Scottish Professional Football League

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Scottish Professional Football League (SPFL)
Scottish Professional Football League.svg
DivisionsScottish Premiership
Scottish Championship
Scottish League One
Scottish League Two
Number of teams42
Level on pyramid1–4
Relegation toHighland Football League
Lowland Football League
Domestic cup(s)Scottish Cup
Scottish League Cup
Scottish Challenge Cup
International cup(s)UEFA Champions League
UEFA Europa League
UEFA Europa Conference League
Current championsCeltic
Most championshipsCeltic (8 titles)[a]
TV partnersSky Sports
Premier Sports
BBC Scotland
BBC Alba
CBS Sports/Paramount+(US)
Current: 2022–23 Scottish Professional Football League

The Scottish Professional Football League (SPFL) is the national men's association football league in Scotland. The league was formed in June 2013 following a merger between the Scottish Premier League and the Scottish Football League.[1][2] As well as operating its league competition, which consists of the top four levels of the Scottish football league system, the SPFL also operates two domestic cup competitions, the Scottish League Cup and the Scottish Challenge Cup. While the Scottish Cup includes all the teams within the SPFL, the competition is run and organised by the Scottish Football Association.


A Scottish football league system was first created in 1890, when the Scottish Football League (SFL) was formed. Traditionally the league had a two divisional structure (Divisions One and Two) between which clubs were promoted and relegated at the end of each season. By the mid-1970s, this organisation was perceived to be stagnant, and it was decided to split into a three divisional structure: Premier Division (formerly Division One), First Division (formerly Division Two) and a newly added Second Division. This system came into force for the 1975–76 season. This setup continued until the 1994–95 season[3] when a four divisional structure was introduced, along with a new Third Division, with all four divisions consisting of ten clubs.

On 8 September 1997, the Premier Division clubs decided to split from the Scottish Football League and form the Scottish Premier League (SPL), following the example of the English Premier League.[4] This decision was fuelled by a desire by the top clubs in Scotland to control more of the revenue generated by the game and to negotiate its contracts with sponsors and broadcasters.[4][5] SFL revenues had been divided proportionally between clubs in all four divisions. The SPL clubs retained all of its commercial revenues, except for an annual payment to the SFL[6] and a parachute payment to any relegated clubs.[7][8]

Scottish football began to think about changing its structures again in the late 2000s, as Scottish clubs and national teams were struggling in international competition and revenues were being greatly outgrown by the neighbouring English Premier League. A review, led by former First Minister of Scotland Henry McLeish, was conducted by the Scottish Football Association and its report was published in December 2010.[9] McLeish recommended that Scottish football should have a single league body and that the top flight should be reduced to 10 clubs.[10] The proposal to change the top flight numbers did not proceed because of opposition from four SPL clubs, with only two needed to block any change of that nature.[11]

Talks continued about the proposed league merger.[12] A proposal for a merged league body with a 12–12–18 structure was advanced in April 2013.[4] This plan failed when two SPL clubs (Ross County and St Mirren) voted against.[13] The SPL clubs unanimously agreed a revised merger plan a few weeks later, which would retain the same league structure and redistribute more revenues to second tier clubs.[14] The SFL submitted a counter-proposal allowing for more revenues to be given to third and fourth tier clubs, but this was rejected by the SPL, who stuck with the plan agreed by their clubs.[15] An indicative vote of SFL clubs in May suggested that the SPL plan would be formally rejected.[16] Some of the First Division (second tier) clubs threatened to break away from the SFL and form an "SPL2" (SPL second division).[16] The SPL suggested it would welcome the First Division clubs if they decided to leave the SFL.[17] A formal vote of SFL clubs was taken on 12 June. 23 clubs voted in favour, one more than was needed for the proposal to succeed.[1] The merger was formally agreed on 28 June[2] and football was first played under the new structure in the 2013–14 season.

