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Scythian languages

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Scythian
Scythia-Parthia 100 BC.png
The approximate distribution of Eastern Iranian languages in 100 BC appears in orange.[citation needed]
Native toSarmatia, Scythia, Sistan, Scythia Minor, Alania
RegionCentral Asia, Eastern Europe
EthnicityScythians, Sarmatians, and Alans
EraClassical antiquity, late antiquity
Dialects
Language codes
ISO 639-3Variously:
xsc – Scythian
xln – Alanian
oos – Old Ossetian
xsc Scythian
 xln Alanian
 oos Old Ossetian
Glottologoldo1234  Old Ossetic
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

The Scythian languages (/ˈsɪθiən/ or /ˈsɪðiən/ or /ˈskɪθiən/) are a group of Eastern Iranian languages of the classical and late antique period (the Middle Iranian period), spoken in a vast region of Eurasia by the populations belonging to the Scythian cultures and their descendants. The dominant ethnic groups among the Scythian-speakers were nomadic pastoralists of Central Asia and the Pontic–Caspian steppe. Fragments of their speech known from inscriptions and words quoted in ancient authors as well as analysis of their names indicate that it was an Indo-European language, more specifically from the Iranian group of Indo-Iranian languages.

Most of the Scythian languages eventually became extinct, except for modern Ossetian (which descends from the Alanian dialect of Scytho-Sarmatian), Wakhi (which descends from the Khotanese and Tumshuqese forms of Scytho-Khotanese), and Yaghnobi (which descends from Sogdian). Alexander Lubotsky summarizes the known linguistic landscape as follows:[1]

Unfortunately, we know next to nothing about the Scythian of that period [Old Iranian] – we have only a couple of personal and tribal names in Greek and Persian sources at our disposal – and cannot even determine with any degree of certainty whether it was a single language.

Classification[edit]

The vast majority of Scythological scholars agree in considering the Scythian languages (and Ossetian) as a part of the Eastern Iranian group of languages. This Iranian hypothesis relies principally on the fact that the Greek inscriptions of the Northern Black Sea Coast contain several hundreds of Sarmatian names showing a close affinity to the Ossetian language. However, the classification of the Iranian languages in general is not fully resolved, and the Eastern Iranian languages are not shown to form an actual genetic subgroup.[2][3]

Some scholars detect a division of Scythian into two dialects: a western, more conservative dialect, and an eastern, more innovative one.[4] The Scythian languages may have formed a dialect continuum:

  • Alanian languages or Scytho-Sarmatian in the west: were spoken by people originally of Iranian stock from the 8th and 7th century BC onwards in the area of Ukraine, Southern Russia and Kazakhstan. Modern Ossetian survives as a continuation of the language family possibly represented by Scytho-Sarmatian inscriptions, although the Scytho-Sarmatian language family "does not simply represent the same [Ossetian] language" at an earlier date.
A document from Khotan written in Khotanese Saka, part of the Eastern Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages, listing the animals of the Chinese zodiac in the cycle of predictions for people born in that year; ink on paper, early 9th century

Another dialect of Scythian evolved into the Sogdian language.[6]

Another East Iranian language related to the Scythian is the Chorasmian language.

Phonology[edit]

The Scythian language possessed the following phonemes:[6]

Vowels
Front Back
Close i u
Mid
Open a
Consonants
Labial Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Labiovelar Glottal
Plosive p b t d k ɡ
Affricate t͡s t͡ʃ d͡ʒ
Fricative f θ s z ʃ ʒ x h
Sonorant m w l n r y l (ŋ)

History[edit]

Early Eastern Iranians originated in the Yaz culture (ca. 1500–1100 BC) in Central Asia.[7] The Scythians migrated from Central Asia toward Eastern Europe in the 8th and 7th century BC, occupying today's Southern Russia and Ukraine and the Carpathian Basin and parts of Moldova and Dobruja. They disappeared from history after the Hunnish invasion of Europe in the 5th century AD, and Turkic (Avar, Batsange, etc.) and Slavic peoples probably assimilated most people speaking Scythian.[citation needed] However, in the Caucasus, the Ossetian language belonging to the Scythian linguistic continuum remains in use today, while in Central Asia, some languages belonging to Eastern Iranian group are still spoken, namely Pashto, Pamir languages and Yaghnobi.

