|Secretary-General of the League of Nations|
31 August 1940 – 18 April 1946
|Preceded by||Joseph Louis Anne Avenol|
|Succeeded by||Office disestablished|
|Born||John Ernest Lester
28 September 1888
|Died||13 June 1959 (aged 70)
|Religion||Church of Ireland|
He was born in County Antrim, the son of a Protestant grocer. Despite the fact that the town of Carrickfergus, where he was born and raised, was strongly Unionist, he joined the Gaelic League as a youth, and was won over to the cause of Irish nationalism. As a young man he joined the Irish Republican Brotherhood. He was working as a journalist for the North Down Herald and a number of other northern papers, before moving to Dublin, where he found a job with the Freeman's Journal. There, by 1919, he had risen to news editor.
After the War of Independence, a number of his friends joined the new government of the Irish Free State. Lester was offered, and accepted, a position as Director of Publicity. He married Elizabeth Ruth Tyrrell in 1920, by whom he had three daughters.
In 1923 he joined Ireland's Department of External Affairs. He was sent to Geneva in 1929 to replace Michael MacWhite as Ireland's Permanent Delegate to the League of Nations. In 1930 he succeeded in organising Ireland's election to the Council (or executive body) of the League of Nations for a three-year term. Lester often represented Ireland at Council meetings, standing in for the Minister for External Affairs. During this time he became increasingly involved in the work of the League, particularly in its attempts to bring a resolution to two wars in South America. This work brought him to the attention of the League Secretariat and began his transformation from national to international civil servant.
When Peru and Colombia disputed over a town in the headwaters of the Amazon, Lester presided over the committee which found an equitable solution. He also presided over the less successful committee when Bolivia and Paraguay went to war over the Gran Chaco. In 1933, Lester was seconded to the League's Secretariat and sent to Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland), as the League of Nations' High Commissioner. The Free City of Danzig was the scene of an emerging international crisis between Nazi Germany and the international community over the issue of the Polish Corridor and the Free City's relationship with the Third Reich. During this period Lester repeatedly protested to the German government against its persecution and discrimination of the Jews. For this reason he was boycotted by both the representatives of the German Reich and the representatives of the Nazi Party in Danzig.
League of Nations
Lester returned to Geneva in 1937 to become Deputy Secretary General of the League of Nations. In 1940 he became Secretary General of the body (he became the League's leader a year after the beginning of World War II which had rendered the League impotent). The League had only 100 employees, including guards and janitors, of its original 700. Lester remained in Geneva throughout the war, and kept the League's technical and humanitarian programs in limited operation for the duration of the war. In 1946 he oversaw the League's closure, and turned over the League's assets and functions to the newly established United Nations.
Despite rumours that he would be prepared to stand for election as President of Ireland, Lester sought no permanent office and retired to Recess, County Galway in the west of Ireland, where he died. In its obituary, The Times described Lester as an "international conciliator and courageous friend of refugees". He was given the Woodrow Wilson Award in 1945 and a doctorate of the National University of Ireland in 1948. His granddaughter Susan Denham was appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Ireland in 2011.
- Stephen Ashworth Barcroft: The international civil servant: the League of Nations career of Sean Lester, 1929–1947; Dublin 1973
- Douglas Gageby: The last secretary general: Sean Lester and the League of Nations; Dublin 1999; ISBN 1-86059-108-6
- Arthur W. Rovine: The first fifty years: the secretary-general in world politics 1920–1970; Leyden 1970; ISBN 90-218-9190-5
- Michael Kennedy: Ireland and the League of Nations 1919–1946: politics, diplomacy and international relations; Dublin 1996
- Paul McNamara: Sean Lester, Poland and the Nazi Takeover of Danzig; Irish Academic Press Ltd 2008; ISBN 0-7165-2969-6
- Nation Builders: Sean Lester biographical article from the producers of an Irish documentary on Lester.
- League of Nations Archives, with a short biography
- League of Nations Archives, Private Archives of Sean Lester
- Documents on Irish Foreign Policy website
Joseph Louis Anne Avenol
|Secretary-General of the League of Nations
as acting United Nations Secretary-General