League and corporate structure[edit]

On 24 July 2013 the names of the four SPFL divisions were announced – Scottish Premiership, Scottish Championship, Scottish League One and Scottish League Two.[18] The merger was criticised by Alex Anderson of When Saturday Comes as bringing further uncertainty to Scottish football, holding the belief that the semi-professional clubs in the lower divisions will be put into a future regional structure.[19]

The SPFL is operated as a corporation and is owned by the 42 member clubs. Each club is a shareholder, with each having a vote on issues such as rule changes and contracts. The clubs elect a six-man board of directors to oversee the daily operations of the league. The board of directors in turn appoint a Chief Executive. Neil Doncaster became the SPFL's first Chief Executive in July 2013, after beating David Longmuir to the role.[20][21] The board of directors is composed of eight members, who are elected at the company's annual general meeting.[22]


Listed below are the 42 member clubs of the SPFL for the 2022–23 season.[23]


Season Premiership Championship League One League Two
2013–14 Celtic Dundee Rangers Peterhead
2014–15 Celtic Heart of Midlothian Greenock Morton Albion Rovers
2015–16 Celtic Rangers Dunfermline Athletic East Fife
2016–17 Celtic Hibernian Livingston Arbroath
2017–18 Celtic St Mirren Ayr United Montrose
2018–19 Celtic Ross County Arbroath Peterhead
2019–20[b] Celtic Dundee United Raith Rovers Cove Rangers
2020–21 Rangers Heart of Midlothian Partick Thistle Queen's Park
2021–22 Celtic Kilmarnock Cove Rangers Kelty Hearts

Promotion/relegation play-off winners[edit]

The SPFL retained the promotion/relegation play-off format between Scottish Football League divisions introduced in 2005, whilst adding a play-off tournament to the Premiership, then later a play-off between League Two and the Highland Football League and Lowland Football League in the 2014–15 season. Clubs in bold are those who were promoted from the lower to the higher tier.

Season Premiership/Championship Championship/League One League One/League Two League Two/Regional Leagues
2013–14 Hamilton Academical Cowdenbeath Stirling Albion
2014–15 Motherwell Alloa Athletic Stenhousemuir Montrose
2015–16 Kilmarnock Ayr United Queen's Park Edinburgh City L
2016–17 Hamilton Academical Brechin City Forfar Athletic Cowdenbeath
2017–18 Livingston Alloa Athletic Stenhousemuir Cowdenbeath
2018–19 St Mirren Queen of the South Clyde Cove Rangers H
2020–21 Dundee Greenock Morton Dumbarton Kelty Hearts L
2021–22 St Johnstone Queen's Park Edinburgh City Bonnyrigg Rose Athletic L
H Club promoted from the Highland Football League
L Club promoted from the Lowland Football League

League sponsorship and media rights[edit]

One of the reasons given for the merger was the belief that it would help to attract title sponsorship to Scottish league football; contracts between the SPL and Clydesdale Bank and the SFL and Irn-Bru expired in 2013.[18][25][26] In October 2013, the SPFL announced a partnership with Irn-Bru, making it the league's official soft drink.[27] Neil Doncaster stated that the SPFL would continue to seek sponsorship for the league and the Scottish League Cup.[27] After two seasons without a main sponsor, a two-year agreement was reached with bookmaker Ladbrokes in May 2015.[28] This was later extended until June 2020. After a year without a title sponsor, the SPFL reached a five-year deal with used car marketplace company Cinch.[29]

The SPFL inherited media rights arrangements with Sky Sports and BT Sport.[18] It emerged in May 2014 that the SPFL had repaid part of the agreed contract due to the additional costs incurred by the broadcasters in covering Rangers matches at lower division grounds.[30] In September 2015, the SPFL announced that it had extended its agreements with Sky and BT to the end of the 2019–20 season on "improved terms".[31] In 2018, it was announced that Sky Sports would take over exclusive live rights for the Premiership from the 2020–21 season.[32]

On 2 November 2013 the SPFL agreed a £20 million deal with sports media rights firm MP & Silva to show games internationally,[33] but this agreement was rescinded in August 2018 when MP & Silva defaulted on its payments.[34]

Women's football[edit]

In February 2022, a majority of clubs in the Scottish Women's Premier League (SWPL) voted to accept an offer from the SPFL to run their competitions.[35] The SWPL had previously been operated by Scottish Women's Football.[35]


  1. ^ The SPFL has only existed since 2013. For a complete record of clubs that have won Scottish league championships, see List of Scottish football champions.
  2. ^ The 2019–20 season was suspended in March 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Scotland. The season was subsequently curtailed, and points per game averages were used to calculate final tables.[24]
  3. ^ The 2019–20 season was suspended in March 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Scotland. The season was subsequently curtailed,[24] and no playoff matches were played.


