|Born||December 3, 1979|
Herndon, Virginia, U.S.
|Education||Oakton High School|
Chantilly High School
|Known for||Managing Partner at The Founders Fund|
Co-founder of Plaxo, Napster, Airtime, and Causes
President of Facebook
Chairman of the Parker Foundation
|Board member of||Spotify|
Sean Parker (born December 3, 1979) is an American entrepreneur and philanthropist, most notable for co-founding the file-sharing computer service Napster, and serving as the first president of the social networking website Facebook. He also co-founded Plaxo, Causes, Airtime.com, and Brigade, an online platform for civic engagement. He is the founder and chairman of the Parker Foundation, which focuses on life sciences, global public health, and civic engagement. On the Forbes 2016 list of the world's billionaires, he was ranked No. 722 with a net worth of US$2.4 billion.
Parker was born in Herndon, Virginia, to Diane Parker, a TV advertising broker, and Bruce Parker, a U.S. government oceanographer and chief scientist at NOAA. When Parker was seven, his father taught him how to program on an Atari 800. Parker's father, who put his family before his entrepreneurial dreams, told Parker, "if you are going to take risks, take them early before you have a family." In his teens, Parker's hobbies were hacking and programming. One night, while hacking into the network of a Fortune 500 company, Parker was unable to log out after his father confiscated his computer keyboard. Because his IP address was exposed, FBI agents tracked down the 16-year-old. Since Parker was under 18, he was sentenced to community service.
Parker attended Oakton High School in Fairfax County, Virginia for two years before transferring to Chantilly High School in 1996 for his junior and senior years. While there, Parker wrote a letter to the school administration and persuaded them to count the time he spent coding in the computer lab as a foreign language class. Consequently, towards the end of Parker's senior year at Chantilly, he was mostly writing code and starting companies. He graduated in 1998. While still in high school, he interned for Mark Pincus (the CEO of Zynga) at Pincus's Washington, DC startup FreeLoader. He won the Virginia state computer science fair for developing a web crawler, and was recruited by the CIA. By his senior year of high school, Parker was earning more than $80,000 a year through various projects, enough to convince his parents to allow him to skip college and pursue a career as an entrepreneur.
In his childhood, Parker was an avid reader, which was the beginning of his lifelong autodidacticism. Several media profiles refer to Parker as a genius. He considers his time at Napster to be his college education, calling it "Napster University", since he became well-versed in intellectual property law, corporate finance, and entrepreneurship.
When Parker was 15, he met 14-year-old Shawn Fanning over the Internet, where the two bonded over topics such as theoretical physics and hacking. A few years later, Parker and Fanning, a student at Northeastern University, cofounded Napster, a free file-sharing service for music. Parker raised the initial $50,000, and they launched Napster in June 1999. Within a year, the service had tens of millions of users. Napster was opposed by recording labels, the Recording Industry Association of America, and the heavy metal band Metallica, among others. Lawsuits by various industry associations eventually shut down the service. Napster has been called the fastest-growing business of all time, is credited with revolutionizing the music industry, and is considered by some to be a precursor to iTunes.
In November 2002, Parker launched Plaxo, an online address book and social networking service that integrated with Microsoft Outlook. Plaxo was an early social networking tool, which later influenced the growth of companies LinkedIn, Zynga, and Facebook. Plaxo was one of the first products to build virality into its launch, and that earned it 20 million users. Two years after founding Plaxo, Parker was ousted by the company's financiers, Sequoia Capital and Ram Shriram, in an acrimonious exit that reportedly involved the investors hiring private investigators to follow him.
In 2004, Parker saw a site called "The Facebook" on the computer of his roommate's girlfriend, who was a student at Stanford. Parker had experience in the social networking industry as an early advisor to Friendster and its founder, Jonathan Abrams, for which he was given a small amount of stock in 2003. Parker met with Mark Zuckerberg and Eduardo Saverin, and a few months later joined the five-month-old company as its president. According to Peter Thiel, Facebook's first investor, Sean Parker was the first to see potential in the company to be "really big", and that "if Mark ever had any second thoughts, Sean was the one who cut that off."
