Scroll and Key
Scroll and Key Tomb
The Scroll and Key Society is a secret society, founded in 1842 at Yale University, in New Haven, Connecticut. It is one of the oldest Yale secret societies and reputedly the most wealthy. The society is one of the reputed "Big Three" societies at Yale, along with Skull and Bones and Wolf's Head Society. Each spring the society admits fifteen rising seniors to participate in its activities and carry on its traditions.
Scroll and Key was established by John Addison Porter, with aid from several members of the Class of 1842, including Leonard Case Jr. and Theodore Runyon, and a member of the Class of 1843, William L. Kingsley, after disputes over elections to Skull and Bones Society. Kingsley is the namesake of the alumni organization, the Kingsley Trust Association (KTA), incorporated years after the founding.
Lyman Hotchkiss Bagg wrote that "up until as recent a date as 1860, Keys had great difficulty in making up its crowd, rarely being able to secure the full fifteen upon the night of giving out its elections." However, the society was on the upswing: "the old order of things, however, has recently come to an end, and Keys is now in possession of a hall far superior...not only to Bones hall, but to any college-society hall in America."
Gifts to Yale
In addition to financing its own activities, "Keys" has made significant donations to Yale over the years. The John Addison Porter Prize, awarded annually since 1872, and in 1917 the endowment for the founding of the Yale University Press, which has funded the publication of The Yale Shakespeare and sponsored the Yale Younger Poets Series, are gifts from Keys.
- At the close of Thursday and Sunday sessions, members are known to sing the "Troubadour" song on the front steps of the Society's hall, a remnant of the tradition of public singing at Yale. The song (written in the 1820s by Thomas Haynes Bayly) was recorded by Tennessee Ernie Ford on his 1956 album, "This Lusty Land", as "Gaily the Troubador".
- In keeping with the practice of adopting secret letters or symbols such as Skull and Bones' "322," Manuscript's "344," and the Pundits' "T.B.I.Y.T.B," Scroll and Key is known to use the letters "C.S.P. and C.C.J.".
- Members of the society sign letters to each other "YiT", as opposed to Skull and Bones' "yours in 322".
- Outside of its tap-related activities, the society has been known to hold two major annual events called "Z Session".
Scroll and Key taps annually a delegation of fifteen, composed of men and women of the junior class, to serve the following year. Membership is offered to a diverse group of highly accomplished juniors, specifically those who have “achieved in any field, academic, extra-curricular, or personal.” Delegations frequently include editors of the Yale Daily News and other publications, artists and musicians, social and political activists, athletes of distinction, entrepreneurs, and high achieving scholars. Keys has long been the society of choice of Mayflower descendants among the undergraduate student body.
The society's "building" was designed in the Moorish Revival style by Richard Morris Hunt and constructed in 1869. A later expansion was completed in 1901. Architectural historian Patrick Pinnell includes an in-depth discussion of Keys' building in his 1999 history of Yale's campus, relating the then-notable cost overruns associated with the Keys structure and its aesthetic significance within the campus landscape. Pinnell's history shares the fact that the land was purchased from another Yale secret society, Berzelius (at that time, a Sheffield Scientific School society). In 2002, the society underwent a major construction project rumored to involve an aquarium beneath the society.
Regarding its distinctive appearance, Pinnell noted that "19th century artists' studios commonly had exotic orientalia lying about to suggest that the painter was sophisticated, well traveled, and in touch with mysterious powers; Hunt's Scroll and Key is one instance in which the trope got turned into a building." Later, undergraduates described the building as a "striped zebra Billiard Hall" in a supplement to a Yale Yearbook. More recently, it has described by an undergraduate publication as being "the nicest building in all of New Haven.".