  1. ^ a b "SFL clubs vote in favour of merger with SPL". BBC Sport. BBC. 12 June 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
  2. ^ a b McLaughlin, Chris (28 June 2013). "The new Scottish Professional Football League survives hitch". BBC Sport. BBC. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
  3. ^ Rangers and Hearts owners, Hibs and Aberdeen involved, Celtic wavering - recalling failed Scottish Super League breakaway of 1992, Stephen Halliday, The Scotsman, 20 April 2021
  4. ^ a b c McLaughlin, Chris (14 April 2013). "Scottish clubs set for vote on league reconstruction proposals". BBC Sport. BBC. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
  5. ^ Grahame, Ewing (13 July 2012). "Low in attendance, low in achievement – the SPL's dismal legacy of failure". The Scotsman. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  6. ^ Grahame, Ewing (8 June 2009). "SPL in move to ease lower divisions' fears over Setanta cash". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  7. ^ Murray, Ewan (21 February 2011). "Scottish Premier League offers to double parachute payments". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  8. ^ "FAQs". Scottish Premier League. Archived from the original on 8 August 2011. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  9. ^ "McLeish Report". Scottish Football Association. Archived from the original on 19 August 2012. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
  10. ^ "Henry McLeish review backs SPL plan for 10-team leagues". BBC Sport. BBC. 16 December 2010. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
  11. ^ Tynan, Gordon (6 January 2011). "Thompson says opposition will stop SPL reform". The Independent. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
  12. ^ McLauchlin, Brian (10 July 2012). "Scottish Football League clubs seek merger plan change". BBC Sport. BBC. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
  13. ^ "SPL fails to vote through 12-12-18 reconstruction plan". BBC Sport. BBC. 15 April 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
  14. ^ "SPL clubs agree league reform package for next season". BBC Sport. BBC. 7 May 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
  15. ^ "Scottish league bodies remain divided as SPL rejects SFL plan". BBC Sport. BBC. 20 May 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
  16. ^ a b Lewis, Jane (23 May 2013). "SFL clubs to hold June vote on league restructuring". BBC Sport. BBC. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
  17. ^ Spence, Jim (23 May 2013). "SFL Division One clubs may break away to form SPL second tier". BBC Sport. BBC. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
  18. ^ a b c "SPFL: New Scottish league brands unveiled". BBC Sport. BBC. 24 July 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
  19. ^ Anderson, Alex (14 June 2013). "Scottish League merger brings more uncertainty". When Saturday Comes. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
  20. ^ McLaughlin, Chris (28 June 2013). "SPFL: Neil Doncaster & David Longmuir vie for new role". BBC Sport. BBC. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
  21. ^ "SPFL appoints Neil Doncaster as chief executive". BBC Sport. BBC. 4 July 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
  22. ^ "SPFL elects Drysdale and Ferguson to board at AGM". BBC Sport. BBC. 21 July 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
  23. ^ "SPFL Football Clubs | Scottish Professional Football League".
  24. ^ a b "Celtic champions & Hearts relegated after SPFL ends season". BBC Sport. 18 May 2020. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  25. ^ "SPL uncertainty 'hinders league sponsor search', says SFA chief". BBC Sport. BBC. 20 May 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
  26. ^ Lewis, Jane (23 September 2013). "Drive to attract sponsor takes time, says SFA chief Stewart Regan". BBC Sport. BBC. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
  27. ^ a b McLaughlin, Chris (3 October 2013). "SPFL agrees deal with drinks firm". BBC Sport. BBC. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
  28. ^ "SPFL: Ladbrokes named Scottish Professional Football League sponsor". BBC News. BBC. 13 May 2015. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
  29. ^ "CINCH ANNOUNCED AS SPFL TITLE SPONSOR". 10 June 2021. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  30. ^ "SPFL defends Scottish football broadcasting deal". BBC Sport. BBC. 22 May 2014. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
  31. ^ "SPFL extend live broadcasting deal with Sky and BT". BBC Sport. BBC. 10 September 2015. Retrieved 10 September 2015.
  32. ^ McLaughlin, Chris (19 November 2018). "Scottish Premiership: Matches to be shown live on Sky only as new £160m TV deal struck". BBC Sport. BBC. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  33. ^ "Scottish football to be broadcast live in China for first time". BBC Sport. BBC. 4 November 2013. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
  34. ^ "SPFL tears up broadcast agreement, claiming a default in payments". BBC Sport. BBC. 13 August 2018. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
  35. ^ a b "SWPL clubs to be invited to join SPFL after majority vote to leave SWF". BBC Sport. 15 February 2022. Retrieved 25 April 2022.

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