Screwball comedy film
Screwball comedy is principally a genre of comedy film that became popular during the Great Depression, originating in the early 1930s and thriving until the early 1940s. Many secondary characteristics of this genre are similar to film noir, but it distinguishes itself for being characterized by a female that dominates the relationship with the male central character, whose masculinity is challenged. The two engage in a humorous battle of the sexes, which was a new theme for Hollywood and audiences at the time. Other elements are fast-paced repartee, farcical situations, escapist themes, and plot lines involving courtship and marriage. Screwball comedies often depict social classes in conflict, as in It Happened One Night (1934) and My Man Godfrey (1936). Some comic plays are also described as screwball comedies.
Screwball comedy has proven to be one of the most popular and enduring film genres. It first gained prominence with It Happened One Night (1934), which is often cited as being the first true screwball. Although many film scholars agree that its classic period had effectively ended by 1942, elements of the genre have persisted or have been paid homage to in contemporary film.
During the Great Depression, there was a general demand for films with a strong social class critique and hopeful, escapist-oriented themes. The screwball format arose largely as a result of the major film studios' desire to avoid censorship by the increasingly enforced Hays Code. In order to incorporate prohibited risqué elements into their plots, filmmakers resorted to handling these elements covertly. Verbal sparring between the sexes served as a stand-in for physical, sexual tension.
The screwball comedy has close links with the theatrical genre of farce, and some comic plays are also described as screwball comedies. Many elements of the screwball genre can be traced back to such stage plays as Lysistrata by Aristophanes, Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing, As You Like It and A Midsummer Night's Dream and Oscar Wilde's The Importance of Being Earnest. Other genres with which screwball comedy is associated include slapstick, situation comedy, romantic comedy and bedroom farce.
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Films definitive of the genre usually feature farcical situations, a combination of slapstick with fast-paced repartee and show the struggle between economic classes. They also generally feature a self-confident and often stubborn central female protagonist and a plot involving courtship and marriage or remarriage. These traits can be seen in both It Happened One Night and My Man Godfrey (1936). The film critic Andrew Sarris has defined the screwball comedy as "a sex comedy without the sex."
Like farce, screwball comedies often involve mistaken identities or other circumstances in which a character or characters try to keep some important fact a secret. Sometimes screwball comedies feature male characters cross-dressing, further contributing to the misunderstandings (Bringing Up Baby (1938) I Was a Male War Bride (1949), and Some Like It Hot (1959)). They also involve a central romantic story, usually in which the couple seem mismatched and even hostile to each other at first, but eventually overcome their differences in an amusing or entertaining way that leads to romance. Often this mismatch comes about because the man is much further down the economic scale than the woman (Bringing Up Baby, Holiday, both 1938). The final romantic union is often planned by the woman from the outset, while the man does not know about her intention at all. Bringing Up Baby contains a rare statement on that, when the woman says to a third party: "He's the man I'm going to marry. He doesn't know it, but I am."
These pictures also offered a kind of cultural escape valve: a safe battleground on which to explore serious issues such as class under a comedic (and non-threatening) framework. Class issues are a strong component of screwball comedies: the upper class tend to be shown as idle and pampered and having difficulty coping with the real world. The most famous example is It Happened One Night; some critics believe that this portrayal of the upper class was brought about by the Great Depression, and the financially struggling moviegoing public's desire to see the rich upper class taught a lesson in humanity. (See also My Man Godfrey, 1936.) By contrast, when lower-class people attempt to pass themselves off as upper-class, they are able to do so with relative ease (The Lady Eve, 1941).
Another common element is fast-talking, witty repartee (You Can't Take It With You (1937) and His Girl Friday (1940)). This stylistic device did not originate in the genre (although it may be argued to have reached its zenith there): it can also be found in many of the old Hollywood cycles, including gangster films, and romantic comedies.
Screwball comedies also tend to contain ridiculous, farcical situations, such as in Bringing Up Baby, in which a couple must take care of a pet leopard during much of the film. Slapstick elements are also frequently present, such as the numerous pratfalls Henry Fonda takes in The Lady Eve (1941).