Corpus[edit]

Inscriptions[edit]

Some scholars ascribe certain inscribed objects found in the Carpathian Basin and in Central Asia to the Scythians, but the interpretation of these inscriptions remains disputed (given that nobody has definitively identified the alphabet or translated the content).

Saqqez inscription[edit]

An inscription from Saqqez, dating from the Scythian presence in Western Asia, and written in the Hieroglyphic Luwian script, may represent Scythian:[8]

Inscription of Saqqez
Line Phonetic transliteration Scythian transliteration English translation
1 pa-tì-na-sa-nà tà-pá wá-s₆-na-m₅ XL was-was-ki XXX ár-s-tí-m₅ ś₃-kar-kar (HA) har-s₆-ta₅ LUGAL patinasana tapa. vasnam: 40 vasaka 30 arzatam šikar. UTA harsta XŠAYAI. Delivered dish. Value: 40 calves 30 silver šiqlu. And it was presented to the king.
2 par-tì-ta₅-wa₅ ki-ś₃-a₄-á KUR-u-pa-ti QU-wa-a₅ Partitava xšaya DAHYUupati xva- King Partitavas, the masters of the land pro-
3 i₅-pa-ś₂-a-m₂ ipašyam -perty

The king Partitava mentioned in this inscription is the same individual as the Scythian king Pr̥ϑutavā, whose name is attested as Bartatua in Assyrian records and as Protothyēs in Greek records.[8]

Issyk inscription[edit]

The Issyk inscription is not yet certainly deciphered, and is probably in a Scythian dialect, constituting one of very few autochthonous epigraphic traces of that language. János Harmatta, using the Kharoṣṭhī script, identified the language as a Khotanese Saka dialect spoken by the Kushans, tentatively translating:[9]

Issyk inscription
Line Transliteration English translation
1 za(ṃ)-ri ko-la(ṃ) mi(ṃ)-vaṃ vaṃ-va pa-zaṃ pa-na de-ka mi(ṃ)-ri-to The vessel should hold wine of grapes, added cooked food, so much, to the mortal,
2 ña-ka mi pa-zaṃ vaṃ-va va-za(ṃ)-na vaṃ. then added cooked fresh butter on

Personal names[edit]

The primary sources for Scythian words remain the Scythian toponyms, tribal names, and numerous personal names in the ancient Greek texts and in the Greek inscriptions found in the Greek colonies on the Northern Black Sea Coast. These names suggest that the Sarmatian language had close similarities to modern Ossetian.[10]

Recorded Scythian personal names include:

Name Attested forms Notes
*Ariyapaiϑah Ancient Greek: Αριαπειθης, romanized: Ariapeithēs Composed of:[11][12][13][14]
*Ariya-, meaning “Aryan” and “Iranian.”
*paiϑah-, meaning “decoration” and “adornment.” Compare with Avestan 𐬞𐬀𐬉𐬯𐬀 (paēsa).
*Hupāyā Ancient Greek: Οποιη, romanized: Opoiē Composed of:[12]
*hu-, “good.”
*pāyā-, “protection”; an abstraction of the root *pā-, “to protect.”
*Pr̥ϑutavā Akkadian: Assyrian cuneiform U12079 MesZL 748 and MesZL 749.svgAssyrian cuneiform U12047 MesZL 121 or U12226 MesZL 120 or U1244F MesZL 122.svgAssyrian cuneiform U122EB MesZL 248.svgAssyrian cuneiform U121AD MesZL 87 or U122FD MesZL 88 or U12305 MesZL 86.svgAssyrian cuneiform U12000 MesZL 839.svg, romanized: Bartatua or Partatua[15]
Ancient Greek: Προτοθυης, romanized: Protothuēs
Composed of:[16][17]
*pr̥ϑu- “wide, broad.” Compare with Avestan 𐬞𐬆𐬭𐬆𐬚𐬎 (pərᵊϑu-).
*-tavah- “strength, power.” Compare with Avestan 𐬙𐬀𐬎𐬎𐬀𐬵 (-tauuah-).
*Skula Ancient Greek: Σκυλης, romanized: Skulēs From the Scythian endonym *Skula, itself a later dialectal form of *Skuδa resulting from a sound change from /δ/ to /l/.[18]
*Spakaya Akkadian: Assyrian cuneiform U12079 MesZL 748 and MesZL 749.svgAssyrian cuneiform U12156 MesZL 357.svgAssyrian cuneiform U1227A MesZL 464 or U12450 MesZL 465.svgAssyrian cuneiform U12157 MesZL 24.svgAssyrian cuneiform U12000 MesZL 839.svgAssyrian cuneiform U12000 MesZL 839.svg, romanized: Išpakaia Hypocorostic derivation from the word *spaka, meaning “dog.”[13]
*Spargapis Ancient Greek: Σπαργαπισης, romanized: Spargapisēs Composed of:[12][19][13][14]
*sparga- “scion” and “descendant.” Compare with Avestan 𐬯𐬞𐬀𐬭𐬆𐬖𐬀 (sparᵊγa).
*pis- “decoration” and “adornment.” Compare with Avestan 𐬞𐬀𐬉𐬯𐬀 (paēsa).