|Name||Yale Class||Known for|
|Leonard Case Jr.||1842||Philanthropist and Founder of Case School of Applied Science in Cleveland, later Case Western Reserve University|
|Cord Meyer, Jr.||1943||Central Intelligence Agency; United World Federalists|
|Frank Polk||1894||Davis Polk & Wardwell; (acting) Secretary of State, managed conclusion to World War I|
|Dean Acheson||1915||51st Secretary of State|
|Cyrus Vance||1939||57th Secretary of State; Secretary of the Army; Chairman, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.|
|Theodore Runyon||1842||Envoy, then Ambassador, Germany; Battle of Bull Run|
|Sargent Shriver||1938||Peace Corps; 1972 Democratic Vice-Presidential Candidate, Presidential Medal of Freedom|
|Allen Wardwell||1895||Russian War Relief, Davis Polk & Wardwell; Bank of New York; Vice-President, American-Russian Chamber of Commerce.|
|John Enders||1919||shared 1954 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine|
|William C. Bullitt||1912||US Ambassador, France, '36-'41, first US Ambassador, Soviet Russia, '33-'36.|
|Huntington D. Sheldon||1925||Central Intelligence Agency; Director of the Office of Current Intelligence; President, Petroleum Corporation of America.|
|Warren Zimmermann||1956||US Ambassador, Yugoslavia, 1989–1992; author of book about the causes of Yugoslavia's dissolution.|
|Roscoe S. Suddarth||1956||President, Middle East Institute; US Ambassador to Jordan; American Iranian Council.|
|Lewis Sheldon||1895||US Peace Commission, Paris Peace Conference, 1918; Olympic medalist, track and field.|
|Raymond R. Guest||1931||US Ambassador, Ireland; Special Assistant to Secretary of Defense, 1945–47; horse breeder; polo Hall of fame.|
|Thomas Enders||1953||Ambassador, Spain '83-'86, Assistant Sec. of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs, Ambassador to the European Union '79-'81, Ambassador to Canada, '76-'79; Salomon Brothers|
|A. Bartlett Giamatti||1960||19th Yale University president; National League president, MLB Commissioner|
|Robert R. McCormick||1903||Chicago Tribune; Kirkland & Ellis|
|Henry deForest||1876||Southern Pacific Railroad|
|Fareed Zakaria||1986||Editor, Newsweek International and host of CNN show, Former Yale Corporation Member (Resigned 2012)|
|J. Peter Grace||1936||W. R. Grace & Co.|
|Cornelius Vanderbilt III||1895||Brigadier General in the U.S. Army during the First World War|
|James Stillman Rockefeller||1924||President and Chairman, The First National City Bank of New York; Olympic gold medal for crew|
|Brewster Jennings||1920||Founder and President of the Socony Mobil Oil Company Standard Oil of New York; president, Memorial Center for Cancer and Allied Diseases and Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research|
|Gilbert Colgate||1883||President and Chairman of Colgate & Co.|
|Benjamin Brewster||1929||Director, Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey (later Exxon).|
|Seymour H. Knox||1920||American retailer, F. W. Woolworth Company.|
|Donald R. McLennan||1931||Founder and Chairman, insurance brokerage firm Marsh & McLennan|
|Stone Phillips||1977||Dateline NBC|
|Peter H. Dominick||1937||US Senator 1962-1974 (Colorado); US Congressman, 1960–1962; US Ambassador, Switzerland.|
|Gideon Rose||1985||Foreign Affairs|
|Philip B. Heymann||1954||Watergate Special Prosecutor, Deputy US Attorney General; Professor, Harvard Law School.|
|Joseph M. Patterson||1901||Founder, New York Daily News; manager, Chicago Tribune|
|George Edgar Vincent||1885||President of the University of Minnesota; President of the Rockefeller Foundation|
|Ethan A. H. Shepley||1918||Chancellor, Washington University in St. Louis.|
|Robert D. Orr||1940||Governor of Indiana; US Ambassador, Singapore.|
|Joseph Medill McCormick||1900||U.S. Senate '19-'24, Publisher, Chicago Tribune.|
|James C. Auchincloss||1908||Representative, US Congress 1943-1965, Governor of the NYSE., US Military Intelligence World War I.|
|Herbert Parsons||1890||US Congress '04-'10; leading supporter of League of Nations.|
|Fred Dubois||1872||First US Senator from Idaho 1891-1897, resigned, re-elected 1901-1907; Opponent of gold standard; Engineered statehood for Idaho.|
|Richardson Dilworth||1921||Mayor of Philadelphia 1955-1962.|
|John Hay Whitney||1926||U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom, publisher of the New York Herald Tribune, major philanthropist to Yale University, and during his college years coined the phrase "crew cut".|
|Frederick B. Dent||1944||US Secretary of Commerce.|
|John Dalzell||1865||US Congress|
|Wayne Chatfield-Taylor||1916||President, Export-Import Bank; Undersecretary of Commerce; Assistant Secretary of the Treasury.|
|William Nelson Runyon||1892||acting Governor of New Jersey (May 1919 - Jan 1920)|
|Newbold Morris||1925||New York lawyer and politician|
|Randall L. Gibson||1853||US Senator 1883-1892 (Louisiana); US Representative, 1872–1882; Brigadier-General in the Confederate States Army; President, Tulane University.|
|Mortimer R. Proctor||1912||Governor of Vermont, 1945–47.|
|Frederic A. Potts||1926||Chairman, Philadelphia National Bank; New Jersey Senate; Republican candidate, New Jersey Governor|
|Carter Henry Harrison||1845||Mayor of Chicago, five terms 1879-93; US Representative, 1875–79; cousin of President William Henry Harrison.|
|George Shiras Jr.||1853||U.S. Supreme Court Justice|
|Harvey Cushing||1891||Neurosurgeon considered father of brain surgery|
|Dickinson W. Richards||1917||1956 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine|
|Benjamin Spock||1925||Pediatrician and author (Baby & Child Care), antiwar activist, Olympic gold medalist|
|Edward Salisbury Dana||1871||American mineralogist.|
|George Roy Hill||1943||1974 Academy Award for Directing, The Sting|
|Cole Porter||1913||entertainer, songwriter|
|James Gamble Rogers||1889||collegiate Gothic architecture, favored architect of Edward Harkness and designed many of Yale's buildings|
|Garry Trudeau||1970||Doonesbury Cartoonist|
|Dahlia Lithwick||1990||Editor at Newsweek and Slate|
|Ari Shapiro||2000||Co-host of All Things Considered for National Public Radio|
|William Adams Delano||1895||Award-winning Architect; designed many of Yale buildings.|
|Calvin Trillin||1957||American writer|
|John Vliet Lindsay||1944||103rd Mayor of New York City 1966-1973|
Congressman from New York City 1959-1965.
