Sebastian Kurz

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Sebastian Kurz
Sebastian Kurz (2018-02-28) (cropped).jpg
Chancellor of Austria
Assumed office
7 January 2020
PresidentAlexander Van der Bellen
DeputyWerner Kogler
Preceded byBrigitte Bierlein
In office
18 December 2017 – 28 May 2019
PresidentAlexander Van der Bellen
DeputyHeinz-Christian Strache
Hartwig Löger
Preceded byChristian Kern
Succeeded byHartwig Löger (Acting)
Chairman of the People's Party
Assumed office
15 May 2017
Secretary-GeneralKarl Nehammer
Preceded byReinhold Mitterlehner
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
16 December 2013 – 18 December 2017
ChancellorWerner Faymann
Christian Kern
Preceded byMichael Spindelegger
Succeeded byKarin Kneissl
Chair of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
In office
1 January 2017 – 18 December 2017
Secretary GeneralLamberto Zannier
Thomas Greminger
Preceded byFrank-Walter Steinmeier
Succeeded byKarin Kneissl
Further offices held
Member of the National Council
In office
9 November 2017 – 22 January 2018
Nominated byHimself
AffiliationPeople's Party
In office
29 October 2013 – 16 December 2013
Nominated byMichael Spindelegger
AffiliationPeople's Party
President of the Political Academy of the People's Party
In office
1 September 2015 – 12 March 2018
DirectorDietmar Halper
Preceded byWerner Fasslabend
Succeeded byBettina Rausch
State Secretary of the Interior for Integration
In office
21 April 2011 – 16 December 2013
ChancellorWerner Faymann
MinisterJohanna Mikl-Leitner
Member of the State and Municipality
Diet of Vienna
In office
Nominated byChristine Marek
AffiliationPeople's Party
Chairman of the Young People's Party
In office
Preceded bySilvia Grünberger
Succeeded byStefan Schnöll
Personal details
Born (1986-08-27) 27 August 1986 (age 34)
Meidling, Vienna, Austria
Political partyPeople's Party (2009–present)
Domestic partnerSusanne Thier
  • Elisabeth Kurz
  • Josef Kurz
ResidenceMeidling, Vienna
EducationGRG 12 Erlgasse (Matura)
Military service
Allegiance Austria
Branch/service Bundesheer
Years of serviceOctober 2004 – June 2005
Stationed atMaria-Theresien-Kaserne

Sebastian Kurz (German: [zeˈbastˌi̯a:n ˈkʊrt͡s]; born 27 August 1986) is an Austrian politician who has served as Chancellor of Austria since January 2020, a position he previously held from December 2017 to May 2019. Kurz has also been chairman of the Austrian People's Party since May 2017.

Kurz was born and raised in Meidling, Vienna. He acquired his Matura in 2004 at the GRG 12 Erlgasse and subsequently completed mandatory military service in 2005. Kurz attended the faculty of law at the University of Vienna, and left before graduating to focus on his political career. He entered politics by joining the Young People's Party (JVP) in 2003. Five years later he assumed his first political office there as chairman of the JVP for Vienna. In 2010, Kurz successfully ran for the Viennese State Diet and thereby obtained his first governmental post. Following a reshuffle of the First Faymann cabinet in 2011, Kurz was nominated and appointed state secretary of the Interior Ministry for social integration. After the 2013 legislative election, Kurz became foreign minister of Austria and remained the country's top diplomat until December 2017.

Following the resignation of Vice Chancellor Reinhold Mitterlehner as chairman of the People's Party (ÖVP) in May 2017, Kurz was named his successor. Mitterlehner's withdrawal from politics led to the end of the Kern cabinet and triggered a legislative snap election in 2017; in which Kurz participated as the top candidate of his party. As leader of the largest party after the election, Kurz was charged with forming his first cabinet and subsequently formed a coalition with the Freedom Party (FPÖ). During his chancellorship, Kurz passed many changes and reforms but suffered multiple scandals. Following the Ibiza affair and the end of the ÖVP–FPÖ majority coalition, Kurz was dismissed by the National Council through a motion of no confidence passed by the SPÖ, FPÖ and Jetzt in May 2019. After the 2019 legislative snap elections, he returned to power, forming another coalition – this time with the environmentalist Green Party.

His youth and political tenor have been credited with revitalizing the traditional conservative movement in Austria, and to a larger extent, in Europe. Opponents have, however, denounced him as uncooperative and hasty, particularly with respect to his signature issues: immigration and social politics. Aged 34, Kurz is one of the youngest head of government in the world, and first elected to the post aged 31, the youngest chancellor in Austrian history.

Personal life[edit]


Kurz was born in Vienna, the only child[1] of Roman Catholic parents Josef and Elisabeth Kurz (née Döller). His father is an engineer and his mother is a grammar school teacher.[2] Kurz' maternal grandmother Magdalena Müller – born 1928 in Temerin, Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (today Vojvodina, Serbia) – is a Danube Swabian who fled from the city and settled in Zogelsdorf (today in Austria) during World War II, after the Yugoslav Partisans and the Red Army started to occupy the territory that was then part of the Kingdom of Hungary.[3][4][5]

Early life and education[edit]

Kurz was brought up in Meidling, the 12th district of Vienna, where he still lives. He obtained his Matura certificate in 2004,[6] completed compulsory military service in 2005,[7] and began studying law at the University of Vienna[8][9] the same year. Later, he dropped out of university and focused on his political career.[10][11][12]

Personal life[edit]

Kurz has been in a relationship with economics teacher Susanne Thier since the time they spent in school together.[13][14] Kurz resides in Meidling, the 12th district of Vienna.[15]

Political career[edit]

Youth branch[edit]

Kurz had been a member of the Young People's Party (JVP) since 2003 and was sponsored by Markus Figl.[16][17][18] From 2008 to 2012, he was chairman of the JVP for Vienna.[19] During his chairmanship, he led the youth campaign of the People's Party in the 2010 Viennese state election and coined the campaign's controversial electoral slogan Schwarz macht geil ("Black Makes Cool"), a play on the official party colour as well as the colloquial term geil which literally means "horny". While campaigning, he commissioned that a black-painted car termed the Geilomobil ("cool/horny automobile") be driven through Vienna.[20][21][22] In 2009, Kurz was elected federal chairman of the JVP at a party convention, where he received 99 percent of the vote; five years later he was reelected with 100 percent of the vote.[23] In 2017, he handed over the office of federal chair to Austrian attorney Stefan Schnöll.[24] From 2009 to 2016, Kurz additionally served as a deputy chair of the People's Party in Vienna.[25] From 2010 to 2011, he was a member of the Viennese State and Municipality Diet, where he focused on equality for all generations and ensuring fair pensions, before being nominated as state secretary of the Interior Ministry for integration in June 2011, ensuing a reshuffle of the first Faymann cabinet.[26][27] Following the 2013 Austrian legislative election – in which he had won the most direct votes of any candidate – he briefly served as a member of the National Council.[28] In December 2013, Kurz resigned his parliamentary seat to become the country's youngest foreign minister at the age of 27.[29]

State Secretary[edit]

Kurz considered a healthy and continued dialogue between government and the religious communities to be a pivotal part for social integration. During the first months in his new capacity as state secretary of the Interior for integration, Kurz suggested several changes, such as a second mandatory kindergarten year for children with insufficient language skills.[30] In 2011, the Integration State Secretariat co-founded a campaign called "Zusammen:Österreich" ("Together:Austria") along with the Austrian Integration Fund and the Ministry of Education. The campaign sought to familiarise immigrants with the Austrian landscape and culture as well as to convey values such as religious freedom and democracy. The campaign sent so-called "integration ambassadors" to schools, so to discuss the identification of migrants with the Republic of Austria.[31]

As state secretary, Kurz received an annual budget of fifteen million euros as of 2011. The budget was raised to 100 million euros by 2017. The increase primarily occurred due to a large-scale buildup of German language courses.[32]

In 2013, Kurz co-sponsored a proposed amendment to the Austrian citizenship law.[33][34]

Foreign Minister[edit]

Kurz with President of Croatia Ivo Josipović at his first foreign visit as minister, 20 December 2013

Following the 2013 legislative election, Kurz took over the Ministry of Foreign Affairs from Michael Spindelegger. In March 2014, his ministry's jurisdiction was expanded and was additionally vested with matters of integration. Kurz denoted Western Balkans relations to be one of his top priorities, which is why his first foreign visit as minister was to Croatia.[35] Good relations with Israel is very important to him "for historical reasons" and for a positive cooperation with the Jewish community in the field of integration.[36]

During a visit to Belgrade on 26 February 2014, he reaffirmed Austria's continued support for the accession of Serbia into the European Union, also because of Austrian economic and political interests. Together with Serbian Prime Minister Aleksandar Vučić, he talked about the future of Bosnia and Austrian-Serbian relations in a historical context.[37]