As president, Parker brought on Thiel as Facebook's first investor. In the initial round of funding, he negotiated for Zuckerberg to retain three of Facebook's five board seats, which gave Zuckerberg control of the company and allowed Facebook the freedom to remain a private company. Additionally, Parker is said to have championed Facebook's clean user interface and developed its photo-sharing function. Zuckerberg notes that "Sean was pivotal in helping Facebook transform from a college project into a real company."
During a party in 2005, police entered and searched a vacation home Parker was renting and found cocaine. Parker was arrested on suspicion of drug possession, but was not charged. This event caused Facebook investors to pressure Parker into resigning as company president. Even after stepping down, Parker continued to remain involved with Facebook's growth, and met regularly with Zuckerberg. The event was later dramatized in the movie The Social Network.
In 2017, during an interview with Axios, Parker expressed concerns about the role of Facebook in society, saying that it "exploit[s] a vulnerability in human psychology" as it creates a "social-validation feedback loop." Parker stated that he was "something of a conscientious objector" to using social media.
In 2006, Parker became a managing partner at Founders Fund, a San Francisco-based venture-capital fund founded by Peter Thiel. Founders Fund is focused on investing in early-stage companies, has $500 million in aggregate capital, and has invested in Quantcast, Path, and Knewton. Parker was given carte blanche by Thiel when finding investments. In 2014, Parker stepped down from his role at Founders Fund to focus on other projects. Parker has also hosted The TechFellow Awards, a partnership between TechCrunch and Founders Fund that annually gives 20 entrepreneurs $100,000 each to invest in startups.
While working at Founders Fund, Parker had been looking to invest in a company that could further Napster's music-sharing mission legally. In 2009, a friend showed him Spotify, a Swedish music-streaming service, and Parker sent an email to Spotify's founder Daniel Ek. The pair traded emails, and in 2010 Parker invested US$15 million in Spotify. Parker, who served on Spotify's board until 2017, negotiated with Warner and Universal on Spotify's behalf, and in July 2011, Spotify announced its U.S. launch. At Facebook's f8 conference that year, Parker announced a partnership between Facebook and Spotify, which allowed users to share their Spotify playlists on their Facebook profiles.
In April 2014, Parker announced his backing of a new initiative called Brigade, an online platform for civic engagement to "combat a lack of political engagement and interest in all levels of government across America." Parker serves as the Executive Chairman of Brigade. The initial round of funding was $9.3 million from Parker, with additional sums from other investors. In 2014, Brigade acquired Causes, an online platform for social impact and political activism. Causes had in 2013 acquired Votizen, a political advocacy startup. Parker and The Founders Fund were a part of Votizen's $1.5 million funding round in 2010, and Parker served on the board of directors. He has stated, "Politics for me is the most obvious area [to be disrupted by the Web]."
Since 2005, Parker has been an active donor to cancer research, global public health and civic engagement. In 2012, he pledged a $5 million grant to Stand Up to Cancer and the Cancer Research Institute to create the Immunotherapy Dream Team, uniting laboratory and clinical efforts that will lead to the immunological treatment, control and prevention of cancer. In December 2014, Parker pledged $24 million to create the Sean N. Parker Center for Allergy Research at Stanford. In 2015, he made a $4.5 million grant to support the Malaria Elimination Initiative at the University of California San Francisco's Global Health Group, and a $10 million grant to create the Sean N. Parker Autoimmune Research Laboratory at UCSF.
Parker is an active supporter of groups including Code for America, Stand up to Cancer, the Cancer Research Institute, Malaria No More, the Clinton Foundation, ONE, and the "charity: water" campaign.
In 2007, Parker founded Causes, originally one of the earliest Facebook applications, as a philanthropic service that uses social media to connect charities with their supporters and potential donors and then communicates that connection to the user's network of friends. By 2013, 186 million people had joined Causes, donating over $50 million to 60,000 non-profits.
