Scripps Institution of Oceanography
|Marine Biological Association of San Diego
Scripps Institution for Biological Research
|University of California, San Diego|
|Location||La Jolla, California|
The Scripps Institution of Oceanography (sometimes referred to as SIO, Scripps Oceanography, or Scripps) in San Diego, California, founded in 1903, is one of the oldest and largest centers for ocean and Earth science research, public service, undergraduate and graduate training in the world. Hundreds of ocean and Earth scientists conduct research with the aid of oceanographic research vessels and shorebased laboratories. Its Old Scripps Building is a U.S. National Historic Landmark. SIO is a department of the University of California, San Diego. The public explorations center of the institution is the Birch Aquarium at Scripps. Since becoming part of the University of California in 1912, the institution has expanded its scope to include studies of the physics, chemistry, geology, biology, and climate of Earth.
Dr. Margaret Leinen took office as Vice Chancellor for Marine Sciences, Director of Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and Dean of the Graduate School of Marine Sciences on October 1, 2013.
Scripps publishes explorations now, an e-magazine of ocean and earth science.
Scripps Institution of Oceanography was founded in 1903 as the Marine Biological Association of San Diego, an independent biological research laboratory. It was proposed and incorporated by a committee of the San Diego Chamber of Commerce, led by local activist and amateur malacologist Fred Baker, together with two colleagues. He recruited University of California Zoology professor William Emerson Ritter to head up the proposed marine biology institution, and obtained financial support from local philanthropists E. W. Scripps and his sister Ellen Browning Scripps. They fully funded the institution for its first decade. It began institutional life in the boathouse of the Hotel del Coronado located on San Diego Bay. It re-located in 1905 to the La Jolla area on the head above La Jolla Cove, and finally in 1907 to its present location.
In 1912 Scripps became part of the University of California and was renamed the "Scripps Institution for Biological Research." The name was changed to Scripps Institution of Oceanography in October 1925. During the 1960s, led by Scripps Institution of Oceanography director Roger Revelle, it formed the nucleus for the creation of the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) on a bluff overlooking Scripps Institution.
The institution's research programs encompass biological, physical, chemical, geological, and geophysical studies of the oceans and earth. Scripps also studies the interaction of the oceans with both the atmospheric climate and environmental concerns on terra firma. Related to this research, Scripps offers undergraduate and graduate degrees.
The institution operates a fleet of four oceanographic research vessels and the research platform R/P FLIP (FLoating Instrument Platform) for oceanographic research. A fifth ship, R/V Sally Ride (named for the late astronaut and former UC San Diego professor), is scheduled to be launched in 2016.
The Integrated Research Themes  encompassing the work done by Scripps researchers are:
- Biodiversity and Conservation
- California Environment
- Earth and Planetary Chemistry
- Earth Through Space and Time
- Energy and the Environment
- Environment and Human Health
- Global Change
- Global Environmental Monitoring
- Ice and Climate
- Instruments and Innovation
- Marine Life
- Modeling, Theory, and Computing
- Sound and Light in the Sea
- Waves and Circulation
Scripps Oceanography is divided into three research sections, each with its own subdivisions:
- Center for Marine Biotechnology & Biomedicine (CMBB)
- Integrative Oceanography Division (IOD)
- Marine Biology Research Division (MBRD)
- Cecil H. and Ida M. Green Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP)
- Geosciences Research Division (GRD)
- Oceans & Atmosphere
- Climate, Atmospheric Science & Physical Oceanography (CASPO)
- Marine Physical Laboratory (MPL)
- Previous vessels larger than 50 ft (15 m)
- 1906–???? - R/V Loma
- 1907–1917 - R/V Alexander Agassiz
- 1918–1918 - R/V Ellen Browning
- 1925–1936 - R/V Scripps
- 1937–1955 - R/V E. W. Scripps
- 1955–1965 - R/V Stranger (Operated as USS Jasper from 1941 to 1947 for the UC Division of War Research)
- 1947–1956 - R/V Crest
- 1947–1969 - R/V Horizon
- 1948–1965 - R/V Paolina-T
- 1951–1965 - R/V Spencer F.Baird
- 1955–1969 - T-441
- 1956–1962 - R/V Orca
- 1959–1963 - R/V Hugh M. Smith
- 1959–1970 - R/V Argo (Official Navy name was Snatch)
- 1962–1976 - R/V Alexander Agassiz
- 1962–present - R/P FLIP
- 1962–1974 - R/V Oconostota (The Oconostota was known as "The Rolling O" because of its unpleasant motion.)
- 1965–1980 - R/V Alpha Helix (Transferred to University of Alaska, Fairbanks in 1980 (UAF sold vessel in 2007 to Stabbert Maritime)
- 1965–???? - R/V Ellen B. Scripps
- 1966–1992 - R/V Thomas Washington (Transferred to Chile and renamed Vidal Gormaz in 1992 (still operating in 2010)
- 1969–2014 - R/V Melville (AGOR-14)
- 1973–???? - R/V Gianna
- 1978–2015 - R/V New Horizon
- 1984–present - R/V Robert Gordon Sproul
- 1995–present - R/V Roger Revelle
Birch Aquarium at Scripps
Birch Aquarium at Scripps, the public exploration center for the institution, features a Hall of Fishes with more than 60 tanks of Pacific fishes and invertebrates from the cold waters of the Pacific Northwest to the tropical waters of Mexico and the IndoPacific, a 13,000-gallon local shark and ray exhibit, interactive tide pools, and interactive science exhibits.