In November 2014, he presented the "#stolzdrauf" campaign, with the stated goal of encouraging people to show pride for Austria on social media.[38][39] The campaign drew controversy when users promoted athlete David Alaba.[40] Supporters of the campaign included celebrities such as the former Miss Austria Amina Dagi, and musician Andreas Gabalier, according to Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Also involved were President Heinz Fischer, the Austrian Airlines, the Jewish Community and the Islamic Religious Community. According to the FAZ report, the left-wing would consider Andreas Gabalier "provocative" for omitting women from the national anthem, while the right would be "disturbed" that a hijabi woman or a Tschusch was considered a true Austrian. The alt-right identitarian movement therefore disrupted the press conference on the presentation of the campaign. Also heavily criticized was the amount of money invested in the promotion of the campaign by the Foreign Ministry which amounted to €326,029 and €120,000 in five to six weeks, of which 55% flowed into newspaper advertisement of boulevard or free newspapers.[41][42]

On 25 February 2015, an amendment to the Islam law was passed in the National Council. The amendment adjusted the law of 1912 and banned foreign financing of Islamic associations and was especially criticised by the Muslim community.[43] It included the right of Muslims to have pastoral care in the Armed Forces, detention centers, hospitals and nursing homes.[44] A German translation of the Qur'an which had been demanded by Kurz was not contained in the amendment.[45]

Kurz with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, 4 April 2016

In June 2015, Kurz proposed to adjust the family subsidy for EU citizens working in Austria whose children live in the country of origin to the price level of their country. In addition, immigrants from other EU states should first have paid into the Austrian welfare system for a few years before they would be eligible to request financial aid in Austria. The SPÖ opposed the plans, but stated that the abuse of family subsidy needed to be better controlled. The FPÖ welcomed the proposals. The Greens accused Kurz and his party of "taking over the hate policy of the FPÖ".[46][47]

At the end of June 2015, Kurz presented his plans to close Austrian embassies in Malta, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia by autumn 2018. At the same time, new embassies should be opened in Belarus, Moldova, Georgia, Qatar and Singapore. His plans also included another Consulate General in China. The Chancellor wanted to achieve financial savings through the sale of no longer needed real estate and by merging representative agencies.[48]

Following the City of Vienna's rejection to commission Ednan Aslan with a research project on Islamic kindergartens in 2014, the Ministry of Integration commissioned Aslan himself. The preliminary study, published at the end of 2015, came to the conclusion that Salafist tendencies were emerging and that the spread of Islamist ideologies was observable. Following this alarming study, the City of Vienna and the Ministry of Integration agreed to conduct a comprehensive scientific study on that matter. In addition, the city of Vienna increasingly started to review these kindergartens. In June 2017, Kurz demanded to having Islamic kindergartens closed in general, as they had isolated themselves linguistically and culturally from the main society. After Falter had accused the Integration department of the Ministry of having changed "content and not only formatting" of the preliminary study, a tangible controversy emerged. Aslan then pointed out that he supported the published study. A review of the study was initiated by the University of Vienna.[49][50][51][52]

In January 2016, Kurz stated in an interview with the daily newspaper Die Welt regarding border security in Austria: "It is understandable that many politicians are afraid of ugly pictures relating to border security. However, we cannot just delegate this duty of ours to Turkey, because we don't want to get our hands dirty. It will not go without ugly pictures". The latter part of the quote was used by the green MEP Michel Reimon as a caption to a photo of the deceased refugee boy Aylan Kurdi and spread on Facebook. Reimon also referred to Kurz as an inhuman cynic. An ÖVP spokesman described it as "despicable that the Greens exploit the death of this little boy for party politics", Aylan was killed at a time "where there was no border security, but a policy of false hopes".[53][54]

Kurz with Britain's Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson, 20 March 2017

In February 2016, Kurz attended the Western Balkans Conference in Vienna, as representative for Austria, along with Interior Minister Johanna Mikl-Leitner. The conference was heavily criticized by the EU, but the resulting blockade of the Balkan route was soon officially recognized by the EU.[55]

The recognition and assessment law presented by the Ministry of Integration was approved in July 2016. In order to facilitate the recognition of qualifications acquired abroad and the transfer of educational certificates.[56]

During commemorations and military parades to mark the end of World War II, Kurz visited Belarus on 5 May 2015, followed by a visit to Moscow where he met Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov. He described the annexation of the Crimea and the support of the Eastern Ukrainian separatists as "contrary to international law". A softening of EU sanctions would not be possible without prior local improvements of the situation and without the implementation of the Minsk II agreement and that peace could only be achieved "with and not against Russia". In June 2016, he stated to support the proposals previously made by then-German Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier to gradually withdraw sanctions in return for steps completed by Russia regarding the Minsk agreement.[57][58]

Kurz with Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu after signing a memorandum of agreement, 16 May 2016. Netanyahu's spokesman David Keyes looks on.

In May 2016, Kurz visited Israel and met with Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.[59] The trip marked 60 years of diplomatic relations between Austria and Israel.[60] Netanyahu and Kurz signed a working holiday visa agreement as well as a memorandum of agreement on education and cultural issues.[61]

In November 2016, Kurz expressed his thanks as a representative of the European People's Party in a campaign appearance of the Macedonian sister-party VMRO-DPMNE for supporting the closure of the Western Balkans route, which was later criticized as an indirect campaigning aid.[62] With regard to the refugee crisis, the Ministry of Integration introduced values and orientation courses in all states.[63]

In March 2017, Kurz criticized rescue actions by aid organizations as "NGO insanity", as these would result in more refugees dying in the Mediterranean Sea rather than less. Kurz repeatedly demanded that refugees rescued in the Mediterranean Sea should no longer be taken to mainland Italy, but returned to refugee centers outside of Europe, in accordance with the Australian refugee model. His purposes were supported by the EU border agency Frontex, but opposed by aid organizations.[64]

Kurz with Georgian foreign minister Mikheil Janelidze in Tbilisi in February 2017

In March 2017, the Integration Act was passed in the Council of Ministers and subsequently enacted by the National Council in May 2017. It contains the right to attend German-language courses, obliges participation in language and value courses and prohibits the distribution of expenditures of the Quran in public spaces by Salafists. A ban on full obfuscation in public spaces was regulated in the Anti-Face Veiling Act. The Integration Act was supplemented by an integration-year law in accordance with the cabinet's draft. The obligatory charitable work of beneficiaries of subsidiary protection, persons entitled to asylum and asylum seekers with good chances of recognition was regulated in the Integration Year Law and is referred to as "work training that is in the interest of the common good". The charitable work can take up to twelve months and is carried out by community service organizations. Participants of the integration year also receive an "integration card" that serves as a kind of certificate.[65][66][67]

In May 2017, the integration ambassador criticized Kurz's policy. According to a survey conducted by the immigrant magazine Bum Media, two thirds of the ambassadors for integration do not agree with the policy or individual aspects of the policy (especially the ban on full-face veils in the public). The same medium stated that of the 350 Integration ambassadors cited by the Foreign Ministry, only 68 were on the website.[68][69]

In Kurz's tenure as Foreign Minister, it was agreed to increase the funds for bilateral development cooperation from about 75 to about 150 million by 2021.[70]

The EU–Turkey agreement on the refugee crisis agreed in March, was described as necessary by Kurz. However, he advocated leaving Turkey as few tasks as possible such as returning refugees. To safeguard the Schengen border of the EU, Greece should be given more responsibility. He understands that many politicians are afraid of "ugly pictures" regarding border security, but it could not be that the EU would delegate this task to Turkey because they did not want to "get their hands dirty". Kurz said it will not go without "ugly pictures".