In June 2015, Parker announced a $600 million contribution to launch the Parker Foundation, which focuses on three areas - life sciences, global public health, and civic engagement. It takes an interdisciplinary approach to large-scale challenges, combining insight, capital, science and technology, organization building, and public policy.
Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy
Parker donated $250 million to create the Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, in April 2016. The funds initially went to over 300 scientists at 40 laboratories, in six institutions.
Starting in 2016, the Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy scientists funded a clinical trial to test the next wave of cancer-fighting T-cells engineered using the CRISPR gene-editing technology. The trial was the first in the United States to test CRISPR-modified cells in humans. The trial is led by the University of Pennsylvania and is also conducted at University of California, San Francisco and the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.
In November 2017, Science published a study from Parker Institute researchers at MD Anderson Cancer Center showing that melanoma patients who have specific types of bacteria and greater microbial diversity in their gut microbiome responded better to an anti-PD-1 checkpoint inhibitor versus those with less diversity. Based on this work, the Parker Institute is collaborating with MD Anderson and industry partner Seres Therapeutics to launch a microbiome-cancer immunotherapy clinical trial for advanced melanoma patients.
Parker also serves on the boards of these nonprofits:
- Obama Foundation
- Global Citizen
- Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy
- Parker Foundation
- Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles
In February 2015, Parker was ranked number five on the Chronicle of Philanthropy's 2014 Philanthropy 50 list. In August 2018, Parker was nominated as a Wired "Icon" along with Alex Marson for his research in DNA programming and genome editing in the fight against cancer. He's also been named one of Town and Country's Top 50 Philanthropists and was named in Time's Healthcare 50 for his work in connecting cancer research. In 2016, he was given the Pontifical Key Philanthropy Award by Cardinal Gianfranco Ravasi at the Vatican for his cancer work.
Political donations and activism
Parker has made substantial donations to both sides of U.S. party politics; his allegedly "nonpartisan" approach favors contributions to "elected officials who have shown themselves willing to work across the aisle". He favored Democrats and progressive causes such as campaign finance reform and gun control; he has spoken out in favor of higher taxes, particularly for the "wealthy and super wealthy", and in favor of higher capital-gains taxes. Parker has also supported middle-of-the-road Republican candidates and super PACs, favoring "economically moderate" conservatives and candidates with a demonstrated interest in compromise and deal-making. In Washington, DC, he has met with Republican lawmakers about ways of encouraging economic investment in struggling areas of the country. He has also supported cannabis law reform and in 2010, following the example of donations by Facebook co-founder Dustin Moskovitz (totaling $70,000) donated $100,000 to the 2010 California Proposition 19 campaign to legalize marijuana in that state and $400,000 to the Democratic Party backed 2016 California Proposition 63 campaign to require background checks for all ammunition purchases. Parker will donate $250 million to launch a new institute aimed at developing more effective cancer treatments by fostering collaboration among leading researchers in the field. For the 2016 presidential election, Parker created a social ballot guide for voters to help each other pledge to vote.
Parker was also a driving force behind the Opportunity Zones provision in the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, which are designed to incentivize investments in struggling American communities. In 2015, the Economic Innovation Group, which Parker co-founded, published a whitepaper on the idea of opportunity zones, and in 2017, a bill passing them into law was shepherded by a bi-partisan coalition involving Senator Cory Booker and Senator Tim Scott.
In popular culture
Although Parker praised David Fincher as a director, many have remarked on the differences between Parker and his portrayal by Timberlake. Former Facebook growth chief Chamath Palihapitiya noted that Parker is "really the exact opposite of his portrayal in the film." Parker took issue with the movie version of Eduardo Saverin's exit from Facebook, as it paralleled his own exit from Plaxo. Parker called the character a "morally reprehensible human being," although he noted, "it's hard to complain about being played by a sex symbol."
In 2020, Parker appeared in The Social Dilemma.