*Spargapis and *Spargapaiϑah are variants of the same name.[20][12][19]

*Spargapaiϑah Ancient Greek: Σπαργαπειθης, romanized: Spargapeithēs Composed of:[12][19][13][14]
*sparga- “scion” and “descendant.” Compare with Avestan 𐬯𐬞𐬀𐬭𐬆𐬖𐬀 (sparᵊγa).
*paiϑah- “decoration” and “adornment.” Compare with Avestan 𐬞𐬀𐬉𐬯𐬀 (paēsa).

*Spargapaiϑah and *Spargapis are variants of the same name.[20][12][19]

*Tigratavā Ancient Greek: Τιργαταω, romanized: Tirgataō Means “with the strength of an arrow.” Composed of:[21][12]
*tigra- “arrow.” Compare with Avestan 𐬙𐬌𐬖𐬭𐬌 (tiγri-), “arrow.”
*-tavah- “strength, power.” Compare with Avestan 𐬙𐬀𐬎𐬎𐬀𐬵 (-tauuah-).
*Tumurī̆ or *Tumuriya
*Taumurī̆ or *Taumuriya
*Θumurī̆ or *Θumuriya
*Θaumurī̆ or *Θaumuriya
*Θvāmurī̆ or *Θvāmuriya
Ancient Greek: Τομυρις, romanized: Tomuris Derived from a cognate of Avestan 𐬙𐬀𐬊𐬑𐬨𐬀𐬥 (taoxman) and Old Persian 𐎫𐎢𐎶𐎠 (taumā), meaning “seed,” “germ,” and “kinship.”[12]
*Uxtamazatā Ancient Greek: Οκταμασαδης, romanized: Oktamasadēs Means “possessing greatness through his words.” Composed of:[12]
*uxta-, “word.” Compare with Avestan 𐬎𐬑𐬙𐬀 (uxta), “spoken,” and 𐬎𐬑𐬜𐬀 (uxδa), “word”.
*-mazatā-, “great.”
*Varika Ancient Greek: Ορικος, romanized: Orikos Hypocorostic derivation from the word *vari-, meaning “chest armour, armour.” Compare with Avestan 𐬬𐬀𐬌𐬭𐬌 (vaⁱri-), 𐬎𐬎𐬀𐬭𐬌 (uuari-) “chest armour.”[12]

Place names[edit]

Some scholars believe that many toponyms and hydronyms of the Russian and Ukrainian steppe have Scythian links. For example, Vasmer associates the name of the river Don with an assumed/reconstructed unattested Scythian word *dānu "water, river", and with Avestan dānu-, Pashto dand and Ossetian don.[22] The river names Don, Donets, Dnieper, Danube, and Dniester, and lake Donuzlav (the deepest one in Crimea) may also belong with the same word-group.[23]

Recorded Scythian place names include:

Name Attested forms Notes
*Dānu Ancient Greek: Ταναις, romanized: Tanais Means “river.”[12]
*Pantikapa Ancient Greek: Παντικαπαιον, romanized: Pantikapaion Means “fish-path.” Composed of:[24]
*panti-, “path.” Compare with Avestan 𐬞𐬀𐬧‎𐬙𐬃‎ (paṇ‎tā̊), “path.”
*kapa-, “fish.” Compare with Khotanese Saka kavā and Ossetian Кӕф kæf.
*Rahā Ancient Greek: Ρα, romanized: Rha Means “wetness.” Compare with Avestan 𐬭𐬀𐬢𐬵𐬁 (raŋhā) and Vedic Sanskrit रसा (rasā́).[25]
*Varu Ancient Greek: Οαρος, romanized: Oaros Means “broad.”[26]
*Varustāna Ancient Greek: Βορυσθενης, romanized: Borusthenēs Composed of:[26]
*varu- “broad.”
*stāna “space.”