|Robert F. Wagner, Jr.||1933||102nd Mayor of New York City 1954-1965|
assembly person from New York City 1937-1941.
|Norborne Berkeley Jr.||1945||A president of Chemical Bank|
|Jeannie Rhee||1994||Special Council member for the Obstruction of Justice Investigation|
|Alexandra Robbins||1998||Journalist, New York Times Bestseller|
- Jackson, Abby. "7 of Yale's super-elite secret societies ranked by wealth". Business Insider. Retrieved 2019-02-24.
- Caro, Robert. The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1974. p. 38. ISBN 0-394-48076-7
- Four years at Yale. Lyman Hotchkiss Bagg, C.C. Chatfield & co, 1871. p. 158.
- Collision at Home Plate: The Lives of Pete Rose and Bart Giamatti. James Reston, U of Nebraska Press, 1997. p. 41. ISBN 0-8032-8964-2
- Four years at Yale. Lyman Hotchkiss Bagg, C.C. Chatfield & co, 1871. p. 163.
- Four years at Yale. Lyman Hotchkiss Bagg, C.C. Chatfield & co, 1871. p. 157.
- Yale University Library Digital Collections : Compound Object Viewer Archived 2011-04-30 at the Wayback Machine
- http://www.ivygateblog.com/?s=scroll+and+key, see membership lists
- A cross-reference with recent members (available on IvyGateBlog.com and in print issues of the Yale Rumpus) and scholarship winners will indicate the high number of Scroll and Key members
- Mark Twain's Letters, Volume 2, 1867 - 1868, University of California Press, editors Harriet E. Smith, Richatd Bucci and Lin Salamo, pg. 281
- Pinnell, Patrick (1999). The Campus Guide: Yale University. Princeton Architectural Press. p. 125. ISBN 9781568981673. Retrieved 2008-11-10.
- Andrews, John.History of the Founding of Wolf's Head,pg. 56, Lancaster Press, 1934
- "Franco's "little place in New Haven": where will it be? [POLL]". yaleherald.com. May 6, 2010. Retrieved 2011-02-13.
- Giamatti, A. Bartlett (1978). History of Scroll and Key, 1942-1972. The Scroll and Key Society.
- "YALE'S GREAT OAK SEES 'TAP DAY' AGAIN; Senior Societies Return to the ... - Article Preview — The New York Times". Query.nytimes.com. 1915-05-21. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
- "J. Peter Grace — Business Executive, leading Catholic layman, Advisor to three U.S. Presidents — dies at age 81. | Government > Government Bodies & Offices from AllBusiness.com". Allbusiness.com. Archived from the original on 8 January 2009. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
- HP-Time.com Monday, May. 31, 1926 (May 31, 1926). "Wedlock — TIME". Time.com. Retrieved 2008-10-17.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- "Tap Day Exercises are held at Yale" (PDF). New York Times. May 20, 1921. Retrieved 2008-11-10.
- "Yale Alumni Magazine: John Hay Whitney". Yale Alumni Publications inc. May 2002. Archived from the original on 2010-12-30. Retrieved 2011-02-13.
- Robbins, Alexandra (2002). Secrets of the Tomb: Skull and Bones, the Ivy League, and the Hidden Paths of Power. Back Bay Books. ISBN 978-0316735612.
- Remembering Denny - Google Books
- "Mary A. Harrison, Lawyers Fiance. Vassar Graduate Will Be Bride of John V. Lindsay, Former Lieutenant in the Navy". New York Times. October 11, 1948. p. 29. Retrieved December 12, 2011.
- The East Hampton Star, "Norborne Berkeley Jr.", January 5, 2012
- "Jeannie Rhee". Diversity Journal. Retrieved 2018-01-19, January 30, 2019
- "Skull & Bones: The Secret Society That Unites John Kerry and President Bush". Archived from the original on 2007-10-12. Retrieved 2007-10-12.