At the end of 2016, it was announced that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs had cancelled funding for the Südwind Magazine, which had been published monthly since 1979, for the association Südwind Entwicklungspolitik. This move caused criticism from various parties, as it endangered the survival of the magazine. The publisher representative of the Südwind magazine considered the cessation of funding "politically stupid". An Internet petition against the rejection of the funding was then launched.[71][72][73]

Kurz held his annual speeches as Foreign Minister before the United Nations General Assembly, and the UN Security Council respectively, and participated in the review conference of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. In addition, he also expressed his support for denuclearisation and the protection of persecuted Christians.[74][75][76][77]

Kurz with Sergey Lavrov at the OSCE summit in Mauerbach

As Austrian Foreign Minister, Kurz assumed the chairmanship of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) in January 2017 for one year. In the first days of his new role he visited the disputed eastern Ukraine. With regard to EU sanctions against Russia, he proposed an "act-on-act system". A gradual lifting of sanctions in exchange for progress in the Ukraine conflict could trigger a "positive momentum". While the OSCE considered it to be a success that the OSCE observation mission in eastern Ukraine could be extended, there was also criticism on the agenda-setting of his incumbency, which according to Christian Nünlist, was partly based on his personal domestic political interests for Austria. As OSCE Chairperson, Kurz invited to an OSCE Summit in Mauerbach on 11 July 2017.[78][79][80][81]

On 18 December 2017, he handed over the Foreign Ministry to the Freedom Party nominee Karin Kneissl.[citation needed]

ÖVP chairmanship[edit]

Already during the chairmanship of Reinhold Mitterlehner, many rumours arose within the media and the party itself, speculating that it would be more and more likely for Kurz to takeover the party before the 2017 legislative election and to run as the top candidate of his party in that election.[82] In 2014, the daily newspaper Kurier already speculated on a possible top candidacy of Kurz for the next election.[83] On 10 May 2017, Mitterlehner announced his resignation as Minister, Vice-Chancellor and ultimately as party leader. Following Mitterlehner's withdrawal from politics, the party executive board nominated Kurz as the new chairman on 14 May that year. However, he declined to succeed Mitterlehner as Vice-Chancellor.[84] Before his official election to the chairmanship, Kurz presented seven requirements to the executive board[85] which were partially already agreed upon before his nomination, some were even enshrined by statute. Unofficially assented changes were a request of the chairmen to be granted veto powers against federal nominees of state organisations and to obtain the prerogative to appoint federal nominees at their discretion.[86][87] The newspaper Falter reported that Kurz had already "pre-felt" if corporate donors would financially support his election campaign before assuming the chairmanship as apparently several millions of Euros have already been informally promised in donations.[88]

On 1 July 2017, Kurz was officially elected chairman of the ÖVP by the Bundesparteitag (federal party conference) with 98.7% of the delegates vote and thereby almost achieved as much as his predecessor Reinhold Mitterlehner, who received 99.1% of the vote.[89]

2017 legislative election[edit]

In the 2017 legislative election, the Austrian People's Party competed under the alias Sebastian Kurz list – the new People's Party, but retained the abbreviation ÖVP.[90] Besides Kurz other nominees on the federal list (Bundesliste) were Elisabeth Köstinger, Josef Moser, Gaby Schwarz, Efgani Dönmez, Maria Großbauer, Rudolf Taschner, Tanja Graf, Karl Mahrer and Kira Grünberg.[91] The first part of the election program, titled "New Justice & Responsibility" (Neue Gerechtigkeit & Verantwortung), was presented on 4 September 2017 and it promised tax cuts, advocated against assets and inheritance taxes and for a reduction of the minimum income obtained by people without Austrian citizenship.[92] Already in June 2017, Kurz had announced that he would aim for a tax relief in the amount of 12 to 14 billion euros annually, counterbalanced by savings in the bureaucracy and "misguided social services", which would in particular affect child and family subsidy as well as the minimum income received by foreigners.[93][94]

The second part of the program, presented nine days later, comprised economics, education, research, culture and the environment. It also aimed to replace compulsory school attendance with "compulsory education". Children shall "be able to comprehensively read and know the basics of math", otherwise compulsory school attendance shall be extended up until the age of 18. In addition, there shall be a mandatory second kindergarten year for children with insufficient knowledge of the German language. And contributions to the social security system shall be reduced for people with lower incomes.[95]

On 27 September 2017, Kurz presented the third part of the election program; "Order and Security". Anyone arriving illegally shall be returned to their country of origin. If someones requires protection, they shall be harboured in a Protection Center within a third-party country. It also asked for an improved Punktesystem (scoring system) for legal immigrants. With regards to government reforms, it wished a more clearly defined separation of responsibilities between the federal government and the state and municipality governments. It also called for structural reforms within the EU, the implementation of the security compact and tougher punishments for violence against women and incitements.[96]

First chancellorship[edit]


On 15 October 2017, Kurz and his party emerged as victorious from the 2017 legislative election, receiving 1,595,526 votes (31.5%) in the popular vote and thus gaining 15 additional seats, and thereby a plurality, in the National Council. As the leader of the party with the most seats after the election, Kurz was charged with the formation of a new cabinet by President Alexander Van der Bellen. Since he did not obtain an absolute majority in parliament, Kurz decided to look out for a coalition partner to ensure one. The search turned out rather quick and the People's Party entered negotiations with the right-wing to far-right Freedom Party on 25 October. Negotiations concluded successfully on 15 December and the incoming coalition presented its ministers list[a] to the President. Van der Bellen assented and the Kurz cabinet was sworn in on 18 December 2017.[97]

Sebastian Kurz David Davis London March 2017 (32711119474) (cropped).jpg
Chancellorship of Sebastian Kurz
18 December 2017 – – 28 May 2019
Sebastian Kurz
CabinetFirst Kurz government
PartyAustrian People's Party
Appointed byAlexander Van der Bellen

Cabinet composition[edit]

Members of the first Cabinet of Sebastian Kurz
  Formally not a cabinet member       Party leader       Served in acting capacity       Independent party nominee
Portrait Name
Cabinet membership
Term in office
Portrait Name
Cabinet membership
Term in office

People's Party (ÖVP)

Freedom Party (FPÖ)

Sebastian Kurz (2018-02-28) (cropped).jpg Sebastian Kurz
18 December 2017 – 28 May 2019
Chancellor of Austria Heinz-Christian Strache - Wahlkampfauftakt am 29. Aug. 2020 (1).JPG Heinz-Christian Strache
18 December 2017 – 22 May 2019
Vice Chancellor of Austria
Minister of the Civil Service and Sport
2017 Finanzminister Hartwig Löger (39136614571) (cropped).jpg Hartwig Löger
18 December 2017 – 3 June 2019
Chancellor of Austria
28 May 2019 – 3 June 2019
Norbert Hofer - FPÖ-Neujahrstreffen 2019.JPG Norbert Hofer
18 December 2017 – 22 May 2019
Minister of Transport
Vice Chancellor of Austria
22 May 2019 – 28 May 2019
Minister of Finance
18 December 2017 – 3 June 2019
Josef Moser (4741871116).jpg Josef Moser
18 December 2017 – 3 June 2019
Minister of Justice Herbert Kickl - Pressekonferenz am 1. Sep. 2020.JPG Herbert Kickl
18 December 2017 – 22 May 2019
Minister of the Interior
Heinz Fassmann (cropped).jpg Heinz Faßmann
18 December 2017 – 3 June 2019
Minister of Education 2018 Karin Kneissl Paul Richard Gallagher (16. Jänner 2018) (24876263787) (cropped).jpg Karin Kneissl
18 December 2017 – 22 May 2019
Minister of Foreign Affairs
Elisabeth Köstinger (cropped).jpg Elisabeth Köstinger
18 December 2017 – 3 June 2019
Minister of Sustainability and Tourism 16-07-05-Mario Kunasek-KG 6051.JPG Mario Kunasek
18 December 2017 – 22 May 2019
Minister of Defense
Margarete Schramböck (cropped).jpg Margarete Schramböck
18 December 2017 – 3 June 2019
Minister of Digital and Economic Affairs 2018 Hartinger-Klein (41557839051) (cropped).jpg Beate Hartinger-Klein
18 December 2017 – 22 May 2019
Minister of Social Affairs
Juliane Bogner-Strauß (cropped).jpg Juliane Bogner-Strauß
18 December 2017 – 3 June 2019
Minister of the Civil Service and Sport
22 May 2019 – 3 June 2019
2017 Staatssekretär Hubert Fuchs (39136614571) (cropped).jpg Hubert Fuchs
18 December 2017 – 22 May 2019
State Secretary of Finance
Chancellery minister of Woman, Families and Youth
18 December 2017 – 3 June 2019
2018 Gernot Blümel (39502202725) (cropped).jpg Gernot Blümel
18 December 2017 – 3 June 2019
Chancellery minister of the EU, Art, Culture and Media
Karoline Edtstadler (cropped).jpg Karoline Edtstadler
18 December 2017 – 3 June 2019
State Secretary of the Interior

Nonpartisan experts

Austria politic personality icon.svg Eckart Ratz
22 May 2019 – 3 June 2019
Minister of the Interior Austria politic personality icon.svg Johann Luif
22 May 2019 – 3 June 2019
Minister of Defense
Austria politic personality icon.svg Walter Pöltner
22 May 2019 – 3 June 2019
Minister of Social Affairs Austria politic personality icon.svg Valerie Hackl
22 May 2019 – 3 June 2019
Minister of Transport

Actions and policies[edit]

Family Bonus Plus

Tabelle Familienbonus.jpg

On 4 July Chancellor Kurz and his cabinet enacted the "Family Bonus Plus" (Familienbonus Plus). Beginning on 1 January 2019, the bonus will allow for a specific amount to be annually deducted of parents income taxes; maximum €1,500 per child underage (which is €125 per month) and €500 per child over 18 years of age. The bonus only affects parents whose children derive child subsidy (Kinderbeihilfe) from government. The maximum relief amount can be claimed when at least one parent earns a minimum of €1,350 net per month. The minimum relief amount is €250 and can be claimed by every employed single parent, regardless of their monthly income – unemployed parents will receive no bonus.[98][99]

In addition, the bonus replaces several other child subsidies, such as the "child tax credit" (Kinderfreibetrag) which granted €440 to a single parent and €600 to a couple, and the "reduction of childcare costs" (Absetzbarkeit der Kinderbetreuungskosten) which granted parents €2,300 annually per child under 10 years of age.[100][101]

The Social Democratic Party strongly criticised the bonus for "being solely of benefit for well-earning people and completely forgetting the less well-earners and unemployed".[102][103]

Basic income and unemployment insurance

A statistic comparing the new with the old basic income.