Herodotus' Scythian etymologies[edit]

The Greek historian Herodotus provides another source of Scythian; he reports that the Scythians called the Amazons Oiorpata, and explains the name as a compound of oior, meaning "man", and pata, meaning "to kill" (Hist. 4,110).

  • Most scholars associate oior "man" with Avestan vīra- "man, hero", Sanskrit vīra-, Latin vir (gen. virī) "man, hero, husband",[27] PIE *wiHrós. Various explanations account for pata "kill":
    1. Persian pat- "(to) kill", patxuste "killed";[28]
    2. Sogdian pt- "(to) kill", ptgawsty "killed";[29]
    3. Ossetian fædyn "cleave", Sanskrit pātayati "fell", PIE *peth₂- "fall".[30]
    4. Avestan paiti- "lord", Sanskrit páti, PIE *pótis, cf. Lat. potestate (i.e. "man-ruler");[31]
    5. Ossetian maryn "kill", Pashto mrəl, Sanskrit mārayati, PIE *mer- "die" (confusion of Greek Μ and Π);[32]
  • Alternatively, one scholar suggests Iranian aiwa- "one" + warah- "breast",[33] the Amazons believed to have removed a breast to aid drawing a bow, according to some ancient folklorists, and as reflected in Greek folk-etymology: a- (privative) + mazos, "without breast".

Elsewhere Herodotus explains the name of the mythical one-eyed tribe Arimaspoi as a compound of the Scythian words arima, meaning "one", and spu, meaning "eye" (Hist. 4,27).

  • Some scholars connect arima "one" with Ossetian ærmæst "only", Avestic airime "quiet", Greek erēmos "empty", PIE *h₁(e)rh₁mo-?, and spu "eye" with Avestic spas- "foretell", Sanskrit spaś-, PIE *speḱ- "see".[34]
  • However, Iranian usually expresses "one" and "eye" with words like aiwa- and čašman- (Ossetian īw and cæst).
  • Other scholars reject Herodotus' etymology and derive the ethnonym Arimaspoi from Iranian aspa- "horse" instead.[35]
  • Or the first part of the name may reflect something like Iranian raiwant- "rich", cf. Ossetian riwæ "rich".[36]

Scythian theonyms[edit]

Name Attested forms Notes
*Tapatī́ Ancient Greek: Ταβιτι romanized: Tabiti Means “the Burning One” or “the Flaming One.”[37][38]

Related to:[39][40][41]

Avestan 𐬙𐬁𐬞𐬀𐬌𐬌𐬈𐬌𐬙𐬌‎ (tāpaiieⁱti), “to warm.”
Sanskrit तापयति (tapayati), “to heat” and “to warm”; theonym तपती (Tapatī); तपस् (tápas)
Latin tepeo.
*Api Ancient Greek: Απι, romanized: Api
and Απια, romanized: Apia
Related to Avestan 𐬀𐬞𐬌 (api), “water.”[40]
*Dargatavā Ancient Greek: Ταργιταος, romanized: Targitaos Means “whose might is far-reaching.” Composed of:[12]
*darga, “long.” Compare with Avestan 𐬛𐬀𐬭𐬆𐬔𐬀‎ (darᵊga), “long.”
*-tavah- “strength, power.” Compare with Avestan 𐬙𐬀𐬎𐬎𐬀𐬵 (-tauuah-).
Ancient Greek: Αρτιμπασα, romanized: Artimpasa Composed of:[40]
Iranian theonym *Arti
a term related to *paya, “pasture” and *pati, “lord”
*Gaiϑāsūra Ancient Greek: Γοιτοσυρος, romanized: Goitosuros Composed of:[13]
*gaiϑā, “herd” and “possessions.” Cognate of 𐬔𐬀𐬊𐬌𐬌𐬀𐬊𐬌𐬙𐬌𐬱 (gaoiiaoⁱtiš), “cow pasture.”[42]
*sūra, “strong” and “mighty.”
Ancient Greek: Θαγιμασαδας, romanized: Thagimasadas
and Θαμιμασαδας, romanized: Thamimasadas
Composed of:
a possible cognate of Avestan 𐬚𐬡𐬁𐬴𐬀 (ϑβāṣ̌a), “firmament,” and Vedic Sanskrit त्वक्ष् (tvakṣ-) or तक्ष् (takṣ-), “to create by putting into motion.”
mazatā, meaning “great.”[12]
*Apatura Ancient Greek: Απατουρος, romanized: Apatouros Composed of:[43]
  • ap-, “water.” Related to Avestan 𐬀𐬞 (ap-), “water.”
  • tura-, “quick” or “mighty.”

