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Sea foam

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Sea foam washed up or blown onto a beach

Sea foam, ocean foam, beach foam, or spume is a type of foam created by the agitation of seawater, particularly when it contains higher concentrations of dissolved organic matter (including proteins, lignins, and lipids) derived from sources such as the offshore breakdown of algal blooms.[1] These compounds can act as surfactants or foaming agents. As the seawater is churned by breaking waves in the surf zone adjacent to the shore, the surfactants under these turbulent conditions trap air, forming persistent bubbles that stick to each other through surface tension.

Sea foam is a global phenomenon,[1] and it varies depending on location and the potential influence of the surrounding marine, freshwater, and/or terrestrial environments.[2] Due to its low density and persistence, foam can be blown by strong on-shore winds inland, towards the beach. Human activities, such as production, transport or spillage of petroleum products or detergents, can also contribute to the formation of sea foam.



Sea foam is formed under conditions that are similar to the formation of sea spray. One of the main distinctions from sea spray formation is the presence of higher concentrations of dissolved organic matter from macrophytes and phytoplankton. The dissolved organic matter in the surface water, which can be derived from the natural environment or human-made sources, provides stability to the resulting sea foam.[3]

Connection between sea foam and sea spray formation. The dark orange line indicates processes common to the formation of both sea spray and sea foam.

The physical processes that contribute to sea foam formation are breaking surface waves, bubble entrainment, a process of bubbles being incorporated or captured within a liquid such as sea water and whitecap formation.[4] Breaking of surface waves injects air from the atmosphere into the water column, leading to bubble creation. These bubbles get transported around the top few meters of the surface ocean due to their buoyancy. The smallest bubbles entrained in the water column dissolve entirely, leading to higher ratios of dissolved gases in the surface ocean. The bubbles that do not dissolve eventually make it back to the surface. As they rise, these bubbles accumulate hydrophobic substances. Presence of dissolved organic matter stabilizes the bubbles, aggregating together as sea foam.[1] Some studies on sea foam report that breaking of algal cells in times of heavy swells makes sea foam production more likely.[3]

Falling rain drops on the sea surface can also contribute to sea foam formation and destruction.[5] There have been some non-mechanistic studies demonstrating increased sea foam formation due to high rainfall events.[2] Turbulence in the surface mixed layer can affect the concentration of dissolved organic matter and aids in the formation of nutrient-dense foam.[6]


Sea foam usually contains a mixture of decomposed organic materials

The composition of sea foam is generally a mixture of decomposed organic materials, including zooplankton, phytoplankton, algae (including diatoms[7]), bacteria, fungi, protozoans, and vascular plant detritus,[6] though each occurrence of sea foam varies in its specific contents. In some areas, sea foam is found to be made up of primarily protein, dominant in both fresh and old foam, as well as lipids and carbohydrates. The high protein and low carbohydrate concentration suggest that sugars originally present in the surrounding mucilage created by algae or plant matter has been quickly consumed by bacteria.[3] Additional research has shown that a small fraction of the dry weight in sea foam is organic carbon, which contains phenolics, sugars, amino sugars, and amino acids. In the Bay of Fundy, high mortality rates of an abundant tube-dwelling amphipod (Corophium volutator) by natural die-offs as well as predation by migrating seabirds contributed to amino sugars released in the surrounding environment and thus, in sea foam.[6]

The organic matter in sea foam has been found to increase dramatically during phytoplankton blooms in the area.[8] Some research has shown very high concentrations of microplankton in sea foam, with significantly higher numbers of autotrophic phytoplankton than heterotrophs[7] Some foams are particularly rich in their diatom population which can make up the majority of the microalgal biomass in some cases.[7] A diversity of bacteria is also present in sea foam; old foam tends to have a higher density of bacteria. One study found that 95% of sea foam bacteria were rod-shaped, while the surrounding surface water contained mostly coccoid-form bacteria and only 5% - 10% rod-shaped bacteria.[3] There is also seasonal variability of sea foam composition;[6] in some regions there is a seasonal occurrence of pollen in sea foam which can alter its chemistry.[2] Though foam is not inherently toxic, it may contain high concentrations of contaminants.[1] Foam bubbles can be coated with or contain these materials which can include petroleum compounds, pesticides, and herbicides.[1]

Longevity and stability

Sea foam off Vancouver Island

Structurally, sea foam is thermodynamically unstable, though some sea foam can persist in the environment for several days at most. There are two types of sea foam categorized based on their stability: 1) Unstable or transient foams have very short lifetimes of only seconds. The bubbles formed in sea foam may burst releasing aerosols into the air, contributing to sea spray. 2) Metastable foams can have a lifetime of several hours to several days; their duration is sometimes attributed to small particles of silica, calcium, or iron which contribute to foam stability and longevity.[1] Additionally, seawater that contains released dissolved organic material from phytoplankton and macrophytic algae that is then agitated in its environment is most likely to produce stable, longer-lasting foam when compared with seawater lacking one of those components. For example, filtered seawater when added to the fronds of the kelp, Ecklonia maxima, produced foam but it lacked the stability that unfiltered seawater provided. Additionally, kelp fronds that were maintained in flowing water therefore reducing their mucus coating, were unable to help foam form.[3] Different types of salt are also found to have varying effects on bubble proximity within sea foam, therefore contributing to its stability.[1]