In 2011, Parker became engaged to Alexandra Lenas, a singer-songwriter, and they were married in 2013. The couple has a daughter, Winter Victoria Parker, born on January 6, 2013, and a son, Zephyr Emerson Parker, born on December 1, 2014.
Big Sur wedding
On June 1, 2013, Parker married Alexandra Lenas in Big Sur, California, in a wedding at which every guest was given a Lord of the Rings–style costume. The wedding purportedly cost $10 million to stage, though Parker describes this estimate as "WAY off base."
The wedding was the subject of an article in The Atlantic alleging environmental damage to the redwood forest to which Parker responded in detail, highlighting his cooperation with the Save the Redwoods League throughout. A required permit was not obtained. In addition, the venue from which he hired the space was not permitted to close it to the public. A California Coastal Commission spokesperson said "Mr Parker, in essence, leased an ongoing Coastal Act violation when he leased the campground." As part of his settlement with the commission, Parker gave $2.5 million and created a beach-mapping app. Former Coastal Commissioner Assemblyman Mark Stone said, "To be able to put money back into the same community that cares so much about coastal resources is a very positive thing."
- "Sean Parker biography". The Biography Channel. Archived from the original on December 2, 2018. Retrieved April 6, 2014.
- "Yammer Board of Directors and Management". Yammer. Archived from the original on July 18, 2011.
- Bertoni, Steven. Sean Parker: Agent of Disruption Archived September 9, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. Forbes. September 21, 2011.
- Kirkpatrick, David. With a Little Help From His Friends Archived January 21, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. Vanity Fair. October 2010.
- Tsukayama, Hayley. Sean Parker says online music is finally social Archived September 2, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. The Washington Post. July 14, 2011.
- Adegoke, Yinka. Napster founders reunite with social video service Archived November 18, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. Reuters. June 5, 2012.
- Vascellaro, Jessica E. (April 16, 2009). "Firm Lets Others Choose Start-Ups". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on September 25, 2013. Retrieved May 18, 2009.
- "Sean Parker unveils social network for politics". POLITICO. Archived from the original on April 13, 2019. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
- "The Parker Foundation". Parker.org. Archived from the original on February 9, 2017. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
- "The World's Billionaires (2016 ranking): #722 Sean Parker". Forbes. March 1, 2016. Archived from the original on April 10, 2019. Retrieved January 2, 2017.
- Schuster, Dana. The Adventures of NYC's Billionaire Playboy. New York Post. Archived December 5, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
- Marshall, Matt (December 12, 2006). "Founders Fund hires Sean Parker as partner, to launch second fund". Venture Beat. Archived from the original on July 20, 2009. Retrieved May 18, 2009.
- Gapper, John (March 4, 2011). "Lunch with the FT: Sean Parker – FT.com – March 4, 2011 6:41 pm Gapper, John". FT.com. Archived from the original on September 1, 2016. Retrieved August 2, 2013.
- "Genius from Class '96". Archived from the original on October 6, 2010. Retrieved February 20, 2011.
- Tsotsis, Alexia. Mark Pincus Used To Be Sean Parker's Boss Archived July 7, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. TechCrunch. October 18, 2011.
- DealBook (September 7, 2010). "The Strange Web Genius of Sean Parker". New York Times. Archived from the original on September 30, 2018. Retrieved October 30, 2014.
- Estes, Adam Clark. The Overripe Fruits of Sean Parker's Labor on Twitter Archived October 30, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. The Atlantic. October 27, 2011.
- Gastaldo, Evann. Meet Facebook 'Genius' Sean Parker Archived June 1, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Newser. September 8, 2010.
- Bertoni, Steven. Sean Parker: Agent of Disruption Archived September 9, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. Forbes. September 21, 2011. "Question the audiophile about the best brand of headphones and you first learn how sound waves are registered by our tympanic membranes."
- Kirkpatrick, David (October 2010). "With a Little Help From His Friends". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on October 30, 2014. Retrieved July 1, 2011. "There is hardly a topic—literary, political, medical, or technological—about which he cannot offer an informed and nuanced opinion in his rapid-fire patter. (Don't get him started on Ben Franklin's role as a media pioneer.)"