In November 2018, the Kurz cabinet completed drafting major changes to the basic income, unemployment insurance and the emergency aid. While the basic income was initially denoted "minimum grant" (Mindestsicherung), it will be renamed "social aid" (Sozialhilfe). The new statute resulting from the changes, will supersede the "federation-states-agreement on minimum standards of social services" (which expired in 2016) and federalize the basic income through a framework law – which will allow for states to keep their autonomy in making decisions on the basic income, but only within that by the law explicitly defined framework.[104][105]

The new law will grant recipients of the basic income that are singles a maximum of €863.04 monthly, couples will obtain a maximum of €1,208.26 monthly. Parents will receive €215 for their first child, €129 for their second one and €43 from the third one onward. Citizens of the European Union, the European Economic Area and foreign countries, only are eligible to apply for the basic income after a legally registered stay of five years or when having served as an employer. Immigrants with insufficient German language skills will receive a reduced basic income of only €563 – cabinet argued that the difference of €300 will pay for their German language courses. The full amount of €863 will be acquirable by immigrants when having achieved German level B1 (being able to understand the basics when a standard vocabulary is applied and when it comes to trusted things like work, school or free time) or English level C1 (being able to comprehend a broad spectrum of long and challenging texts and implicit meanings). To retain the basic income an application must be re-submitted every year.[106][107]

Furthermore, the changes will merge the unemployment insurance (Arbeitslosengeld) with the emergency aid (Notstandshilfe); the merger's result will then be called "unemployment insurance NEW" (Arbeitslosengeld NEU). While the prior unemployment insurance was only claimable for one year by the newly unemployed, the new unemployment insurance expands this tenure up to two years. However, when people's eligibility for the old unemployment insurance expired they could claim the constantly-renewable but less awarding emergency aid. The new unemployment insurance however, eliminated the emergency aid and will thereby cause people to fall directly into the basic income.[108][109]

The changes passed the Council of Ministers in March 2019 and were subsequently enacted by the National Council. The federal-level framework law is in effect since April 2019, states now have time to implement the law until June 2021.[110][111]

12 hour work day
In July 2018, the Kurz cabinet passed an amendment to the working time law (Arbeitszeitgesetz) in the National Council, which has commonly been referred to as the "12 hour work day" (12-Stunden-Arbeitstag). Cabinet skipped the common assessment process (Begutachtungsprozess) for the amendment. The average work time in Austria was eight hours per day, the amendment extended the maximum work time of ten hours per day to twelve hours, and the fifty hours work time per week to sixty hours. Chancellor Kurz and his cabinet commented the changes with "legally allowing employees to work more a day on a voluntary basis. In theory, employees could legally decline an employer's request to work longer.[112][113][114]

Prior to the amendment it has only been possible to work longer than ten hours per day in certain circumstances and with the explicit assent of the works council. Supporters of these changes have been the Economic Chamber and the Federation of Industries. Opponents on the other side, have been the Social Democratic Party, the Peter Pilz List, the Chamber for Workers and Employees, and the Trade Union Federation. Opponents have raised strong concerns regarding the amendment, doubting that an appliance of the "voluntary basis" is actually possible in practice – since they expect the employer to dismiss a denial of the employee to work longer and threaten them with suspension and discharge.[115][116][117][118][119]

Compulsory German language classes
On 16 May 2018, the Kurz cabinet enacted compulsory German language classes in the National Council.[120][121]

As of 1 January 2019, all primary (Volksschule) and secondary schools (Hauptschule, Gymnasium) are legally required to establish mandatory German language classes (which deviate from regular classes) for children with a lacking knowledge of the German language – denoted "extraordinary students". Such classes are however, only established when there is a minimum of eight such pupils per school. Extraordinary students are determined by a nationwide test (administered by the principal) when signing up for a school, or when having entered school during a school year and being new to Austria. When tests do conclude an "insufficient" knowledge of the German language, pupils are obliged to attend German language classes for fifteen hours per week in primary schools and twenty hours per week in secondary schools. Extraordinary students will remain in these classes until a maximum tenure of four semesters or when having at least improved their skills to an "inadequate" knowledge of the German language – their language level will be examined every semester through a ministerial test. Such students will attend view joint subjects, such as drawing, music, gymnastics and handicraft, with their original regular class.[122][123]

The new law replaced a previous act, which allowed pupils to voluntarily attend German language classes for eleven hours per week. Cabinet argued that the previous law was not effective enough and did not achieve the desired results.

The new initiative faced great opposition by schools, their representatives and the opposition parties. Opponents argued that yet alone the Viennese schools would require 500 additional rooms. Furthermore, extraordinary students may face discrimination, many teachers do not have the necessary requirements, costs for the implementation are gigantic and all extraordinary students are in the same class regardless of their age, which prevents them from learning efficiently.[124][125][126]

Family subsidy for European foreigners
In October 2018, the Kurz cabinet amended the family subsidy for European foreigners through legislation, the changes will be in effect as of 1 January 2019. The amendment affects foreign citizens of the European Union which work within Austria but whose children reside outside of Austria. The changes adjust family subsidy obtained by these children to the local price level of their country of residence. The amendment especially pertains workers of the social and civil sector, such as nurses.[127][128]

The European Commission admonished the cabinet of amending family subsidy for European foreigners, since Union Law states that "equal contributions to the system, must be paid out with equal services". The commission considers to sue Austria at the European Court of Justice as soon as the amendment turns into effect.[129][130][131]

Monitoring compact
In April 2018, the coalition enacted the "monitoring compact", officially titled "security compact". The People's Party already attempted to pass such a law in the previous legislative period, but failed since their bill presented before the National Council was rejected by all other parties, including their current and former coalition partner.[132][133]

The compact allows for authorities to monitor messenger services (such as WhatsApp and Skype) of a person; that has committed a crime punishable with a maximum of ten years imprisonment, or five years when life and sexual integrity are endangered, or is suspected of being a potential terrorist. With the new compact, authorities will be empowered to order telecommunication companies to save a person's data up to one year if they are suspected of committing a specific crime. Should the initial suspicion not be substantiated throughout the investigation, then authorities' directive to store data will turn void and the surveillance target must be informed of their investigation. Furthermore, the optical and acoustic surveillance in the public are also planned to be expanded, therefore authorities will be able to access the video and audio surveillance of government operated or funded organisations (such as public transportation services, airports and railway stations), who are obliged to store recordings for a tenure of four weeks. The "license plate recognition systems" (Kennzeichenerkennungssysteme) are also intended to be advanced, with them being able to detect the driver, license plate, type and color of any car. IMSI-catchers used by the police will be able to localise phones without contacting the respective telecommunication company. Anonymous prepaid cards will no longer be available and only sim cards will remain, which require one to register their identity.[134][135]

The compact will stand for five years and will be evaluated after three years. Jurists, attorneys, the Constitutional Service and many others, have expressed their strong concerns regarding the compact and have accused it of infringing the very basis of liberty. Both, the Social Democratic Party and the NEOS, have announced to file one-third petitions in Parliament to trigger a lawsuit against the compact before the Constitutional Court – the Social Democratic Party will introduce its petition in the Federal Council, where it already possesses one-thirds of the seats, NEOS will introduce theirs in the National Council and hopes for the support of the Social Democratic Party to derive the remaining votes necessary.[136][137]

Digital Office

The current services of the Digital Office.

On 19 March 2019, the Kurz cabinet presented the mobile application "Digital Office" for Android and IOS as well as the website "" – both platforms combine and centralize existing online services of government that allow for citizens to interact with authorities through the internet. While both are generally the same, the mobile app was labeled "more comfortable" by cabinet. The concept for both platform was drafted by Margarete Schramböck, Minister of Digital Affairs, and subsequently developed by her ministry. Digitalizing government services and bureaucracy has been an election promise of Kurz. The services and were merged into the new platforms, although is intended to additional remain as an independent website.

