Scottish Command

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Scottish Command
Headquarters Scotland badge.jpg
Active 1905–1972
2012–Present
Country  United Kingdom
Branch Flag of the British Army.svg British Army
Type Command
Garrison/HQ Edinburgh
Commanders
Current
commander
Major General Nicholas Ashmore

Scottish Command is a command of the British Army.

Nineteenth century[edit]

Edinburgh Castle, command headquarters from 1905 to the 1955
Craigiehall, command headquarters from 1955 to 2000

Great Britain was divided into military districts on the outbreak of war with France in 1793.[1] The Scottish District was commanded by the Commander-in-Chief, Scotland. In January 1876 a ‘Mobilization Scheme for the forces in Great Britain and Ireland’ was published, with the ‘Active Army’ divided into eight army corps based on the District Commands. 8th Corps was to be formed within Scottish Command, based at Edinburgh. This scheme disappeared in 1881, when the districts were retitled ‘District Commands.[2]

Twentieth century[edit]

The 1901 Army Estimates introduced by St John Brodrick allowed for six army corps based on six regional commands. As outlined in a paper published in 1903, VI Corps was to be formed in a reconstituted Scottish Command, with HQ at Edinburgh.[3] Lieutenant General Sir Charles Tucker was appointed acting General Officer Commanding-in-Chief (GOCinC) of VI Corps in April 1903. Scottish Command was established in 1905 at Edinburgh Castle but moved to Craigiehall in 1955.[4]

First World War[edit]

Army Order No 324, issued on 21 August 1914, authorised the formation of a 'New Army' of six Divisions, manned by volunteers who had responded to Earl Kitchener's appeal (hence the First New Army was known as 'K1'). Each division was to be under the administration of one of the Home Commands, and Scottish Command formed what became the 9th (Scottish) Division.[5] It was followed by 15th (Scottish) Division of K2 in September 1914.[6] The 64th (2nd Highland) Division was established in the Command by 1915 after the departure of 51st (Highland) Division for France.[7]

Second World War[edit]

In September 1939 consisted of Highland Area with 9th (Highland) Infantry Division and 51st (Highland) Infantry Division, and Lowland Area with 15th (Scottish) Infantry Division and 52nd (Lowland) Infantry Division, plus other troops.[8]

As France was capitulating, General Władysław Sikorski. the Polish commander-in-chief and prime minister, was able to evacuate many Polish troops—probably over 20,000—to the United Kingdom.[9] After initially regrouping in southern Scotland [10] these Polish ground units (as I Corps, comprising the 1st Independent Rifle Brigade, the 10th Motorised Cavalry Brigade (as infantry) and cadre brigades largely manned by surplus officers at battalion strength) took over responsibility in October 1940 for the defence of the counties of Fife and Angus; this included reinforcing coastal defences that had already been started. I Corps was under the direct command of Scottish Command. While in this area the Corps was reorganised and expanded.[11]

Post War[edit]

The Command was merged into HQ UK Land Forces (HQ UKLF) in 1972 and Scotland became a District under the new structure. Scotland continued to have district status until 2000 when the last General Officer Commanding Scotland stood down.[12] The post of General Officer Commanding Scotland was recreated again on 2 April 2012 following the disbandment of 2nd Infantry Division.[13]

General Officers Commanding-in-Chief[edit]

Commanders-in-Chief have included:[14][15][16]

Commander-in-Chief, Scottish Army[edit]

Commander-in-Chief, Scotland (or North Britain)[edit]

Commanding the troops in the North British District[edit]

Commanding the troops in the Scottish District[edit]

General Officer Commanding-in-Chief Scottish District[edit]

General Officer Commanding-in-Chief Scottish Command[edit]

General Officer Commanding, Scotland[edit]