Pliny the Elder[edit]

Pliny the Elder's Natural History (AD 77–79) derives the name of the Caucasus from the Scythian kroy-khasis = ice-shining, white with snow (cf. Greek cryos = ice-cold).

Aristophanes[edit]

In the comedy works of Aristophanes, the dialects of various Greek people are accurately imitated. In his Thesmophoriazusae, a Scythian archer (a member of a police force in Athens) speaks broken Greek, consistently omitting the final -s () and -n (ν), using the lenis in place of the aspirate, and once using ks (ξ) in place of s (sigma); these may be used to elucidate the Scythian languages.[44]

Alanian[edit]

The Alanian language as spoken by the Alans from about the 5th to the 11th centuries AD formed a dialect directly descended from the earlier Scytho-Sarmatian languages, and forming in its turn the ancestor of the Ossetian language. Byzantine Greek authors recorded only a few fragments of this language.[45]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Lubotsky 2002, p. 190.
  2. ^ Compare L. Zgusta, Die griechischen Personennamen griechischer Städte der nördlichen Schwarzmeerküste [The Greek personal names of the Greek cities of the northern Black Sea coast], 1955.
  3. ^ Witzel, Michael (2001). "Autochthonous Aryans? The Evidence from Old Indian and Iranian Texts". Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies. 7 (3): 1–115. doi:10.11588/ejvs.2001.3.830.
  4. ^ E.g. Harmatta 1970.[page needed]
  5. ^ Schmitt, Rüdiger (ed.), Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum, Reichert, 1989.[page needed]
  6. ^ a b Novák, Ľubomír (2013). Problem of Archaism and Innovation in the Eastern Iranian Languages. Charles University. Retrieved 14 August 2022.
  7. ^ J.P.Mallory (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. London: Dearborn. p. 310. ISBN 9781884964985.
  8. ^ a b Harmatta, János (1999). "Herodotus, Historian of the Cimmerians and the Scythians". In Reverdin, Olivier; Nenci, Giuseppe (eds.). Hérodote et les Peuples Non Grecs [Herodotus and the Non-Greek Peoples] (in French). Vandœuvres, Switzerland: Fondation Hardt pour l’étude de l’Antiquité classique. pp. 115–130. ISBN 978-3-774-92415-4.
  9. ^ Harmatta, János (1992). "Languages and Literature in the Kushan Empire" (PDF). In Dani, Ahmad Hasan; Harmatta, János; Puri, Baij Nath; Etemadi, G. F.; Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (eds.). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Paris, France: UNESCO. pp. 407–431. ISBN 978-9-231-02846-5.
  10. ^ Lincoln, Bruce (2014). "Once again 'the Scythian' myth of origins (Herodotus 4.5–10)". Nordlit. 33 (33): 19–34. doi:10.7557/13.3188.
  11. ^ Hinz 1975, p. 40.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Schmitt 2003.
  13. ^ a b c d e Schmitt, Rüdiger (2018). "SCYTHIAN LANGUAGE". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 22 October 2021.
  14. ^ a b c Schmitt 2011.
  15. ^ Ivantchik, Askold (1999). "The Scythian 'Rule Over Asia': the Classical Tradition and the Historical Reality". In Tsetskhladze, G.R. (ed.). Ancient Greeks West and East. Leiden, Netherlands; Boston, United States: BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-11190-5. Though Madyes himself is not mentioned in Akkadian texts, his father, the Scythian king Par-ta-tu-a, whose identification with Προτοθύης of Herodotus is certain.
  16. ^ Schmitt, Rüdiger (2000). "PROTOTHYES". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  17. ^ Bukharin 2011.
  18. ^ Ivantchik, Askold (April 25, 2018). "Scythians". Encyclopædia Iranica.
  19. ^ a b c d Schmitt, Rüdiger (2018). "MASSAGETAE". Encyclopædia Iranica.
