Seabed Arms Control Treaty

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Seabed Treaty)
Jump to: navigation, search
Seabed Arms Control Treaty
Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof
{{{image_alt}}}
Ratifications and signatories of the treaty
  Parties
  Signatories
  Non-parties
Signed 11 February 1971
Effective 18 May 1972
Condition 22 ratifications (including depositary states)
Signatories 84
Parties 94[1] (as of May 2014)
Depositary Governments of the United States of America, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Languages English, French, Russian, Spanish and Chinese
Seabed Arms Control Treaty at Wikisource

The Seabed Arms Control Treaty (or Seabed Treaty, formally the Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil thereof) is a multilateral agreement between the United States, Soviet Union (now Russia), United Kingdom, and 91 other countries[1] banning the emplacement of nuclear weapons or "weapons of mass destruction" on the ocean floor beyond a 12-mile (22.2 km) coastal zone. It allows signatories to observe all seabed "activities" of any other signatory beyond the 12-mile zone to ensure compliance.

Like the Antarctic Treaty, the Outer Space Treaty, and the Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone treaties, the Seabed Arms Control Treaty sought to prevent the introduction of international conflict and nuclear weapons into an area hitherto free of them. Reaching agreement on the seabed, however, involved problems not met in framing the other two agreements.

History[edit]

In the 1960s, advances in the technology of oceanography and greatly increased interest in the vast and virtually untapped resources of the ocean floor led to concern that the absence of clearly established rules of law might lead to strife. And there were concurrent fears that nations might use the seabed as a new environment for military installations, including those capable of launching nuclear weapons.

In keeping with a proposal submitted to the U.N. Secretary General by Ambassador Pardo of Malta in August 1967, the U.N. General Assembly, on 18 December 1967, established an ad hoc committee to study ways of reserving the seabed for peaceful purposes, with the objective of ensuring "that the exploration and use of the seabed and the ocean floor should be conducted in accordance with the principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations, in the interests of maintaining international peace and security and for the benefit of all mankind." The Committee was given permanent status the following year. At the same time, seabed-related military and arms control issues were referred to the Eighteen Nation Committee on Disarmament (ENDC) and its successor, the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament (CCD). In a message of 18 March 1969, President Nixon said the American delegation to the ENDC should seek discussion of the factors necessary for an international agreement prohibiting the emplacement of weapons of mass destruction on the seabed and ocean floor and pointed out that an agreement of this kind would, like the Antarctic and Outer Space treaties, "prevent an arms race before it has a chance to start."

Status[edit]

List of parties[edit]

The Seabed Arms Control Treaty was opened for signature in Washington, London, and Moscow on 11 February 1971. It entered into force 18 May 1972, when the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and more than 22 nations had deposited instruments of ratification. As of May 2013, 94 current states are parties to the treaty, while another 21 have signed the treaty but have not completed ratification.[1]

Multiple dates indicate the different days in which states submitted their signature or deposition, which varied by location. This location is noted by: (L) for London, (M) for Moscow, and (W) for Washington.