Ecological role


Food source

Bubbles of plankton-enriched foam left in a tide pool after high tide

The presence of sea foam in the marine environment plays a number of ecological roles including providing sources of food and creating habitat. As a food source, sea foam with a stable composition is more important ecologically, as it is able to persist longer and can transport nutrients within the marine environment.[3] Longer decay times result in a higher chance that energy contained in sea foam will move up the food web into higher trophic levels.[3] In the Bay of Fundy for example, a tube-dwelling amphipod, Corophium volutator, can potentially attain 70% of its nutritional requirements from the sugars and amino acids derived from sea foam in its environment. At times however, the sea foam was found to be toxic to this species. It is thought that high concentrations of phenolics and/or the occasional presence of heavy metals or pesticides incorporated into the sea foam from the sea surface contributed to its toxicity.[6] On the west coast of Cape Peninsula, South Africa, sea foam often occurs in nearshore marine areas with large kelp beds during periods of strong westerly winds. It is thought that the foam generated in these conditions is an important food source for local organisms due to the presence of organic detritus in the sea foam.[3]

Material transport


Sea foam also acts as a mode of transport for both organisms and nutrients within the marine environment and, at times, into the intertidal or terrestrial environments. Wave action can deposit foam into intertidal areas where it can remain when the tide recedes, bringing nutrients to the intertidal zone.[6] Additionally, sea foam can become airborne in windy conditions, transporting materials between marine and terrestrial environments.[2] The ability of sea foam to transport materials is also thought to benefit macroalgal organisms, as macroalgae propagules can be carried to different microenvironments, thus influencing the tidal landscape and contributing to new possible ecological interactions.[9] As sea foam is a wet environment, it is conducive habitat to algal spores where propagules can attach to the substrate and avoid risk of dissemination.[9] When sea foam contains fungi, it can also aid in the decomposition of plant and animal remains in coastal ecosystems.[2]



Additionally, sea foam is a habitat for a number of marine microorganisms. Some research has shown the presence of various microphytoplanktonic, nanophytoplanktonic, and diatom groups in seafoam; the phytoplankton groups appeared in significantly higher abundance than in sea surface film and the top pelagic zone[7]





Naturally occurring sea foam is not inherently toxic; however, it can be exposed to high concentrations of contaminants in the surface microlayer derived from the breakdown of algal blooms, fossil fuel production and transport, and stormwater runoff.[1] These contaminants contribute to the formation of noxious sea foam through adsorption onto bubbles. Bubbles may burst and release toxins into the atmosphere in the form of sea spray or aerosol, or they may persist in foams. Toxins released through aerosols and breaking bubbles can be inhaled by humans. The microorganisms that occupy sea foams as habitat have increased susceptibility for contaminant exposure.[10] Consequently, these toxic substances can be integrated into the trophic food web.[1]

Harmful algal blooms


Foams can form following the degradation of harmful algal blooms (HABs). These are primarily composed of algal species, but can also consist of dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria.[11] Biomass from algae in the bloom is integrated into sea foam in the sea surface microlayer.[9] When the impacted sea foam breaks down, toxins from the algae are released into the air causing respiratory issues and occasionally initiating asthma attacks.[12] Phaeocystis globosa is one algal species that is considered problematic, as observed in a study in the Netherlands.[11] Its high biomass accumulation allows it to create large quantities of toxic foam that often wash onto beaches. P. globosa blooms are initiated in areas of high nutrient availability, often affiliated with coastal locations with a lot of stormwater runoff and eutrophication. Studies suggest that the development of foam is directly correlated to blooms caused by P. globosa, despite that foam formation typically occurs approximately two weeks after the appearance of an algal bloom offshore. Organic material from P. globosa was observed decomposing while suspended at the sea surface, but was not observed lower in the water column. P. globosa is also considered a nuisance species because its large foam formations impair the public's ability to enjoy the beach.[11]

Human activities


While sea foam is a common result of the agitation of seawater mixing with organic material in the surface ocean, human activities can contribute to the production of excess and often toxic foam.[1] In addition to the organic oils, acids, and proteins that amass in the sea surface microlayer, compounds derived from petroleum production and transport, synthetic surfactants, and pesticide use can enter the sea surface and be incorporated into foam. The pollutants present can also affect the persistence of the foam produced. Crude oil discharged from tankers, motor oil, sewage, and detergents from polluted runoff can create longer-lasting foams.[1] In one study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a persistent organic pollutant, were found to amass in sea foams.[10] Some experts and health authorities recommend avoiding contact with sea foam in lakes and rivers and seas that are contaminated with PFAS, since these substances were found to accumulate in sea foam in high concentrations.[13][14][15] Man-made microplastic pollution can accumulate in breaking waves and increase sea foam stability.[16]