One subgenre of screwball is known as the comedy of remarriage, in which characters divorce and then remarry one another (The Awful Truth (1937), The Philadelphia Story (1940)). Some scholars point to this frequent device as evidence of the shift in the American moral code, as it showed freer attitudes toward divorce (though the divorce always turns out to have been a mistake).
The philosopher Stanley Cavell has noted that many classic screwball comedies turn on an interlude in the state of Connecticut (Bringing Up Baby, The Lady Eve, The Awful Truth). In Christmas in Connecticut (1945), the action moves to Connecticut and remains there for the duration of the film.
Notable examples from the genre's classic period
- The Front Page (1931) (remade as His Girl Friday), directed by Lewis Milestone, starring Adolphe Menjou and Pat O'Brien
- It Happened One Night (1934), directed by Frank Capra, starring Clark Gable and Claudette Colbert
- Twentieth Century (1934), directed by Howard Hawks, starring John Barrymore and Carole Lombard
- My Man Godfrey (1936), directed by Gregory La Cava, starring William Powell and Carole Lombard
- The Awful Truth (1937), directed by Leo McCarey, starring Irene Dunne and Cary Grant
- Nothing Sacred (1937), directed by William A. Wellman, starring Carole Lombard and Fredric March
- Bringing Up Baby (1938), directed by Howard Hawks, starring Katharine Hepburn and Cary Grant
- His Girl Friday (1940), directed by Howard Hawks, starring Cary Grant and Rosalind Russell
- The Lady Eve (1941), directed by Preston Sturges, starring Barbara Stanwyck and Henry Fonda
- The Palm Beach Story (1942), directed by Preston Sturges, starring Claudette Colbert and Joel McCrea
- The More the Merrier (1943), directed by George Stevens, starring Jean Arthur and Joel McCrea.
Other films from this period in other genres incorporate elements of the screwball comedy. For example, Alfred Hitchcock's thriller The 39 Steps (1935) features the gimmick of a young couple who find themselves handcuffed together and who eventually, almost in spite of themselves, fall in love with one another, and Woody Van Dyke's detective comedy The Thin Man (1934), which portrays a witty, urbane couple who trade barbs as they solve mysteries together. Many of the Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers musicals of the 1930s also feature screwball comedy plots, notably The Gay Divorcee (1934) and Top Hat (1935), the Eddie Cantor musicals Whoopee! (1930) and Roman Scandals (1933), and slapstick road movies such as Six of a Kind (1934). Some of the Joe E Brown comedies also fall into this category, particularly Broadminded (1931) and Earthworm Tractors (1936).
Actors and actresses frequently featured in or associated with screwball comedy include:
Some notable directors of screwball comedies include:
Later screwball comedies
Various later films are considered by some critics[weasel words] to have revived elements of the classic era screwball comedies, including:
- The Mating Season (1951), d. Mitchell Leisen
- Monkey Business (1952), d. Howard Hawks
- How to Marry a Millionaire (1953), d. Jean Negulesco
- The Seven Year Itch (1955), d. Billy Wilder
- Bell, Book and Candle (1958), d. Richard Quine
- Pillow Talk (1959), d. Michael Gordon
- Some Like It Hot (1959), d. Billy Wilder
- The Grass Is Greener (1960), d. Stanley Donen
- Lover Come Back (1961), d. Delbert Mann
- One, Two, Three (1961), d. Billy Wilder
- Man's Favorite Sport? (1964), d. Howard Hawks
- Send Me No Flowers (1964), d. Norman Jewison
- A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum (1966) d. Richard Lester
- Walk, Don't Run (1966), d. Charles Walters
- What's Up, Doc? (1972), d. Peter Bogdanovich
- For Pete's Sake (1974), d. Peter Yates
- Heaven Can Wait (1978), d. Warren Beatty
- Overboard (1987), d. Garry Marshall
- Raising Arizona (1987), d. Coen Brothers
- Oscar (1991) d. John Landis
- The Hudsucker Proxy (1994), d. Joel Coen
- Flirting With Disaster (1996), d. David O. Russell
- Intolerable Cruelty (2003), d. Coen Brothers
- Hail, Caesar! (2016), d. Coen Brothers
- Chongqing Hot Pot (2016), d. Yang Qing
- She's Funny That Way (2015), d. Peter Bogdanovich
Elements of classic screwball comedy often found in more recent films which might otherwise simply be classified as romantic comedies include the "battle of the sexes" (Down with Love, How to Lose a Guy in 10 Days), witty repartee (Down with Love), and the contrast between the wealthy and the middle class (You've Got Mail, Two Weeks Notice). Many of Elvis Presley's films from the 1960s had drawn, consciously or unconsciously, the many characteristics of the screwball comedy genre. Some examples are Double Trouble, Tickle Me, Girl Happy and Live A Little, Love A Little. Modern updates on screwball comedy also sometimes are categorized as black comedy (Intolerable Cruelty, which also features a twist on the classic screwball element of divorce and remarriage). The Coen Brothers often include screwball elements in a film which may not otherwise be considered screwball or even a comedy.