  20. ^ a b Hinz 1975, p. 226.
  21. ^ Mayor, Adrienne (2014). The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women across the Ancient World. Princeton, United States: Princeton University Press. pp. 370–371. ISBN 978-0-691-14720-8.
  22. ^ M. Vasmer, Untersuchungen über die ältesten Wohnsitze der Slaven. Die Iranier in Südrußland, Leipzig 1923, 74.
  23. ^ Kretschmer, Paul (1935). "Zum Balkan-Skythischen". Glotta. 24 (1–2): 1–56 [7–56]. JSTOR 40265408.
  24. ^ Diakonoff, I. M. (1985). "Media". In Gershevitch, Ilya (ed.). The Cambridge History of Iran. Vol. 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-521-20091-2.
  25. ^ Brunner, C. J. (1986). "ARANG". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 13 August 2022. Middle Persian Arang/Arag renders Avestan Raŋhā, which is cognate with the Scythian name Rhâ (*Rahā) transmitted by Ptolemy
  26. ^ a b Harmatta, János (1999). "Herodotus, Historian of the Cimmerians and the Scythians". In Reverdin, Olivier; Nenci, Giuseppe (eds.). Hérodote et les Peuples Non Grecs [Herodotus and the Non-Greek Peoples] (in French). Vandœuvres, Switzerland: Fondation Hardt pour l’étude de l’Antiquité classique. pp. 115–130. ISBN 978-3-774-92415-4.
  27. ^ "Vir - the Latin Dictionary".
  28. ^ Gharib, B. (1995). Sogdian Dictionary, Sogdian-Persian-English. Tehran, Iran: Farhangan Publications. p. 376. ISBN 964-5558-06-9.
  29. ^ Gharib, B. (1995). Sogdian Dictionary, Sogdian-Persian-English. Tehran, Iran: Farhangan Publications. p. 376. ISBN 964-5558-06-9.
  30. ^ L. Zgusta, "Skythisch οἰόρπατα «ἀνδροκτόνοι»", Annali dell’Istituto Universario Orientale di Napoli 1 (1959) pp. 151–156.
  31. ^ Vasmer, Die Iranier in Südrußland, 1923, 15.
  32. ^ V.I. Abaev, Osetinskij jazyk i fol’klor, Moscow / Leningrad 1949, vol. 1, 172, 176, 188.
  33. ^ Hinge 2005, pp. 94–98
  34. ^ J. Marquart, Untersuchungen zur Geschichte von Eran, Göttingen 1905, 90–92; Vasmer, Die Iranier in Südrußland, 1923, 12; H.H. Schaeder, Iranica. I: Das Auge des Königs, Berlin 1934, 16–19.
  35. ^ W. Tomaschek, "Kritik der ältesten Nachrichten über den skythischen Norden", Sitzungsberichte der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 116 (1888), 715–780, here: 761; K. Müllenhoff, Deutsche Altertumskunde, Berlin 1893, vol. 3, 305–306; R. Grousset, L’empire des steppes, Paris 1941, 37 n. 3; I. Lebedensky, Les Scythes. La civilisation des steppes (VIIe-IIIe siècles av. J.-C.), Paris 2001, 93.
  36. ^ Hinge 2005, pp. 89–94
  37. ^ West, Martin Litchfield (2007). Indo-European Poetry and Myth. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 267. ISBN 978-0-199-28075-9.
  38. ^ Jones, Lindsay (2005). Encyclopedia of Religion. Vol. 12. Macmillan Reference USA. pp. 8205–8208.
  39. ^ Cheung, Johnny (2007). Etymological Dictionary of the Iranian Verb. Leiden: Brill Publishers. pp. 378–379. ISBN 978-9-004-15496-4.
  40. ^ a b c Ustinova 1999, p. 67-128.
  41. ^ Raevskiy 1993, p. 17-18.
  42. ^ Herzfeld, Ernst (1947). Zoroaster and His World. Vol. 2. Princeton University Press. p. 516.
  43. ^ Ustinova 1999, p. 29-66.
  44. ^ Donaldson, John William (1844). Varronianus: A Critical and Historical Introduction to the Philological Study of the Latin Language. J. and J. J. Deighton. p. 32.
  45. ^ Ladislav Zgusta, "The old Ossetian Inscription from the River Zelenčuk" (Veröffentlichungen der Iranischen Kommission = Sitzungsberichte der österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Philosophisch-historische Klasse 486) Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1987. ISBN 3-7001-0994-6 in Kim, op.cit., 54.

Bibliography[edit]