- Kirkpatrick, David (October 2010). "With a Little Help From His Friends". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on October 30, 2014. Retrieved July 1, 2011. "He's always talking about the potential of computers to generate algorithms for likeable melodies, and we have this ongoing argument: he believes it's only a matter of time before computers will be able to create listenable tunes."
- Bertoni, Steven. Sean Parker: Agent of Disruption Archived September 9, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. Forbes. September 21, 2011. "I kind of refer to it as Napster University—it was a crash course in intellectual property law, corporate finance, entrepreneurship, and law school. Some of the e-mails I wrote when I was just a kid who didn't know what he was doing are apparently in [law school] textbooks."
- Levy, Steven. The Noisy War Over Napster Archived November 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. The Daily Beast. June 4, 2000.
- Rosoff, Matt. Sean Parker: Yes, My New Startup Is Called Airtime Archived March 25, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Business Insider. October 17, 2011.
- "Napster shut down". BBC News. July 27, 2000. Archived from the original on January 11, 2009. Retrieved May 18, 2009.
- "Napster must stay shut down". BBC News. March 26, 2002. Retrieved May 18, 2009.
- Pruitt, Scarlett. Napster's Legacy Lives On Archived November 5, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. PC World. September 6, 2002.
- Waters, Darren. Napster's legacy lives on Archived January 12, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. BBC News.
- Cooper, Charles. Perspective: Apple and the legacy of Napster Archived October 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. CNET. August 6, 2004.
- Napster's Rise and Fall--And Its Future Archived March 29, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Forbes. May 28, 2003.
- Konrad, Rachel. Napster among fastest-growing Net technologies Archived January 6, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. CNET. October 5, 2000.
- Jardin, Xeni (November 12, 2002). "Napster Co-Founder's New Venture". Wired. Archived from the original on April 16, 2016. Retrieved May 18, 2009.
- Bertoni, Steven. Sean Parker: Agent of Disruption Archived September 9, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. Forbes. September 21, 2011. "It sounds boring compared to Napster and Facebook, but Plaxo was an early social networking tool and a pioneer of the types of viral tricks that helped grow LinkedIn, Zynga, and Facebook. "Plaxo is like the indie band that the public doesn't know but was really influential with other musicians," Parker says."
- Comcast to Buy Plaxo Archived November 9, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Hot Hardware. May 25, 2008.
- Kalyanam, Kirthi; Shelby McIntyre, J Todd Masonis (2007). Adaptive experimentation in interactive marketing: The case of viral marketing at Plaxo Archived October 9, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Journal of Interactive Marketing.
- Marshall, Matt (December 12, 2006). "Founders Fund hires Sean Parker as a partner, to launch second fund". Venture Beat. Archived from the original on July 20, 2009. Retrieved May 18, 2009. "During the post-bubble downturn, Parker got pushed out by Sequoia Capital and Ram Shriram, and there's been silence over the real reasons ever since. There were reports of private investigators going after Parker."
- Kirkpatrick, David. The Facebook Effect: The Inside Story of the Company That Is Connecting the World. Simon & Schuster, May 3, 2011. "Finally they booted him out. In the end, they even hired a private investigator to document his alleged misbehaviour.
- Kirkpatrick, David (February 2010). The Facebook Effect: The Inside Story of the Company That Is Connecting the World. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4391-0211-4.
- Bertoni, Steven. Sean Parker: Agent of Disruption Archived September 9, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. Forbes. September 21, 2011. "Facebook's key architect, Parker helped drive Facebook's minimalist look. He was adamant that the site have a continuous flow and tasks like adding friends to be as frictionless as possible."
- Sean Parker: Managing Partner, Founders Fund Archived March 31, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Web 2.0 Summit.
- Eaton, Kit. Why You Should Care About Sean Parker: The Man Behind Napster, Facebook, and Chatroulette Archived July 19, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Fast Company. September 8, 2010.