The new platforms currently allow users to:

  • register a new, and cancel the current, main residence (Hauptwohnsitz),
  • request certificates for newborn children,
  • store passport pictures,
  • receive an automatic notification when a passport's validity expires,
  • request a voting card (Wahlkarte) for an upcoming election.

Additional services are intended to be added that will allow users to:

  • request a new passport (June),
  • register and cancel side residences (Nebenwohnsitze) (June),
  • file a loss report for certificates and other legal documents (June),
  • use the digital driving license (December, at the latest beginning 2020).

The digital driving license will for the moment only be usable domestically, since there are no European-wide regulations for such licenses.

Registering for those platforms requires a mobile signature. There currently are more than 1,1 million registered mobile signatures.[138][139][140]

EU council presidency
When Austria held the rotating EU presidency from July to December 2018, Kurz advocated for a better protection of the schengen border and suggested that Frontex border guards should prevent migrant-boats from coming to Europe.[141][142][143][144][145][146]

Fusion of social insurances
On 13 December 2018 the Kurz cabinet enacted an amendment to the social insurance law. The amendment was intended to reform the organisation and structure of Austria's social insurance system, mainly through fusion and with discharging "redundant functionaries" as well as modernizing workplaces. The cabinet stated that "centralizing the social insurance system will improve services for the insured".

Following insurance organizations will be merged:

  • the nine health insurances of Austria's nine states (Gebietskrankenkassen) into the federalized "Austrian Health Insurance" (ÖGK),
  • the Social Insurance for the Commercial Economy with the one of the farmers into the Social Insurance for Independents (SVS),
  • the Insurance for Railways and Mining with the Insurance for Governmental Officials into the "BVAEB".

The Pension Insurance (PVA) and the Insurance for Occupational Risks (AUVA) will remain untouched. In addition the Association of Austrian Social Insurances (Hauptverband der österreichischen Sozialversicherungsträger), which comprises all social insurance organisations, will be reduced and disempowered when the amendment is in effect.

The project will officially begin in April 2019 with the initiation of a parliamentary transitional committee overseeing the fusion. The committee will be abolished at the end of 2019 and starting 2020 the new organisation and structure will be in full effect.

The opposition (consisting of SPÖ, NEOS and NOW), the chairman of the Association of Austrian Social Insurances and multiple health economists have condemned these changes, saying that "they would not centralize but decentralize and impair a perfectly functioning and effective system and thus be a general worsening for the insured". The fusion will cost government approximately 300 to 400 million Euros.[147][148][149][150][151][152]

Global Compact for Migration
On 31 October 2018 the chancellor stated that Austria would not sign the Global Compact for Migration, because it would reduce Austria's sovereignty and mix up the difference between illegal and legal immigration as well as that between economic and humanitarian immigration.[153][154][155][156][157][158]

Political Islam and parallel societies
Following the burqua ban, which was already supported by Kurz and introduced under the previous cabinet, the Ministers' Council also voted on 21 November 2018 for a headscarf ban in kindergartens.[159] It is further planned to expand this ban on elementary school pupils.[160]

In March 2019, cabinet announced that it aims to create a new institution, which should from 2020 monitor and document activities regarding political Islam in the country.[161] Citing studies which show that a significant amount of Austrian Muslims hold anti-western and antisemitic views,[162][163] Kurz said that it would be necessary to monitor mosques, clubs, ideology and social media contributions in context with fundamental Islam in order to protect the liberal, democratic and secular society. The organisation should get a similar role on Islamic extremism as the Documentation Centre of Austrian Resistance (DÖW) has on right wing extremism, according to the cabinet. Leading figures form the DÖW have principally welcomed the government's plan and confirmed that there is a need to take a closer look at the dangers of political Islam.[164]

Fusion of social insurances
On 13 December 2018 the Kurz cabinet enacted an amendment to the social insurance law. The amendment was intended to reform the organisation and structure of Austria's social insurance system, mainly through fusion and with discharging "redundant functionaries" as well as modernizing workplaces. The cabinet stated that "centralizing the social insurance system will improve services for the insured".

Following insurance organizations will be merged:

  • the nine health insurances of Austria's nine states (Gebietskrankenkassen) into the federalized "Austrian Health Insurance" (ÖGK),
  • the Social Insurance for the Commercial Economy with the one of the farmers into the Social Insurance for Independents (SVS),
  • the Insurance for Railways and Mining with the Insurance for Governmental Officials into the "BVAEB".

The Pension Insurance (PVA) and the Insurance for Occupational Risks (AUVA) will remain untouched. In addition the Association of Austrian Social Insurances (Hauptverband der österreichischen Sozialversicherungsträger), which comprises all social insurance organisations, will be reduced and disempowered when the amendment is in effect.

The project will officially begin in April 2019 with the initiation of a parliamentary transitional committee overseeing the fusion. The committee will be abolished at the end of 2019 and starting 2020 the new organisation and structure will be in full effect.

The opposition (consisting of SPÖ, NEOS and NOW), the chairman of the Association of Austrian Social Insurances and multiple health economists have condemned these changes, saying that "they would not centralize but decentralize and impair a perfectly functioning and effective system and thus be a general worsening for the insured". The fusion will cost government approximately 300 to 400 million Euros.[165][166][167][168][169][170]

Overturn of the smoking ban
In March 2018, the Kurz cabinet overthrew the smoking ban enacted by its predecessor, the Kern cabinet.[171][172] The termination of the smoking ban was a strong and long-standing desire of the Freedom Party, it therefore enshrined its wish in the coalition agreement (Koalitionsabkommen) and the cabinet program (Regierungsprogramm). The overturn of the smoking ban was an extraordinarily controversial act, not only was it opposed by all opposition parties and many experts, but even by the senior coalition partner, the People's Party.[173] However, the People's Party ultimately agreed to the overturn, due to it being a coalition compromise.

The smoking ban would have competently prohibited smoking in coffeehouses and restaurants, which has previously only been allowed within the respective smoking areas. Before its termination in February, it was scheduled to go into effect as of 1 May 2018.[174] The overturn however, did not only end the smoking ban, but also prohibited the selling of tobacco to people under 18 years of age and disallowed smoking in cars if minors are present.

Following the overturn of the smoking ban, an anti-smoking initiative, trend and campaign titled "Don't smoke" emerged. Its associated popular petition reached more than 880,000 votes, which makes up 13.8% of Austria's population,[175] and was thereby one of the most successful popular petitions in the country's history – but it ultimately failed to trigger a new parliamentary debate on this topic, since it did not achieve the 900,000 votes necessary, as determined by Vice-Chancellor Heinz-Christian Strache, leader of the Freedom Party. Strache was in particular heavily criticised for raising the votes necessary to 900,000, since he promised to take up every popular petition that would reach 150,000 votes, while still in opposition.[176][177] In addition, a lawsuit has been filed against the overturn before the Constitutional Court.[178][179]


Show timeline of events of individual cabinet actions

Family Bonus Plus

Basic income and unemployment insurance

  • Passed Council of Ministers on 13 March 2019.
  • Enacted by National Council on 25 April 2019 (with ÖVP & FPÖ voting in favor).[181]
  • Law in basic effect since 1 April 2019.
  • Law scheduled to go into full effect as of 1 June 2021.

12 hour work day

  • Enacted by National Council on 7 July 2018 (with ÖVP, FPÖ & NEOS voting in favor).[182][183]
  • In full effect since 1 September 2018.

Compulsory German language classes

  • Passed Council of Ministers on 18 April 2018.[184]
  • Enacted by National Council on 16 May 2018 (with ÖVP & FPÖ voting in favor).
  • In full effect since 1 January 2019.

Family subsidy for European foreigners

  • Passed Council of Ministers on 2 May 2018.[185]
  • Enacted by National Council on 24 October 2018 (with ÖVP & FPÖ voting in favor).[186]
  • In full effect since 1 January 2019.

Monitoring compact

  • Passed Council of Ministers on 21 February 2018.[187]
  • Enacted by National Council on 20 April 2018 (with ÖVP & FPÖ voting in favor).
  • In full effect since 1 June 2018.

Overturn of the smoking ban

  • Smoking ban repealed by National Council on 22 March 2018 (with ÖVP & FPÖ voting in favor).[188]
  • Smoking ban reinstated by National Council on 3 July 2019 (with [ÖVP, SPÖ, NEOS & JETZT voting in favor).[189]

Fusion of social insurances

  • Passed Council of Ministers on 13 March 2019.
  • Enacted by National Council on 13 December 2018 (with ÖVP & FPÖ voting in favor).
  • Implementation commenced on 1 April 2019.
  • In full effect since 2020.

