Seán Mac Eoin
|Seán Mac Eoin|
Studio photo of Mac Eoin, c. 1917
30 September 1893|
Ballinalee, County Longford
7 July 1973 (aged 79)|
County Longford, Ireland
Irish Republican Brotherhood|
Irish Republican Army
Irish Free State Army
Irish War of Independence|
Irish Civil War
Seán Mac Eoin was born John Joseph McKeon on 30 September 1893 at Bunlahy, Granard, County Longford, the eldest son of Andrew McKeon and Catherine Treacy. After a national school education, he trained as a blacksmith at his father's forge and, on his father's death in February 1913, he took over the running of the forge and the maintenance of the McKeon family. He moved to Kilinshley, in the Ballinalee district, County Longford to set up a new forge.
He came to prominence in the War of Independence as leader of an Irish Republican Army (IRA) flying column. In November 1920, he led the Longford brigade in attacking Crown forces in Granard during one of the periodic government reprisals, forcing them to retreat to their barracks. On 31 October, Inspector Philip St John Howlett Kelleher of the Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) was shot dead in Kiernan's Greville Arms Hotel in Granard. Members of the British Auxiliary Division set fire to parts of the town. The next day, MacEoin held the village of Ballinalee situated on the Longford Road between Longford and Granard. They stood against superior British forces, forcing them to retreat and abandon their ammunition. In a separate attack on 8 November, MacEoin led his men against the RIC at Ballinalee. An eighteen-year-old Constable Taylor was killed. Constable E Shateford and two others were wounded. The story was that the small garrison sang "God Save the King" as they took up positions to return fire.
On the afternoon of 7 January 1921, a crown force [RIC] (consisting of ten men—one officer and nine soldiers) appeared on Anne Martin's street. McKeon's own testament at his trial (which was not contested by any parties present, including the nine surviving soldiers) states that:- "I was at the table writing when I was informed of the advance of the party. My account books were left in this house for safety. I was in partial uniform, wearing Sam Browne belt and revolver with two Mills No. 4 bombs in my pocket. Owing to some females being in the house, I had to get out as I could not endanger them by putting up a defence in the house, and as this Officer and Police Force had already signified to my sister and mother their intention to shoot me on sight, I decided to give them a run for their money. I stepped out on the street, about three paces directly in front of the oncoming force, and opened fire with my revolver. The leading file fell, and then the second file in the gateway brought their rifles to the ready. I then threw a bomb, and jumped back behind the porch to let it burst. When it had burst and the smoke had lifted, I saw that the whole force had cleared away, save the officer who was dead or dying on the street.".
On 2 February 1921, the Longford IRA ambushed a force of the Auxiliaries on the road at Clonfin, using a mine it had planted. Two lorries were involved, the first blown up, and the second strafed by rapid rifle fire. District Inspector Lt-Cmdr Worthington Craven was hit by two bullets and killed. District Inspector Taylor was shot in the chest and stomach.Four Auxiliaries and a driver were killed and eight wounded. The IRA volunteers captured 18 rifles, 20 revolvers and a Lewis gun.At the Clonfin Ambush, Mac Eoin ordered his men to care for the wounded British, at the expense of captured weaponry. This earned him both praise and criticism, but became a big propaganda boost for the war effort, especially in the United States. He was admired by many within the IRA for leading practically the only effective column in the midlands. In July 1920, he was among the majority of commanders who were prepared to sign the Agreement recognizing the volunteers as the Army of the Republic. The Oath of Allegiance was "for the purpose of ratifying under the Agreement under which the Volunteers came under the control of the Dail".
On 5 February, The Anglo-Celt ran an article claiming the discovery of the body of William Chalmers, a local Protestant farmer. Mr Elliott was also a farmer, whose body was found on 30 January, lying face down in a bog.
Mac Eoin's family forge was near Currygrane, County Longford, the family home of Henry Wilson, the British CIGS. In June 1921, Wilson was petitioned for clemency by MacEoin's mother (who referred to her son as "John" in her letter), by his own brother Jemmy, and by the local Church of Ireland vicar, and passed on the appeals out of respect for the latter two individuals. Three auxiliaries had already given character references on his behalf after he had treated them chivalrously at the Clonfin Ambush in February 1921. However, Nevil Macready, British Commander-in-Chief, Ireland, confirmed the death sentence; he described Mac Eoin as "nothing more than a murderer", and wrote that he was probably responsible for other "atrocities", but also later recorded in his memoirs that Mac Eoin was the only IRA man he had met, apart from Michael Collins, to have a sense of humour. His second-in-command was from North Roscommon. Sean Connolly had a colourful career as head of Leitrim brigade.