- Kirkpatrick, David (October 2010). "With a Little Help From His Friends". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on October 30, 2014. Retrieved July 1, 2011. "I don't think Sean ever really left Facebook," says board member Thiel. "He's continued to be involved in many ways."
- Marikar, Sheila. Justin Timberlake: From Boy Band Heartthrob to Modern Day Renaissance Man Archived August 29, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. ABC News. September 30, 2010.
- Former Facebook executive: social media is ripping society apart Archived December 12, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Opinion, The Guardian, December 13 update, 2017
- Blattberg, Eric. The Many Hats of Sean Parker Archived May 4, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Wired. June 22, 2011.
- Guynn, Jessica. Facebook backer now a rival to venture capitalists. The Los Angeles Times. December 18, 2007.
- Marshall, Matt (December 12, 2006). "Founders Fund hires Sean Parker as a partner, to launch second fund". Venture Beat. Archived from the original on July 20, 2009. Retrieved May 18, 2009. "At Founders Fund, Thiel is focused on investing in early-stage companies, and he's given Parker a carte blanche to find the best companies he can, Thiel says."
- Wilhelm, Alex. "Sean Parker Leaves Founders Fund". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on January 23, 2018. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
- Hoge, Patrick. Sean Parker hosts TechFellow awards Archived January 3, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. San Francisco Business Times. December 3, 2010
- Arrington, Michael. Announcing The TechFellow Awards With Founders Fund Archived January 23, 2018, at the Wayback Machine. TechCrunch. April 16, 2009.
- Paul Sawers (October 7, 2011). "You have to see this email from Sean Parker in 2009 pitching his interest in Spotify". The Next Web. The Next Web, Inc. Archived from the original on September 5, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2013.
- Steven Levy (October 21, 2011). "Steven Levy on Facebook, Spotify and the Future of Music". Wired. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on March 22, 2014. Retrieved June 28, 2013.
- "Sean Parker: War on Music Piracy is a Failure". CBS News. October 22, 2010. Archived from the original on October 13, 2013. Retrieved June 28, 2013.
- Dan Simon (September 27, 2011). "Internet pioneer Sean Parker: 'I'm blazing a new path'". CNN. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved June 28, 2013.
- "Killers, Snoop Dogg, Jane's Addiction Rock Sean Parker's f8 Conference/Party". BillboardBiz. Billboard. September 23, 2011. Archived from the original on May 27, 2018. Retrieved June 28, 2013.
- "Napster co-founder Sean Parker to lead civic startup". Politico. April 14, 2014. Archived from the original on May 10, 2015. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- "Our Team". Brigade. Archived from the original on November 18, 2015. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
- "Brigade Media Raises $9.3M From Sean Parker To Shake Up American Democracy". TechCrunch. April 14, 2014. Archived from the original on March 13, 2019. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- Wilhelm, Alex. "Sean Parker's Brigade Media Acquires Causes In Its Quest To Revitalize American Democracy". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on July 16, 2017. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
- Kincaid, Jason. "Votizen Raises $1.5 Million To Make Sure Government Representatives Hear Your Voice". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on May 2, 2019. Retrieved June 25, 2017.
- Simonite, Tom. "Five Interesting Things Sean Parker Said Yesterday". MIT. Archived from the original on June 4, 2012. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- "Stand Up To Cancer — SU2C and CRI Announce New Immunology Translational Research Dream Team". Stand Up To Cancer. Archived from the original on October 9, 2016. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
- Buhr, Sarah. "Sean Parker Pledges $24 Million Toward A Stanford Allergy Research Center In His Name". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on September 25, 2017. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
- "Sean Parker donates $24 million to Stanford for allergy research". SFGate. Archived from the original on July 30, 2018. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
- "Entrepreneur gives UCSF $4.5 million to combat malaria". SFGate. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
- Buhr, Sarah. "Sean Parker Grants $10 Million To Aid Radical Autoimmune Research For Type 1 Diabetes". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on September 25, 2017. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
- Arrington, Michael. Venture Capitalists Ron Conway And Sean Parker Battle For Charity Archived July 8, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. TechCrunch. December 12, 2009.
