Sea buckthorn oil
Sea buckthorn oil is derived from plants in a group of species of the genus Hippophae, the most commonly used of which is Hippophae rhamnoides. As species belonging to this genus accumulate lipids in the mesocarp (the fleshy part of the fruit), oil can be extracted from either the seeds or the pulp of the fruit.
Oil content in seeds of sea buckthorn is on average 7-11 % while oil content of pulp is around 1.5-3 % (per fresh weight). Seed oil is characterized with high contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids while pulp oil contains monounsaturated fatty acids and carotenoids. Both oils also contain dense amounts of tocopherols, tocotrienols  and plant sterols.
Oils from sea buckthorn seeds and pulp differ considerably in fatty acid composition. While linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid are the major fatty acids in seed oil, sea buckthorn pulp oil contains approximately 65% combined of the monounsaturated fatty acid, palmitoleic acid, and the saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid. Few other vegetable oils contain a similar quantity of these fatty acids.
Tocopherols and tocotrienols
α-Tocopherol is the major vitamin E compound in sea buckthorn. Seed oil also contains considerable amounts of gamma-tocopherol. The total amount of tocopherols and tocotrienols in seed oil is roughly 100–300 mg/100 g and in pulp oil 100–200 mg/100 g of oil.
As carotenoids are the pigments that give sea buckthorn berry its distinctive colour, these compounds are present in high amounts in pulp oil. However, the total content of carotenoids varies (300–2000 mg/100 g) greatly between different growth locations and subspecies. In general, the main carotenoids present in pulp oil are beta-carotene, zeaxanthin and lycopene.
Both seed and pulp oil also contain considerable amounts of plant sterols (12-23 g/kg and 10-29 g/kg of oil, respectively). Beta-sitosterol is the major sterol compound throughout the berry which constitutes 57-83% of total sterols.
||This section needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. (July 2015)|
Skin and mucous membrane
In clinical trials, oral sea buckthorn oil supplementation has been shown to alleviate symptoms of dry eyes and atopic dermatitis. Intake of sea buckthorn oil also had beneficial effect on vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women. However, it has not yet been demonstrated which compounds in sea buckthorn oil mediate these effects, although it has been suggested that polyunsaturated fatty acids present in seed oil could have anti-inflammatory effects.
A few studies have investigated the beneficial impact of sea buckthorn oil on cardiovascular health. Sea buckthorn oil significantly decreased platelet aggregation in one small-scale preliminary study, while pulp oil significantly increased plasma HDL levels in another. Additionally, sea buckthorn oil improved postprandial metabolic profiles and decreased serum cholesterol and VCAM-1 levels in overweight women.
Seed oil of sea buckthorn has been shown in animal models to possess hepatoprotective activity. This effect was concluded to be antioxidative as seed oil protected liver cells from oxidative stress induced by hepatotoxic compounds.
Due to its unique botanical and nutritional properties, and there being no reported evidence of sea-buckthorn oil causing adverse reactions or negative side effects, the oil is also used as a natural agent that may benefit diseases of mucous membranes including aphthous ulcers, esophagitis, acid reflux, and peptic ulcers, as well as dermatological diseases and skin conditions.[dubious ][unreliable medical source?] However, more evidence is required to support these claims.
In Mongolia, Russia, and China, pulp oil may also be used topically to treat skin burns from radiation. Sea buckthorn oil has also been marketed by cosmetic and health companies in anti-aging preparations  and oral care products.
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