Screwball comedy elements in other genres
In his 2008 production of the classic Beaumarchais comedy The Marriage of Figaro, author William James Royce trimmed the five-act play down to three acts and labeled it a "classic screwball comedy." The playwright made Suzanne the central character, endowing her with all the feisty comedic strengths of her classic film counterparts. In his adaptation, entitled One Mad Day! (a play on Beaumarchais' original French title) Royce underscored all of the elements of the classic screwball comedy, suggesting that Beaumarchais may have had a hand in the origins of the genre.
The television series Moonlighting (1985–1989), Married... with Children (1987–1997), NewsRadio (1995–1999), Gilmore Girls (2000–2007), The O.C. (2003-2007), Standoff (2006–2007), and Gossip Girl (2007-2012) have also adapted elements of the screwball comedy genre for the small screen.
The second part of the movie Superman (1978) set in fictional Metropolis takes on a screwball tone after the seriousness of the origin story.
- Dancyger, Ken; Rush, Jeff (2006). Alternative Scriptwriting (Fourth ed.). Focal Press. pp. 85–85. ISBN 978-0240808499.
The screwball comedy is funny film noir that has a happy ending... The premise of the film is about the struggle in their relationship. During the course of the struggle, which is highly sexually charged, the maleness of the central character is challenged. The female is the dominant character in the relationship. This role reversion is central to the screwball comedy.
- Cele Otnes; Elizabeth Hafkin PleckCele Otnes, Elizabeth Hafkin Pleck (2003) Cinderella dreams: the allure of the lavish wedding University of California Press, p. 168 ISBN 0-520-24008-1
- Byrge, Duane; Miller, Robert Milton (1991). The Screwball Comedy Films: A History and Filmography, 1934–1942. McFarland. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-89950-539-8.
With the explosive exception of His Girl Friday, screwball comedy had calmed considerably by 1940 from its peak of zaniness in 1937-38.
-  Under the Radar: The Hays Code and the Birth of Screwball - University of Virginia
- Citation Sarris, Andrew. You Ain’t Heard Nothin’ Yet: The American Talking Film, History & Memory, 1927–1949, Oxford University Press, New York, 1998
-  The Screwball and Its Audience - University of Virginia
- Cavell, Stanley. Pursuits of Happiness: The Hollywood Comedy of Remarriage. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1981
- Tim Dirks. "Comedy films: Screwball comedy". filmsite.org.
- "10 great screwball comedy films". British Film Institute.
- Robbie Collin (23 June 2015). "Who killed the screwball comedy?". The Telegraph.
- Marsh, James (March 23, 2016). "'Chongqing Hot Pot': HKIFF review". Screen Daily. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
- Gevers, Nick (16 October 1999). "Corrupting Dr Nice by John Kessel". infinity plus. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- Classical Hollywood Comedy By Kristine Brunovska Karnick p.317
- Screwball Comedy: Defining a Film Genre, Wes D. Gehring, 1983.
- Screwball Comedy Primer - Green Cine
- Home of the Screwball - University of Virginia
- Screwball Comedy - film reference
- Screwball Comedy - Everything2
- Screwball Comedy Film: Definition - wordiQ
- Great Directors: Mitchell Leisen - Senses of Cinema
- Head Over Heels - The Guardian
- (French) La Screwball Comedy - CINEMACLASSIC
- (German) Screwball Comedies: Ein enzyklopädischer Artikel - University of Hamburg