- Bowe, Rebecca. Sean Parker: "I am paying far too little in taxes" Archived October 29, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. San Francisco Bay Guardian. October 26, 2011.
- MacMillan, Douglas. Philanthropy: Causes, the Socially Conscious Network Archived December 14, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Bloomberg Business. October 21, 2010.
- Stone, Brad. Clicking for a Cause Archived January 27, 2018, at the Wayback Machine. The New York Times. November 11, 2009.
- Constine, Josh. "Causes Acquires Votizen To Democratize Democracy". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on August 12, 2017. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
- Parker, Sean. "Sean Parker: Philanthropy for Hackers". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on January 3, 2019. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
- "Sean Parker Outlines Big Plans for His $600-Million Foundation". The Chronicle of Philanthropy. Archived from the original on July 2, 2017. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
- Merced, Michael J. De La (June 23, 2015). "Sean Parker Seeks a New Approach to Charity". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 14, 2018. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
- Eunjung, Ariana (April 13, 2016). "$250 million, 300 scientists and 40 labs: Sean Parker's revolutionary project to 'solve' cancer". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on April 25, 2019. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
- LORENZETTI, LAURA. "Sean Parker Is Funding the First Human Trials of a Revolutionary Cancer Treatment". Fortune. Archived from the original on February 14, 2018. Retrieved February 14, 2018.
- Regalado, Antonio. "Money Behind First CRISPR Test? It's from Internet Billionaire Sean Parker". MIT Technology Review.
- Kaiser, Jocelyn. "Your gut bacteria could determine how you respond to cutting-edge cancer drugs". Science. Archived from the original on February 14, 2018. Retrieved February 14, 2018.
- Obama Foundation Announces Addition of Sean Parker to the Board of Directors Archived August 29, 2019, at the Wayback Machine Obama.org
- Board of Directors: Sean Parker Archived August 29, 2019, at the Wayback Machine Globalcitizen.org
- Board for Parker Institute Archived April 8, 2019, at the Wayback Machine ParkerICI.org
- "Foundation website". Archived from the original on February 9, 2017. Retrieved August 29, 2019.
- New Director Expands MOCA’s Board With Four Global Members Archived August 29, 2019, at the Wayback Machine NYTimes.com
- "A Look at the 50 Most Generous Donors of 2014". The Chronicle of Philanthropy. Archived from the original on January 14, 2016. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
- "WHY DNA IS THE MOST EXCITING PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE TODAY". Archived from the original on December 5, 2018. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
- "The T&C 50: The Top Philanthropists of 2017". Archived from the original on December 15, 2018. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
- "Healthcare 50: Sean Parker". Archived from the original on December 5, 2018. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
- "Sean Parker honored at the Vatican with the 2016 Pontifical Key Philanthropy Award". PR Newswire. Archived from the original on January 8, 2019. Retrieved January 7, 2019.
- "Tech mogul ramps up GOP giving". POLITICO. Archived from the original on September 20, 2015. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
- Zakrzewski, Cat. "Silicon Valley Moguls Push For Campaign Finance Reform". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on July 5, 2017. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
- "Former Facebook president Sean Parker backs Nevada gun-control with $250,000 donation". Las Vegas. Archived from the original on November 18, 2015. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
- Burns, Alexander (July 15, 2014). "Tech mogul Sean Parker ramps up GOP giving". Politico.com. POLITICO LLC. Archived from the original on June 26, 2015. Retrieved September 4, 2014.
- "Tech bigwigs help launch economic policy group". POLITICO. Archived from the original on February 22, 2019. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
- "Ex-Facebook President Sean Parker backs California pot initiative". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on December 29, 2018. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
- MacAskill, Ewen (October 10, 2010). "Facebook cofounder gives $100,000 to push to legalise cannabis in California". The Guardian. UK. Archived from the original on July 7, 2018. Retrieved October 11, 2010.