End of term[edit]

On 17 May 2019, a political scandal known as the Ibiza affair was made public. The scandal involved Heinz-Christian Strache, Vice Chancellor and Freedom Party chairman, and Johann Gudenus, a Freedom Party deputy chair, asking for highly controversial electoral support from the mysterious woman who claimed to be the niece of Russian oligarch Igor Makarov.[190][191][192] The scandal led to widespread political consequences, triggered the end of the ÖVP-FPÖ coalition and ultimately resulted in the dismissal of Chancellor Kurz.

A day after the scandal, Strache announced his withdrawal from all political posts, but wished for the Kurz cabinet to remain in office.[193][194][195] However, the next day, Chancellor Kurz delivered an official statement about the scandal before a press conference and terminated the coalition with the words "enough is enough". He also stated that he had requested President Alexander Van der Bellen to summon a snap election.[196][197][198] The coalition agreement between the two parties was formally cancelled later that day.

The following day, speculations emerged that Kurz planned to propose the dismissal of Interior Minister Herbert Kickl. As a result, all Freedom Party ministers threatened that they would resign if Kurz actually did so. Kickl was already among the most controversial figures of the Freedom Party before the Ibiza affair and would, as interior minister, have headed the investigation into the scandal and therefore have prosecuted the former head of his own party.[199] In addition, Kickl appointed his subordinate Peter Goldgruber the Director General for the Public Security shortly after the scandal was revealed.[200]

On Monday 20 May, Kurz asked President Van der Bellen to dismiss Kickl as Minister of the Interior. Following Kurz's request, all Freedom Party ministers presented their resignations to the President, as they had announced.[201] Van der Bellen accepted all these requests and formally removed Kickl and the other ministers of his party on 23 May. The vacated ministerial posts were filled by experts.[202][203]

Due to the end of the coalition and the dismissal of Kickl, Kurz lost his majority in Parliament and soon had to face a motion of no confidence.[204] On 27 May, the Social Democratic Party presented its no-confidence vote against the whole cabinet before Parliament.[205][206] With the support of JETZT and the Freedom Party, now in opposition, the motion obtained a qualified majority and successfully passed, ousting Kurz and his entire cabinet.[207][208][209][210] It was the first motion of no confidence against a Chancellor and their cabinet to be successful in the history of the republic.[211] The next day, Kurz was officially removed from office by President Van der Bellen, while the rest of his cabinet was immediately reinstated after its removal to serve in a provisional capacity.[212] Finance Minister Hartwig Löger was named as Kurz's successor.[213][214]

Second chancellorship[edit]


In September 2019, the People's Party won the 2019 legislative election in a landslide, receiving 1,789,417 votes and 37.5% of the total valid votes cast, enough for a wide plurality in the National Council.[215][216] Consequently, Kurz picked up an additional nine seats in parliament. It is the second consecutive election that the People's Party emerged as the clear winner.

As a result of the election, Kurz was again tasked with the formation of a new cabinet by President Alexander Van der Bellen on 7 October.[217] Throughout October, Kurz held several exploratory meetings with the Social Democratic Party, the Freedom Party, the NEOS, as well as the Green Party which had experienced a grand comeback in the 2019 election, after having dropped out of the National Council following the 2017 election, and excluding the JETZT party which failed to secure a minimum of 4 seats to obtain parliamentary representation. On 11 November, Kurz announced that the People's Party would enter into coalition negotiations with the Green Party.[218]

At the end of December it was reported that coalition negotiations had concluded successfully. The program for the new cabinet was introduced to the general public on 2 January 2020.[219][220] The executive board of the People's Party approved the coalition agreement the next day, the Green Party federal congress followed on 4 January.[221][222]

Kurz was sworn in as Chancellor by President Van der Bellen on 7 January 2020 at eleven o'clock ante meridiem CET, after having taken the oath of office (Amtseid) during the inauguration ceremony (Angelobung) and after having countersigned the swearing-in certificate (Bestallungsurkunde).

Under the People's Party/Greens coalition plans, Austria will aim to become carbon neutral by 2040, a decade earlier than an EU-wide target, a pledge for all electricity to come from renewable sources by 2030, as well as more spending on public transport. The coalition deal also includes banning the headscarf in schools for girls up to age 14, an extension of the garment ban that applies until age 10 approved by lawmakers earlier this year. The agreement also revives a plan for “precautionary detention” of potentially dangerous asylum seekers.[223]

Cabinet composition[edit]

Public profile[edit]

Following Kurz's first official visit to Berlin, the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung found him "highly eloquent", "succinct" and "everything but sheepish", and even quoted those calling him the "young Metternich".[224] In December 2014, the German Press Agency praised Kurz as one of "seven winners on the political world stage 2014".[225]

Anna von Bayern of the Focus magazine wrote "one truly notices the new self-confidence of the Foreign Ministry, Kurz endowed it with new relevance". Vienna had become a "place of dialogue", first with the Ukraine summit in 2014 and later with the negotiations on the nuclear deal with Iran. In autumn 2015, the Syria discussions began in Vienna.[226] In March 2016, Franz Schandl described Kurz in an article of Der Freitag newspaper as someone who draws a "friendly face". However, his substantive differences with his right-wing populist competitors were said to be only "marginal".[227] In 2017, the U.S. magazine Time listed Kurz as one of ten "Next Generation Leaders". The "statesman of the new kind" has found a way to deal with the refugee crisis. The "pragmatic way" worked out and was adopted by other European politicians.[228] Die Welt described Kurz as a "conservative-liberal, European-minded politician", whose rise to power in many ways resembled that of President Emmanuel Macron. The closure of the Balkan route had been a diplomatic feat.[229] The Neue Zürcher Zeitung said Kurz embodied "uprising, confidence, dynamism, elegance and determination", while Angela Merkel stood for "stagnation". He was "sovereign, also sympathetic towards critics, and a master of the German language. If Kurz was German, he would be Chancellor, or right before becoming Chancellor".[230]

The magazine Cicero regarded Kurz as a "charismatic figure" in contrast to the "often naïve, all multi-cultural basically positive-looking German elites who enjoy the grace of late birth".[231] Eric Frey, writing in the Austrian newspaper Der Standard, wrote, with regards to the National Council election in 2017, that the "distrust" of the newspaper's editorial staff towards Sebastian Kurz would weigh heavy. This was because Kurz led a "foreigner election campaign", reducing problems to the topic of immigration, and would play the "strict law guardian". However, Frey also saw some grounds for tendencies supporting Kurz, saying that he was an "effective answer" to populists like "Haider, Strache and Co". Kurz would elaborate the majority opinion that immigration would have to be more strictly regulated, "without hounding and polemics". Kurz was a "natural talent in decision-making" with "high social and analytical capabilities". According to Frey, the crucial question was whether Kurz was liberal and democracy-minded or was a "wannabe Orbán". This question would currently be "unanswerable". A hypothetical Chancellor Kurz would "split the country like no other head of government before".[232] In addition, parallels were drawn with Haider, until then the most successful federal leader of the right-wing populist FPÖ. The Rheinische Post wrote: "If we look directly at his supporters, Kurz strongly resembles Jörg Haider, the legendary right-wing populist, who about 30 years ago set out to destroy the eternal red-black proportional system – and ultimately failed. What changes Kurz strives for, was not clarified during his election campaign. The only thing truly clear, is that he wants to become Austria's youngest Chancellor. Therefore even calling for the installation of a Richtlinienkompetenz after the German example, in which ministers would be subordinated to the Chancellor".[233]

Kurz has cultivated a public image around traditional Austrian culture and values.[230][224] He had Alma Deutscher play classical music for Russian President Vladimir Putin during a state visit.[234]

In June 2018, a commentary of Edward Lucas published by the Financial Times drew parallels with the current political development of Europe and the United States with the situation in the 1930s. Kurz was said to be easily comparable with the Republican U.S. President Donald Trump and the right-wing Italian Interior Minister Matteo Salvini, and Lucas referred to him as the "right-wing Chancellor".[235] Following the commentary's publication, the Embassy of Austria in Washington contacted the author and demanded alteration, since they did not consider the article appropriate; the author changed the paragraphs in question.[236] In December 2018, the word Schweigekanzler (silent Chancellor) became Austria's word of the year for the second time. The jury chose the word because "Kurz avoids reacting to topics which are unpleasant for him, he also avoids commenting on actions and statements by members of the FPÖ, where the general public expects a clarification from the Chancellor".[237]