Note: There was no General Officer Commanding, Scotland between 2000 and 2012

General Officer, Scotland[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Robert Burnham and Ron McGuigan, The British Army Against Napoleon: Facts, Lists and Trivia, 1805–1815 (2010) p. 7.
  2. ^ Army List 1876–1881.
  3. ^ Col John K. Dunlop, The Development of the British Army 1899–1914, London: Methuen, 1938.
  4. ^ Subterranea Britannica
  5. ^ "9th Division". The long, long trail. Retrieved 14 December 2015. 
  6. ^ "15th Division". The long, long trail. Retrieved 14 December 2015. 
  7. ^ "64th (2nd Highland) Division". The Long Long Trail. Retrieved 2 February 2012. 
  8. ^ Leo Niehorster, Scottish Command, accessed December 2008
  9. ^ (Polish) Wojsko Polskie we Francji. Świat Polonii. Please note that various sources give estimates that can differ by few percent.
  10. ^ James Dunnigan, Albert Nofi; Dirty Little Secrets of World War Ii: Military Information No One Told You By, HarperCollins, 1996, ISBN 0-688-12288-4, Google Print, p.139
  11. ^ Diana M. Henderson, The Lion and the Eagle: Polish Second World War Veterans in Scotland, Cualann Press, 2001, ISBN 0-9535036-4-X
  12. ^ Major change of direction Mark Strudwick; After commanding the Army in Scotland, running PSYBT is a surprisingly suitable new career The Glasgow Herald, 25 June 2006
  13. ^ "Scotland's Army Head installed as Edinburgh Castle Governor". Ministry of Defence. 30 March 2012. Retrieved 8 April 2012. 
  14. ^ Whitaker's Almanacks 1905 - 2000
  15. ^ Regiments.org
  16. ^ Army Commands
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Charles Dalton, The Scots army, 1661–1688, with memoirs of the commanders-in-chief (London, 1909).
  18. ^ Charles Dalton, English Army Lists and Commission Registers volume 5 (London, 1902) page 226.
  19. ^ Patrick Cracroft-Brennan, Dalhousie, Earl of (S, 1633) in Cracroft's Peerage. Accessed 9 September 2012.
  20. ^ Charles Dalton, English Army Lists and Commission Registers, volume 6 (London, 1904) page 220.
  21. ^ R. S. Lea, BEAUCLERK, Lord George (1704–68). in The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1715–1754 (1970). Online version accessed 9 September 2012.
  22. ^ Edith, Lady Haden-Guest, MACKAY, Hon. Alexander (1717–89), of Strathtongue, Sutherland. in The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1754–1790 (1964). Online version accessed 9 September 2012.
  23. ^ D. G. Henry, ABERCROMBY, Sir Ralph (1734–1801), of Tullibody, Clackmannan. in The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1790–1820 (1986). Online version accessed 9 September 2012.
  24. ^ Richard Cannon, Historical Record of the Forty-Sixth, or the South Devonshire Regiment of Foot (London, 1851) pages 71–72.
  25. ^ "Army List January 1817". Retrieved 21 December 2014. 
  26. ^ Ron McGuigan, Bradford, Thomas in British Generals of the Napoleonic Wars 1793–1815. The Napoleon Series, 2007. Accessed 9 September 2012.
  27. ^ Ron McGuigan, O'Callaghan, Robert William in British Generals of the Napoleonic Wars 1793–1815. The Napoleon Series, 2007. Accessed 9 September 2012.
  28. ^ "The Gentleman's magazine". Retrieved 29 November 2014. 
  29. ^ "Charles Cathcart, 2nd Earl Cathcart". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 29 November 2014. 
  30. ^ "Neil Douglas". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 29 October 2014. 
  31. ^ The London Gazette: no. 20711. p. 918. 5 March 1847. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
  32. ^ "Thomas Ernest Napier". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 29 October 2014. 
  33. ^ "Henry Dundas, 3rd Viscount Melville". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 29 November 2014. 
  34. ^ Wards, Ian McLean (1966). "CAMERON, Sir Duncan Alexander, G.C.B.". An Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 30 November 2014. 
  35. ^ "The 78th Highlanders or Ross-Shire Buffs". Electric Scotland. Retrieved 1 December 2014. 
  36. ^ "News" (PDF). Limerick City. 1868. Retrieved 30 November 2014. 
  37. ^ "The 79th Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders 1873 – 1886". Retrieved 29 November 2014. 
  38. ^ "Historical record and regimental memoir of the Royal Scots fusiliers, formerly known as the 21st Royal North British fusiliers. Containing an account of the formation of the regiment in 1678 and its subsequent services until June 1885". Retrieved 29 November 2014. 
  39. ^ The London Gazette: no. 24954. p. 1360. 25 March 1881. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
  40. ^ "The clan Donald (Volume 3)". Retrieved 29 November 2014. 
  41. ^ The London Gazette: no. 25452. p. 1197. 17 March 1885. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
  42. ^ The London Gazette: no. 25784. p. 819. 7 February 1888.
  43. ^ The London Gazette: no. 26372. p. 822. 14 February 1893.
  44. ^ "Hugh Rowlands". National Library of Wales. Retrieved 29 November 2014. 
  45. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27312. p. 3202. 10 May 1901.