- "California Proposition 63, Background Checks for Ammunition Purchases and Large-Capacity Ammunition Magazine Ban (2016)". Ballotpedia. Archived from the original on May 18, 2019. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
- CNBC. "Sean Parker on Cancer Research - Video". New York Times. 40.755978;-73.990396. Archived from the original on July 7, 2018. Retrieved May 4, 2017.CS1 maint: location (link)
- Mangalindan, JP (October 11, 2016). "Sean Parker creates a social ballot guide for voters". Yahoo Tech. Archived from the original on May 20, 2017. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
- Tankersley, Jim (January 29, 2018). "Tucked Into the Tax Bill, a Plan to Help Distressed America Archived December 4, 2018, at the Wayback Machine". The New York Times. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
-  Archived February 27, 2019, at the Wayback Machine Architect Of Opportunity Zones Measure Starts New Firm To Spur Investments] Bisnow.com
- The new hotness for tech billionaires? Do-gooder investments they can write off on their taxes. Archived February 27, 2019, at the Wayback Machine Recode.com
- Gustin, Sam. The Social Network Nabs Eight Oscar Nods Archived December 25, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Wired. January 25, 2011.
- Albanesius, Chloe. Oscars: 'Social Network' Fizzles, Douglas and Bullock Light Up Twitter Archived May 23, 2018, at the Wayback Machine. PCWorld. February 28, 2011.
- Dargis, Manohla. The Social Network (2010) Archived July 10, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. The New York Times.
- Sean Parker: The Social Network is a complete work of fiction Archived October 27, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. The Next Web. January 23, 2011.
- What's True in the Facebook Movie Archived May 15, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. The Daily Beast. September 30, 2010.
- White, Charlie. Sean Parker Says "The Social Network" Is "Fiction" Archived February 25, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. Mashable. January 23, 2011.
- Cavin, Cory. Sean Parker Talks Spotify, Hacking, And Being On The Cover Of Forbes Archived February 15, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Late Night With Jimmy Fallon. October 4, 2011.
- Sean Parker: Human Accelerant Archived August 7, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. Forbes. October 18, 2011.
- "Sean Parker, Facebook Billionaire, Wecomes Baby Girl With Fiancee Alexandra Lenas". Us Weekly. January 5, 2013. Archived from the original on October 30, 2016. Retrieved September 27, 2013.
- "Sean Parker, Facebook Billionaire, Welcomes Baby Girl With Fiancee Alexandra Lenas" Archived October 30, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, Us Weekly, January 7, 2013.
- "Sean and Alexandra Parker Welcome Son Zephyr Emerson – Moms & Babies – Celebrity Babies and Kids - Moms & Babies - People.com". Celebritybabies.people.com. September 15, 2014. Archived from the original on March 24, 2016. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
- Galla, Brittany (June 1, 2013). "Sean Parker Is Married! Facebook Billionaire Weds Alexandra Lenas". Us Weekly. Archived from the original on April 14, 2019. Retrieved June 2, 2013.
- Madrigal, Alexis (June 6, 2013). "Sean Parker Responds to Redwoods Wedding Criticism, and His Defense Is Actually Pretty Convincing". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on April 3, 2019. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
- Madrigal, Alexis (June 4, 2013). "New Government Documents Show the Sean Parker Wedding Is the Perfect Parable for Silicon Valley Excess". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on June 8, 2013. Retrieved June 4, 2013.
- Abraham, Kera (June 13, 2013). "Sean Parker Wedding Brings Ventana Inn's Campground Violations to Light". Montrerey County Weekly. Archived from the original on August 7, 2020. Retrieved December 1, 2016.
- Alexander, Kurtis (October 17, 2014) "Sean Parker's Big Sur punishment — create an app." Archived November 10, 2017, at the Wayback Machine San Francisco Chronicle. (Retrieved October 17, 2014.)
- "Tech magnate's controversial Big Sur wedding generates a wave of conservation grants". Monterey County Weekly. Archived from the original on August 7, 2020. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Sean Parker|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sean Parker.|