Spiegel Online ranked Kurz first in its ranking "Who will be important abroad in 2019?" (Wer wird 2019 im Ausland wichtig?). Seen internationally, it said the ÖVP politician had attracted considerable attention since he was "only 32 years old and rules with right-wing populists". Furthermore, the magazine said that "his right-wing populist coalition partner, the FPÖ, has pushed the boundaries of the word. In future, the tone against foreigners, refugees and migrants is likely to intensify further, because Kurz lets his coalition partner say bad things, but remains silent himself. Meanwhile, his popularity remains high".[238] In addition, the announcement at the end of December 2018 of a digital tax as part of tax reforms caused a furore in the international media.[239] In 2018, Kurz was elected Sprachwahrer (wordkeeper) of the year by readers of the newspaper Deutsche Sprachwelt, and the word Schweigekanzler became the Austrian word of the year.[240][241]

Political stances[edit]

Same-sex marriage
A decision of the Constitutional Court on 4 December 2017 abolished most of the Registered Partnership Law and legalized same-sex marriage in Austria, effective 1 January 2019.[242]

Both the People's Party and the Freedom Party opposed same-sex marriage and rejected several bills proposed by the Social Democratic Party, the NEOS and the Greens that would have legalized it before the court ruling.[243][244][245][246]

Kurz also opposed same-sex marriage and argued that discrimination has already been abolished with the legalisation of registered partnerships, stating: "There already is the opportunity for partnering, there is the possibility for homosexual couples to adopt children [–] therefore, discrimination has already been eliminated."[247]

Foreign policy
As foreign minister, Kurz campaigned for dismantling and discarding all nuclear weapons on the globe, clarifying: "Nuclear weapons are not only a permanent threat to all of humanity, but also a heritage of the Cold War, that must be resolutely overcome. A paradigm shift in the international nuclear disarmament efforts is overdue when considering the imminent proliferation of nuclear weapons."[248][249] In 2014, he organized an international conference regarding nuclear disarmament in Vienna.[250]

Economic policy
In his campaign pledges for the 2017 legislative election, Kurz spoke out against further raising the national debt and for reducing government spending and budget deficits – he intends to realize proposed policies through abolishing the Kalte Progression and by cutting the payroll and income taxes. Kurz opposes any sorts of inheritance, property, and capital taxes. He wishes for cash to be retained as an ordinary payment method.[251]

In December 2018, Kurz announced a nationwide digital tax to partly fund a major upcoming tax reform. The digital tax topic has previously been discussed on European level but no agreement came about.[252]

Social policy
Kurz opposes reducing average and below-average pensions, and supports abolishing the pension privileges. He has advocated for a federalized minimum income of 1500 euros and special regulations for minimum income recipients without citizenship.[251]

Media policy and message control
As chancellor, Kurz instated a strict regulation to manage and oversee the communication of government and the ministries. The concept is intended to exhibit a uniform and almost synchronous appearance of government, of which no cabinet member could stand out through their individual views and stances.[253] Journalists have accused the Kurz cabinet – through rejecting questions[254] and by applying other methods of message control – of efforts to control and otherwise influence the media coverage.[255][256] Kurz himself reduced his communication to short and often repeated sentences and keywords.[257]

Other activities[edit]


  1. ^ A draft determining how top government positions (chancellor, vice chancellor, ministers, and state secretaries) are to be filled. It is submitted to the President for confirmation by the person charged with the cabinet formation.


