkie, Benjamin (2013). "Scottish workers and radicals in early twentieth century Australia". Scottish Labour History. 48: 74–94.
  15. ^ Wilkie, Benjamin (2014). "The tie that binds: popular imperialism and the Australian Scottish delegation of 1928". International Review of Scottish Studies. 39: 107–136. doi:10.21083/irss.v39i0.2711. hdl:10536/DRO/DU:30067995.
  16. ^ Wilkie, Benjamin (November 12, 2012). "Scottish ancestry in Australia since 1986". The Scottish Australian. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
  17. ^ "Environment.gov.au An Australian Context" (PDF). Environment.gov.au. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  18. ^ a b The Transformation of Australia's Population: 1970-2030 edited by Siew-An Khoo, Peter F. McDonald, Siew-Ean Khoo.(Page 164).
  19. ^ "The People of Australia - Statistics from the 2006 Census" (PDF). Dss.gov.au. p. 50. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 April 2018. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  20. ^ a b c "The people of Australia.The People of Australia - Statistics from the 2011 Census (Page:55)" (PDF). Omi.wa.gov.au. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  21. ^ "2011 Census data shows more than 300 ancestries". Abs.gov.au. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  22. ^ "2016 Census QuickStats". Abs.gov.au. Archived from the original on 13 November 2021. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  23. ^ "2021 Australia, Census All persons QuickStats". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
  24. ^ "20680-Ancestry (full classification list) by Sex — Australia" (Microsoft Excel download). 2006 Census. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 2008-11-02.
  25. ^ a b "2914.0.55.002 2006 Census Ethnic Media Package" (Excel download). Census Dictionary, 2006 (cat.no 2901.0). Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2007-06-27. Retrieved 2008-11-02.
  26. ^ "The Burns Supper". www.worldburnsclub.com. Archived from the original on 19 August 2000. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
  27. ^ "Hogmanay feast - SCOTT FREE". Offexploring.com. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  28. ^ "Tartan Day Events Around the World". Archived from the original on 2009-02-09. Retrieved 2008-11-06.
  29. ^ "Burke's Peerage and Gentry - INTERNATIONAL TARTAN DAY". Archived from the original on 2008-11-21. Retrieved 2008-11-06.
  30. ^ Speed, Alex (6 April 2013). "Galloping gourmets put horse, game and haggis on menus". The Australian. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  31. ^ "MaryboroughHighlandGathering". www.maryboroughhighlandsociety.com. Archived from the original on 14 January 2006. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
  32. ^ Wilkie, Benjamin (2014), "Space, commemoration, and iconography: Scottish monuments and memorials in Australia", in Cahir, Fred (ed.), Scots Under The Southern Cross, Ballarat: Ballarat Heritage Services, pp. 157–165
  33. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2008-11-04.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  34. ^ "Jamie Young". Aldershot Town F.C. Archived from the original on 24 October 2014. Retrieved 23 October 2013.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]