State[1][2][3][4] Signed Deposited Method
 Afghanistan Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Apr 22, 1971 (M)
Apr 23, 1971 (L)
May 21, 1971 (W)
Ratification
 Algeria Jan 27, 1992 (W) Accession
 Antigua and Barbuda Nov 16, 1988 (W)
Dec 26, 1988 (M)
Jan 26, 1989 (L)
Succession from  United Kingdom
 Argentina Sep 3, 1971 (L, M, W) Mar 21, 1983 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Australia Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Jan 23, 1973 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Austria Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Aug 10, 1972 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Bahamas Jun 7, 1989 (W) Accession
 Belarus Mar 3, 1971 (M) Sep 14, 1971 (M) Ratification
 Belgium Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Nov 20, 1972 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Benin Mar 18, 1971 (W) Jun 19, 1986 (M)
Jul 2, 1986 (L)
Jul 7, 1986 (W)
Ratification
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Aug 15, 1994 (W) Succession from  Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
 Botswana Feb 11, 1971 (W) Nov 10, 1972 (W) Ratification
 Brazil Sep 3, 1971 (L, M, W) May 10, 1988 (L, W)
Aug 4, 1988 (M)
Ratification
 Bulgaria Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Apr 16, 1971 (M)
May 7, 1971 (W)
May 26, 1971 (L)
Ratification
 Canada Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) May 17, 1972 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Cape Verde Oct 24, 1979 (M) Accession
 Central African Republic Feb 11, 1971 (W) Jul 9, 1981 (W) Ratification
 China Feb 28, 1991 (L, M, W) Accession
 Congo Oct 23, 1978 (W) Accession
 Côte d'Ivoire Jan 14, 1972 (M, W) Accession
 Cuba Jun 3, 1977 (M) Accession
 Cyprus Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Nov 17, 1971 (L, M)
Dec 30, 1971 (W)
Ratification
 Czech Republic Jan 1, 1993 (W)
Apr 5, 1993 (L)
Apr 9, 1993 (M)
Succession from  Czechoslovakia
 Denmark Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Jun 15, 1971 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Dominican Republic Feb 11, 1971 (W) Feb 11, 1972 (W) Ratification
 Ethiopia Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Jul 12, 1977 (L)
Jul 14, 1977 (M, W)
Ratification
 Finland Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Jun 8, 1971 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Germany Jun 8, 1971 (L, M, W) Nov 18, 1975 (L, W) Ratification
 Ghana Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Aug 9, 1972 (W) Ratification
 Greece Feb 11, 1971 (M)
Feb 12, 1971 (W)
May 28, 1985 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Guatemala Feb 11, 1971 (W) Apr 1, 1996 (W) Ratification
 Guinea-Bissau Aug 20, 1976 (M) Accession
 Hungary Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Aug 13, 1971 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Iceland Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) May 30, 1972 (L, M, W) Ratification
 India Jul 20, 1973 (L, M, W) Accession
 Iran Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Aug 26, 1971 (L, W)
Sep 6, 1971 (M)
Ratification
 Iraq Feb 22, 1971 (M) Sep 13, 1972 (M) Ratification
 Ireland Feb 11, 1971 (L, W) Aug 19, 1971 (L, W) Ratification
 Italy Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Sep 3, 1974 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Jamaica Oct 11, 1971 (L, W)
Oct 14, 1971 (M)
Jul 30, 1986 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Japan Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Jun 21, 1971 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Jordan Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Aug 17, 1971 (W)
Aug 30, 1971 (M)
Nov 1, 1971 (L)
Ratification
 South Korea Feb 11, 1971 (L, W) Jun 25, 1987 (L, W) Ratification
 Laos Feb 11, 1971 (L, W)
Feb 15, 1971 (M)
Oct 19, 1971 (L)
Oct 22, 1971 (M)
Nov 3, 1971 (W)
Ratification
 Latvia Jun 24, 1992 (L)
Aug 3, 1992 (W)
Accession
 Lesotho Sep 8, 1971 (W) Apr 3, 1973 (W) Ratification
 Libya Jul 6, 1990 (M) Accession
 Liechtenstein May 30, 1991 (L, W) Accession
 Luxembourg Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Nov 11, 1982 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Malaysia May 20, 1971 (L, M, W) Jun 21, 1972 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Malta Feb 11, 1971 (L, W) May 4, 1971 (W) Ratification
 Mauritius Feb 11, 1971 (W) Apr 23, 1971 (W)
May 3, 1971 (L)
May 18, 1971 (M)
Ratification
 Mexico Mar 23, 1984 (L, M, W) Accession
 Mongolia Feb 11, 1971 (L, M) Oct 8, 1971 (M)
Nov 15, 1981 (L)
Ratification
 Montenegro Jun 3, 2006 (L, M) Succession from  Serbia and Montenegro
 Morocco Feb 11, 1971 (M, W)
Feb 18, 1971 (L)
Jul 26, 1971 (L)
Aug 5, 1971 (W)
Jan 18, 1972 (M)
Ratification
   Nepal Feb 11, 1971 (M, W)
Feb 24, 1971 (L)
Jul 6, 1971 (L)
Jul 29, 1971 (M)
Aug 9, 1971 (W)
Ratification
 Netherlands Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Jan 14, 1976 (L, M, W) Ratification
 New Zealand Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Feb 24, 1972 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Nicaragua Feb 11, 1971 (W) Feb 7, 1973 (W) Ratification
 Niger Feb 11, 1971 (W) Aug 9, 1971 (W) Ratification
 Norway Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Jun 28, 1971 (L, M)
Jun 29, 1971 (W)
Ratification
 Panama Feb 11, 1971 (W) Mar 20, 1974 (W) Ratification
 Philippines Nov 5, 1993 (L) Accession
 Poland Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Nov 15, 1971 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Portugal Jun 24, 1975 (L, M, W) Accession
 Qatar Nov 12, 1974 (L) Accession
 Romania Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Jul 10, 1972 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Russia Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) May 18, 1972 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Rwanda Feb 11, 1971 (W) May 20, 1975 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Saint Kitts and Nevis May 18, 1972 (W) Accession
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines May 13, 1999 (L) Succession from  United Kingdom
 Sao Tome and Principe Aug 24, 1979 (M) Accession
 Saudi Arabia Jan 7, 1972 (W) Jun 23, 1972 (W) Ratification
 Serbia Jun 3, 2006 (L, M) Succession from  Serbia and Montenegro
 Seychelles Mar 12, 1985 (L)
Mar 14, 1985 (M)
Apr 8, 1985 (W)
Accession
 Singapore May 5, 1971 (L, M, W) Sep 10, 1976 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Slovakia Jan 1, 1993 (W)
May 17, 1993 (L)
Jun 25, 1993 (M)
Succession from  Czechoslovakia
 Slovenia Apr 7, 1992 (L)
Aug 20, 1992 (W)
Succession from  Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
 Solomon Islands Jun 17, 1981 (L) Succession from  United Kingdom
 South Africa Feb 11, 1971 (W) Nov 14, 1973 (W)
Nov 26, 1973 (L)
Nov 30, 1973 (M)
Ratification
 Spain Jul 15, 1987 (L, M, W) Accession
 Swaziland Feb 11, 1971 (W) Aug 9, 1971 (W) Ratification
 Sweden Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Apr 28, 1972 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Switzerland Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) May 4, 1976 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Togo Apr 2, 1971 (W) Jun 28, 1971 (W) Ratification
 Tunisia Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) Oct 22, 1971 (M)
Oct 28, 1971 (L)
Oct 29, 1971 (W)
Ratification
 Turkey Feb 25, 1971 (L, M, W) Oct 19, 1972 (W)
Oct 25, 1972 (L)
Oct 30, 1972 (M)
Ratification
 Ukraine Mar 3, 1971 (M) Sep 3, 1971 (M) Ratification
 United Kingdom Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) May 18, 1972 (L, M, W) Ratification
 United States Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W) May 18, 1972 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Vietnam Jun 20, 1980 (M) Accession as the  Socialist Republic of Vietnam
Signed by the  Republic of Vietnam on 11 February 1971 prior to Vietnamese reunification[5]
 Yemen Feb 23, 1971 (M) Jun 1, 1979 (M) Ratification
 Zambia Oct 9, 1972 (L)
Nov 1, 1972 (W)
Nov 2, 1972 (M)
Accession