Notable faculty members (past and present)
- Farooq Azam
- George Backus
- Ernest Baldwin
- Andrew Benson
- Hugh Bradner
- Edward Brinton
- Theodore Holmes Bullock
- Ralph J. Cicerone
- Robert W. Corell
- Harmon Craig
- Paul J. Crutzen
- Paul K. Dayton
- Edward DeLong
- Robert S. Dietz
- Seibert Q. Duntley
- Carl Eckart
- Jim T. Enright
- David Epel
- Edward A. Frieman
- Robert Garrels
- Freeman Gilbert
- Edward D. Goldberg
- Joel Hedgpeth
- Walter Heiligenberg
- Sam Hinton
- Carl Hubbs
- Douglas Inman
- John Dove Isaacs
- Jeremy Jackson
- Martin W. Johnson
- Thomas H. Jordan
- Charles David Keeling
- Ralph Keeling
- Charles Kennel
- Nancy Knowlton
- Ralph A. Lewin
- Edwin P. Martz
- Henry William Menard
- Mario J. Molina
- John W. Miles
- B. Greg Mitchell
- Judith Munk
- Walter Munk
- Jerome Namias
- William Nierenberg
- Pearn P. Niiler
- Stewart Nozette
- Veerabhadran Ramanathan
- Roger Revelle
- William Emerson Ritter
- Dean Roemmich
- Enric Sala
- Hans Suess
- Francis Parker Shepard
- Cornelius Cole Smith, Jr.
- Richard Somerville
- Fred Spiess
- George Sugihara
- Harald Sverdrup
- Lynne Talley
- Warren White
- Klaus Wyrtki
- Victor Vacquier Sr. and son
- Benjamin Elazari Volcani
- Tanya Atwater
- Thomas E. Bowman III
- Edward Brinton
- Stephen E. Calvert
- Jack Corliss
- John M. Edmond
- Kenneth Farley
- Susan M. Gaines
- Eric Giddens
- Susan Hough
- Ancel Keys
- Megan McArthur
- James J. McCarthy
- Marcia McNutt
- Jessica Meir
- Walter Munk
- Wheeler J. North
- Giuseppe Notarbartolo di Sciara
- Colm Ó hEocha
- George Perry
- Brinke Stevens
- Christopher Stott
- Brian Tucker
In 2014, the institution and its Keeling Curve measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels were featured as a plot point in an episode of HBO's The Newsroom (U.S. TV series). In 2008, Scripps Institution of Oceanography was the subject of a category on the TV game show Jeopardy!. Scripps has been a story element in numerous fictional works.
- Array Network Facility
- The Scripps Research Institute, a neighboring, but completely independent medical research institute.
- Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, a similar research facility on the east coast of the USA.
- Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, a private, non-profit oceanographic research center in Moss Landing, California.
- Scripps history.
- "Scripps Welcomes Margaret Leinen as Director".
- "Mission and Quick Facts". Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- Mission and Quick Facts, Scripps Institution of Oceanography
- Shragge, Abraham J.; Dietze, Kay (Spring 2003). "Character, Vision, and Creativity: The Extraordinary Confluence of Forces that Gave Rise to the Scripps Institution of Oceanography". Journal of San Diego History 49 (2).
- "Old Scripps Building". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Retrieved 2008-07-10.
- James H. Charleton (February 12, 1982). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Scripps, George H., Memorial Marine Biological Laboratory / Old Scripps Building" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-06-22. and PDF (2.83 MB)
- "Education". scripps.ucsd.edu. Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Retrieved 2016-05-31.
- 2011-2012 Annual Report
- "Ships". scripps.ucsd.edu. Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Retrieved 2016-05-31.
- "Navy Names New Scripps Research Vessel to Honor the Legacy of Space Explorer and UC San Diego Professor Sally Ride".
- "Sally Ride Science at UC San Diego Lifts Off with Innovative Summer Program. Published February 25, 2016.".
- "Integrated Research Themes".
- "Research Sections".
- SIO Timeline, from SIO Archives, UCSD online collection. Shor, E., Scripps in the 1950s: A Decade of Bluewater Oceanography, Journal of San Diego History, v29:4, 1983. Shor, E., SIO: Probing the oceans 1936-1976, Tofua Press, San Diego, 1978.
- ":: BIRCH AQUARIUM AT SCRIPPS: PRESS ROOM ::".
- J. Baylor Roberts, "An Artist Fashions Replicas of Strange Sea Dwellers" a photograph accompanying "La Jolla, a Gem of the California Coast" National Geographic (December 1952).
- "We Fact Checked Aaron Sorkin's Climate Science on "The Newsroom"". Mother Jones.
- "What is... A Night in the Spotlight?".
- "Scripps Institution of Oceanography". eScholarship.
- Scripps Institution of Oceanography; First Fifty Years Helen Raitt and Beatrice Moulton. Los Angeles : W. Ritchie Press, 1967.
- Scripps Institution of Oceanography : Probing the Oceans, 1936 to 1976 Elizabeth Noble Shor. San Diego, Calif. : Tofua Press, 1978.
- The Keeling Curve Turns 50