Natural gas terminals have been cited as contributors to the production of modified foams due to the process of using seawater to convert natural gas to liquified natural gas.[17] One study showed a much greater abundance of heterotrophic prokaryotes (archaea and bacteria) and cyanobacteria in foam that was generated near a liquified natural gas terminal. These prokaryotes were able to recycle chemical materials discharged from the terminal, which enhanced microbial growth. Additionally, higher levels of total organic carbon (TOC) and plankton biomass were recorded in foam generated in close proximity to the terminal. Organic carbon was transferred readily into the pelagic food web after uptake by prokaryotes and ingestion by grazers.[17]

Notable occurrences


See also



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  2. ^ a b c d e HAROLD, E.; SCHLICHTING, JR. (1971). "A Preliminary Study of the Algae and Protozoa in Seafoam". Botanica Marina. 14 (1). doi:10.1515/botm.1971.14.1.24. ISSN 0006-8055. S2CID 84135769.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Velimirov, B. (1980). "Formation and potential trophic significance of marine foam near kelp beds in the benguela upwelling system". Marine Biology. 58 (4): 311–318. Bibcode:1980MarBi..58..311V. doi:10.1007/bf00390779. ISSN 0025-3162. S2CID 86228098.
  4. ^ "Is Sea Foam Whale Sperm | STP News". 6 June 2023. Retrieved 6 June 2023.
  5. ^ Veron, Fabrice (3 January 2015). "Ocean Spray". Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics. 47 (1): 507–538. Bibcode:2015AnRFM..47..507V. doi:10.1146/annurev-fluid-010814-014651. ISSN 0066-4189.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Craig, Douglas; Ireland, Robert J.; Bärlocher, Felix (September 1989). "Seasonal variation in the organic composition of seafoam". Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 130 (1): 71–80. doi:10.1016/0022-0981(89)90019-1. ISSN 0022-0981.
  7. ^ a b c d Druzhkov, Nikolai V.; Makarevich, Pavel R.; Bardan, Sergei I. (12 January 1997). "Sea foam as an object of sea-surface film studies". Polar Research. 16 (2): 117–121. doi:10.3402/polar.v16i2.6630. ISSN 1751-8369.
  8. ^ O'Dowd, Colin; Ceburnis, Darius; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Bialek, Jakub; Stengel, Dagmar B.; Zacharias, Merry; Nitschke, Udo; Connan, Solene; Rinaldi, Matteo (14 October 2015). "Connecting marine productivity to sea-spray via nanoscale biological processes: Phytoplankton Dance or Death Disco?". Scientific Reports. 5: 14883. Bibcode:2015NatSR...514883O. doi:10.1038/srep14883. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 4604474. PMID 26464099.
  9. ^ a b c Meneses, Isabel (June 1993). "Foam as a dispersal agent in the rocky intertidal of central Chile". European Journal of Phycology. 28 (2): 107–110. Bibcode:1993EJPhy..28..107M. doi:10.1080/09670269300650171. ISSN 0967-0262.
  10. ^ a b Napolitano, Guillermo E.; Richmond, Jacqueline E. (February 1995). "Enrichment of biogenic lipids, hydrocarbons and PCBs in stream-surface foams". Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 14 (2): 197–201. doi:10.1002/etc.5620140203. ISSN 0730-7268.
  11. ^ a b c Blauw, A.N.; Los, F.J.; Huisman, J.; Peperzak, L. (November 2010). "Nuisance foam events and Phaeocystis globosa blooms in Dutch coastal waters analyzed with fuzzy logic". Journal of Marine Systems. 83 (3–4): 115–126. Bibcode:2010JMS....83..115B. doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2010.05.003. ISSN 0924-7963.
  12. ^ "Why do harmful algal blooms occur?". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  13. ^ "PFAS in zeewater en zeeschuim EINDRAPPORT" [PFAS in sea water and sea foam FINAL REPORT] (PDF). Flemish Institute for Technological Research. January 2023.
  14. ^ "FAQ: PFAS foam on lakes and streams". Michigan Department of Health and Human Services.
  15. ^ Bergqvist, Lisa. "PFAS back to haunt us – through sea spray - Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre". www.su.se. Retrieved 24 July 2024.
  16. ^ Bergfreund, Jotam; Wobill, Ciatta; Evers, Frederic M.; Hohermuth, Benjamin; Bertsch, Pascal; Lebreton, Laurent; Windhab, Erich J.; Fischer, Peter (1 July 2024). "Impact of microplastic pollution on breaking waves". Physics of Fluids. 36 (7). doi:10.1063/5.0208507.
  17. ^ a b Franzo, Annalisa; Karuza, Ana; Celussi, Mauro; Fornasaro, Daniela; Beran, Alfred; Di Poi, Elena; Del Negro, Paola (17 April 2015). "Foam production as a side effect of an offshore liquefied natural gas terminal: how do plankton deal with it?". Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 22 (11): 8763–8772. Bibcode:2015ESPR...22.8763F. doi:10.1007/s11356-015-4499-2. ISSN 0944-1344. PMID 25877905. S2CID 30716771.
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