State with limited recognition, abiding by treaty[edit]

The Republic of China (Taiwan), which is currently only recognized by 21 UN member states, deposited their instruments of ratification of the treaty prior to the United State's decision to switch their recognition of the sole legitimate government of China from the Republic of China (ROC) to the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1971. When the PRC subsequently ratified the treaty, they described the ROC's ratification as "illegal". The ROC has committed itself to continue to adhere to the requirements of the treaty, and the United States has declared that they still consider them to be "bound by its obligations".[6]

State Signed Deposited Method
 Republic of China Feb 11, 1971 Feb 22, 1972 Ratification

States that have signed but not ratified[edit]

State Signed
 Bolivia Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)
 Burundi Feb 11, 1971 (M, W)
 Cambodia Feb 11, 1971 (W)
 Cameroon Nov 11, 1971 (M)
 Colombia Feb 11, 1971 (W)
 Costa Rica Feb 11, 1971 (W)
 Equatorial Guinea Jun 4, 1971 (W)
 Gambia May 18, 1971 (L)
May 21, 1971 (M)
Oct 29, 1971 (W)
 Guinea Feb 11, 1971 (M, W)
 Honduras Feb 11, 1971 (W)
 Lebanon Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)
 Liberia Feb 11, 1971 (W)
 Madagascar Sep 14, 1971 (W)
 Mali Feb 11, 1971 (W)
Feb 15, 1971 (M)
 Myanmar Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)
 Paraguay Feb 23, 1971 (W)
 Senegal Mar 17, 1971 (W)
 Sierra Leone Feb 11, 1971 (L)
Feb 12, 1971 (M)
Feb 24, 1971 (W)
 Sudan Feb 11, 1971 (L)
Feb 12, 1971 (M)
 Tanzania Feb 11, 1971 (W)
 Uruguay Feb 11, 1971 (W)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State document "Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Seabed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof".

  1. ^ a b c d "Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2015-02-13. 
  2. ^ "TREATY ON THE PROHIBITION OF THE EMPLACEMENT OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS AND OTHER WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION ON THE SEA-BED AND THE OCEAN FLOOR AND IN THE SUBSOIL THEREOF". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Archived from the original on 2013-01-04. Retrieved 2015-02-13. 
    "Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof (London Version)". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 2015-02-13. 
  3. ^ "Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Seabed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof" (PDF). United States Department of State. 2010-10-06. Retrieved 2015-02-13. 
  4. ^ "Договор о запрещении размещения на дне морей и океанов и в его недрах ядерного оружия и других видов оружия массового уничтожения" (in Russian). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia. 2012-06-26. Retrieved 2015-08-28. 
  5. ^ "Viet Nam: Accession to Sea-Bed Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2015-02-16. 
  6. ^ "China: Accession to Sea-Bed Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2015-02-16. 

External links[edit]