Mac Eoin wrote the following letter to his friend (and classmate at Moyne Latin School) Father Jim Sheridan, a combatant in the Old IRA and a "Flying Column" member who had been ordained and sent to Milwaukee to study theology:
According to Oliver St. John Gogarty, Charles Bewley wrote Mac Eoin's death-sentence speech. Michael Collins organised a rescue attempt. Six IRA Volunteers, led by Paddy O'Daly, captured a British armoured car and, wearing British Army uniforms, gained access to Mountjoy Prison. However, Mac Eoin was not in the part of the jail they believed, and after some shooting, the party retreated.
He was eventually released from prison — along with all other members of the Dáil — after Collins threatened to break off treaty negotiations with London unless he was freed. It was rumoured that Sean Mac Eoin was to be the best man at Collins' wedding.
Treaty and the Civil War
Mac Eoin joined the National Army and was appointed GOC Western Command in June 1922. In the Irish Civil War, he pacified the west of Ireland for the new Free State, marching overland to Castlebar and linking up with a seaborne expedition that landed at Westport. His military career soared thereafter: he was appointed GOC Curragh Training Camp in August 1925, Quartermaster General in March 1927, and Chief of Staff in February 1929.
He resigned from the Army in 1929, and was elected at a by-election to Dáil Éireann for the Leitrim–Sligo constituency, representing Cumann na nGaedheal. At the 1932 general election he returned to the constituency of Longford–Westmeath constituency, and—with the merging of Cumann na nGaedheal into Fine Gael—continued to serve the Longford area as TD in either Longford–Westmeath (1932–37, 1948–65) or Athlone–Longford (1937–48) until he was defeated at the 1965 general election.
During a long political career he served as Minister for Justice (February 1948 – March 1951) and Minister for Defence (March–June 1951) in the First Inter-Party Government, and again as Minister for Defence (June 1954 – March 1957) in the Second Inter-Party Government.
Mac Eoin retired from public life after the 1965 general election, and died on 7 July 1973. He married Alice Cooney on 21 June 1922, at a ceremony attended by Griffith and Collins; she died on 16 February 1985. They had no children.
On 16 June 2013 during the 'General Sean MacEoin Commemoration Weekend' a statue of Mac Eoin was unveiled in his home town of Ballinalee, on the same day a plaque was unveiled in Bunlahy, the birthplace of Mac Eoin. Both the statue and the plaque was unveiled by then Taoiseach, Enda Kenny who laid a wreath at the statue.
The forge that he worked in is still standing and is known as 'Mac Eoin forge'.
- 'The Seán Mac Eoin Story' by Padraic O'Farrell (1981)
- 'Blacksmith of Ballinalee: Sean Mac Eoin' by Padraic O'Farrell (1993)
- Witness Statement of Seán Mac Eoin submitted to the Bureau of Military History in 1955
- "MacEoin, General Seán". University College Dublin. Retrieved 20 June 2007.
- "Mr. Seán Mac Eoin". Oireachtas Members Database. Retrieved 21 March 2012.
- "The Old Country". TIME. 29 June 1959. Retrieved 20 June 2007.
- Interview with MacEoin
- R Abbott, "Police Casualties in Ireland, 1919-1922", (Cork 2000), pp.86-7.
- Irish Republican Bulletin, Volume Five, Number 48. Page 2.
- [RIC District Inspector Thomas McGrath was killed and a constable wounded]
- Belfast Telegraph, 4 Feb 1921.
- Damage Reports (21 Feb 1921, Hansard)
- O'Farrel, Padraic (1981). The Seán Mac Eoin Story. Mercier Press. pp. 28–45. ISBN 0-85342-664-3.
- Oglaich na hÉireann, Weekly Memorandum: No. 18, 4 Nov 1921. Military Archives, Ireland CD 236/3.
- Lawlor, p.95.
- Jeffery 2006, p275-6
- "Seán Mac Eoin". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 20 June 2007.
- Coogan, Tim Pat (1991). Michael Collins. Arrow Books. p. 223. ISBN 0-09-968580-9.
- Jeffery, Keith (2006). Field Marshal Sir Henry Wilson: A Political Soldier. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-820358-2.
- Lawlor, Pearse, 1920-1922: The Outrages (Cork 2011)
- MacEoin, Uinseann (ed.), Survivors (Dublin 1980)
- O'Farrel, Padraic, The Seán Mac Eoin Story (Mercier Press, Cork 1981)
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