  1. ^ "Trauen Sie sich alles zu, Herr Kurz?" (in German). Krone. 17 December 2013. Archived from the original on 2017-10-17. Retrieved 2017-10-17.
  2. ^ "So lange dauert es noch bis zu den Nationalratswahlen 2017". Kleine Zeitung (in German). Archived from the original on 2017-10-16. Retrieved 2017-10-17.
  3. ^ "Wie Flüchtlinge Sebastian Kurz' Kindheit prägten". Die Welt. Archived from the original on 2018-02-09. Retrieved 23 February 2018.
  4. ^ "Sebastian Kurz hat Wurzeln am Balkan". Heute. Archived from the original on 2018-03-18. Retrieved 2018-03-18.
  5. ^ Miler, Stevan (23 Jan 2018). "Sebastian Kurz' Großmutter stammt aus einem Städtchen in der Vojvodina [Sebastian Kurz's grandmother is from a town in Vojvodina]". Kosmo (in German). Vienna: Twist Zeitschriften Verlag GmbH. Archived from the original on 2018-02-28. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  6. ^ Schumacher, Elizabeth (17 January 2018). "Make Austria Great Again — the rapid rise of Sebastian Kurz". DW. Archived from the original on 2019-01-18. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
  7. ^ "SEBASTIAN KURZ". (in German). Archived from the original on 2018-12-30. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
  8. ^ "Curriculum Vitae". The Federal Minister for Europe, Integration and Foreign Affairs. Federal Ministry for Europe, Integration and Foreign Affairs, Republic of Austria. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  9. ^ "Wer ist wer (who is who)". Sebastian Kurz (in German). Parliament, Republic of Austria. Archived from the original on 2017-10-16. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  10. ^ "Der Außenminister, der sich mit der Türkei anlegt". Stern. 16 August 2016. Archived from the original on 2018-07-05. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  11. ^ Tobias Rapp (2017-05-26). "Ein Mann, ein Programm". Der Spiegel. Archived from the original on 2017-12-17. Retrieved 2017-12-24.
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-10-16. Retrieved 2017-12-05.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  13. ^ "Kurz: Das ist seine First Lady". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  14. ^ "Sie will keine Brigitte Macron sein". Süddeutsche Zeitung. 16 October 2017. Archived from the original on 2017-10-18. Retrieved 2017-10-18.
  15. ^ "Was die Österreicher jetzt über Kurz wissen wollen". (in German). Archived from the original on 2018-12-30. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
  16. ^ "Die Spitzenkandidaten im Video-Porträt". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  17. ^ "Studentenverbindungen: Bühne für die künftige Elite". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  18. ^ "Der neue JVP-Obmann Sebastian Kurz im Porträt". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  19. ^ "Wiener JVP: Dominik Stracke löst Sebastian Kurz ab". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  20. ^ "Jugendwahlkampf in Wien: Sex und harte Sprüche". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  21. ^ "Kurz und das Geilomobil: "Guardian" fällt auf "Tagespresse" herein". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  22. ^ "Doing a Macron: can Austrian minister copy French election success?". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  23. ^ "Kurz mit 100 Prozent als JVP-Obmann wiedergewählt". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  24. ^ "Junge ÖVP: Kurz übergab Vorsitz an Schnöll". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  25. ^ "Drei Stellvertreterinnen für ÖVP-Chef Blümel". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  26. ^ "ÖVP-Team präsentiert: Kurz "außergewöhnliche Lösung"". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  27. ^ "Sebastian Kurz Biografie". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  28. ^ Michael Shields (17 December 2013), "Kurz, 27, puts fresh face on Austrian foreign policy". Archived 2017-06-29 at the Wayback Machine Reuters.
  29. ^ "Kabinett Faymann II: Neue Regierung offiziell im Amt". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  30. ^ "Zweites verpflichtendes Kindergartenjahr angedacht". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-05.
  31. ^ "Stars als Migrationsbeauftragte". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-05.
  32. ^ "Integration: Mehr Geld für Sprach- und Wertekurse". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-05.
  33. ^ "Integration in Österreich". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-05.
  34. ^ "Staatsbürgerschaftsgesetz – beschlossene Änderungen". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-05.
  35. ^ "Außenminister Kurz absolviert erste Auslandreise". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  36. ^ "Außenminister Kurz auf Kurzbesuch in Kroatien". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  37. ^ "Kurz will Serbien auf dem Weg in die EU helfen". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  38. ^ "Sebastian Kurz präsentiert gemeinsam mit Integrationsbotschafter/innen ZUSAMMEN:ÖSTERREICH #stolzdrauf". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  39. ^ "Kurz startet Kampagne mit Gabalier für "Österreichbewusstsein"". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  40. ^ "Österreichische Zumutungen". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  41. ^ "Integration: #stolzdrauf-Kampagne kostete 326.000 Euro". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  42. ^ "Kampagne "#stolzdrauf": Mindestens 450.300 Euro für Werbung". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  43. ^ "Österreich bekommt ein neues Islamgesetz". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  44. ^ "Das neue Islamgesetz im Überblick". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  45. ^ "Zur Vermeidung von "Fehlinterpretationen"". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  46. ^ "FPÖ sieht Kurz auf ihren Kurs umschwenken". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  47. ^ "Kurz will Sozialgeld für Zuwanderer nicht mehr sofort zahlen". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  48. ^ "Kurz: Botschaften schließen und eröffnen". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  49. ^ "Islamisten unterwandern Kindergärten". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  50. ^ "Islam: Mehr Kontrollen für Kindergärten". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  51. ^ "Kurz: Alles in Studie trägt "Handschrift Aslans"". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  52. ^ "Aslan-Studie: Uni Wien für externe Prüfung". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  53. ^ "Es wird nicht ohne hässliche Bilder gehen". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  54. ^ "Reimon: Kurz ist "menschenverachtender Zyniker"". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  55. ^ "Mikl-Leitner und Kurz eröffneten Westbalkankonferenz". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  56. ^ "Ab sofort in Kraft: Anerkennungsgesetz für im Ausland erworbene Qualifikationen". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  57. ^ "Sebastian Kurz in Russland: Harte Bandagen". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  58. ^ "Ende der Russland-Sanktionen rückt näher". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  59. ^ Alex; Fulbright, er; Ahren, Raphael. "Netanyahu congratulates Austria's Kurz, but silent on partnership with far right". Retrieved 2019-10-03.
  60. ^ "Foreign Minister Sebastian Kurz on a working visit to Israel – BMEIA, Außenministerium Österreich". Retrieved 2019-10-03.
  61. ^ "Israeli PM Netanyahu meets with Austrian FM". i24 News.
  62. ^ "Kurz macht in Mazedonien Werbung für umstrittene Regierungspartei". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  63. ^ "Individueller Plan für Anerkannte". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  64. ^ "Kurz: "Der NGO-Wahnsinn muss beendet werden"". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  65. ^ "Einigung auf Integrationsgesetz mit Burkaverbot". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  66. ^ "Entwurf" (PDF). (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  67. ^ "Integrationsgesetz bringt Burkaverbot und verpflichtendes Integrationsjahr". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  68. ^ "Integrationsbotschafter distanzieren sich von Minister Kurz". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  69. ^ "Man fühlt sich verarscht". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  70. ^ "Regierung erhöht Entwicklungshilfe-Beitrag". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  71. ^ "Gegen den Südwind". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  72. ^ ""Südwind-Magazin" protestiert gegen Förderstopp". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  73. ^ ""Südwind-Magazin" droht nach Förderstopp Einstellung". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  74. ^ "Sebastian Kurz: "Der Islam gehört zu Europa"". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  75. ^ "Sebastian Kurz: In New Yorks antiquierter Artusrunde". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  76. ^ "Atomwaffen: Kurz als humanitärer Kassandra-Rufer". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  77. ^ "UN-Rede: Kurz warnt vor Islamismus und atomarer Rüstung". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  78. ^ "Österreich übernimmt 2017 Vorsitz der OSZE". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  79. ^ "Kurz: "Brauchen mehr Aufmerksamkeit für Ukraine-Konflikt"". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  80. ^ "Kritik an OSZE-Führung durch Kurz". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  81. ^ "OSZE-Treffen in Mauerbach: Einigung auf neuen Generalsekretär". (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  82. ^ "ÖVP: Warum die Obmanndebatte diesmal ganz anders abläuft". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  83. ^ "ÖVP-Varianten für eine Spindelegger-Nachfolge". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  84. ^ "Österreich wählt Anfang Oktober". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  85. ^ "TOP-THEMA: TÜRKIS-BLAUE REGIERUNG IM AMT". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  86. ^ "Was Kurz von der ÖVP fordert, steht schon im Statut". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  87. ^ "So soll die "Liste Sebastian Kurz – die neue Volkspartei" funktionieren". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  88. ^ "Der Kurzkrimi". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  89. ^ "Kurz mit 98,7 Prozent zum Parteiobmann gewählt". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  90. ^ "Der Wunderknabe". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-30.
  91. ^ "Medien: Kurz holt sich Ex-RH-Chef Moser ins Team". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-30.
  92. ^ "Teil eins des Kurz-Programms: Steuern senken, Sozialhilfe für Zuwanderer kürzen". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-30.
  93. ^ "Wahlkampf: Kurz will Steuern senken". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-30.
  94. ^ "Die Fragezeichen der Kurz-Sparpläne". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-30.
  95. ^ "Wahlprogramm: Kurz für Bildungspflicht und Deutschklassen". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-30.
  96. ^ "Wahlprogramm Teil 3: ÖVP will "Null Toleranz" gegenüber politischem Islam zeigen". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-30.
  97. ^ "Wien bekennt sich zu Europa". (in German). Retrieved 2019-06-05.
  98. ^ "Was ist der Familienbonus und wem steht er zu?". (in German). Archived from the original on 2018-12-30. Retrieved 2018-12-10.
  99. ^ "Regierung beschließt Familienbonus von bis zu 1.500 Euro". (in German). Archived from the original on 2018-12-30. Retrieved 2018-12-10.
  100. ^ "Größte Familienentlastung in der Geschichte". (in German). Archived from the original on 2018-12-30. Retrieved 2018-12-10.
  101. ^ "Familienbonus plus ab 1.1.2019". (in German). Archived from the original on 2018-12-30. Retrieved 2018-12-10.
  102. ^ "Familienbonus Plus - Alle Informationen". (in German). Archived from the original on 2018-12-30. Retrieved 2018-12-10.
  103. ^ "Familienbonus+". (in German). Retrieved 2018-12-10.
  104. ^ "Die neuen Regeln im Detail". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-31.
  105. ^ "Fragen & Antworten zur Mindestsicherung Neu". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-31.
  106. ^ "Mindestsicherung: Was das neue Modell bringt". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-31.
  107. ^ "Mindestsicherung Neu: Wartefrist für Zuwanderer". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-31.
  108. ^ "Regierung präsentiert Mindestsicherung – und muss am selben Tag Fehler korrigieren". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-31.
  109. ^ "Ältere sollen künftig Arbeitslosengeld unbegrenzt beziehen". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-31.
  110. ^ "Scharfe Kritik an Regierungsvorlage". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-31.
  111. ^ "Mindestsicherung Neu: Das ändert sich bei der Sozialhilfe ab 2019". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-15.
  112. ^ "12-Stunden-Tag: Diese 8 Verschlechterungen hat er gebracht". (in German). Archived from the original on 2018-12-30. Retrieved 2018-12-09.
  113. ^ "AK Standpunkt zum 12-Stunden-Tag-Gesetz". (in German). Archived from the original on 2018-12-30. Retrieved 2018-12-09.
  114. ^ "Gleitende Arbeitszeit – 12-Stunden-Tag ab 1.9.2018". (in German). Archived from the original on 2018-11-18. Retrieved 2018-12-09.
  115. ^ "Die zentralen Regelungen im Überblick: Von Normalarbeitszeit bis 12-h-Tag und Lenkerarbeitszeit". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  116. ^ "Wiener Firma will Überstunden erst ab 13. Stunde zahlen". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  117. ^ "Mein Recht auf eine geregelte Arbeitszeit". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  118. ^ "Von 7 "Fakten" der Wirtschaftskammer zum 12h-Tag sind 7 falsch". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  119. ^ "12-Stunden-Tag: Fragen und Antworten". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  120. ^ "Verpflichtende Deutschklassen ab neuem Schuljahr". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-06.
  121. ^ "Letzter Akt: Parlament beschließt Deutschklassen". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-06.
  122. ^ "Separate Deutschklassen "diskriminierend" bis "undurchführbar"". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-06.
  123. ^ "Deutschklassen: Das sind die ersten Entwürfe für die Lehrpläne". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-06.
  124. ^ "Weiter Widerstand gegen separate Deutschklassen". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-06.
  125. ^ "Deutschklassen: "Die Bedingungen sind ein Wahnsinn"". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-06.
  126. ^ "Wien sagt Nein zu Deutschklassen". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-06.
  127. ^ "Regierung passt Familienbeihilfe für Kinder im EU-Ausland an". (in German). Archived from the original on 2018-12-30. Retrieved 2018-12-15.
  128. ^ "Jede 3. ausländische Pflegerin wird ihre Arbeit in Österreich beenden". (in German). Archived from the original on 2018-12-30. Retrieved 2018-12-15.
  129. ^ "EU-Kommission prüft Indexierung der Familienbeihilfe". (in German). Archived from the original on 2018-12-30. Retrieved 2018-12-15.
  130. ^ "ÖVP und FPÖ kürzen Familienbeihilfe für Kinder im Ausland". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  131. ^ "Familienbeihilfe: Absage an indexiertes Kindergeld". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  132. ^ "Überwachungspaket: Die Regierungspläne im Detail". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-01.
  133. ^ "Regierung beschließt Überwachungspaket mit Bundestrojaner". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-01.
  134. ^ "Überwachungspaket: Bundestrojaner landet vor Verfassungsgerichtshof". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-01.
  135. ^ "Überwachungspaket: Erste Maßnahmen eingetreten, noch nicht angewandt". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-01.
  136. ^ "Überwachungspaket: SPÖ bringt den Bundestrojaner vor den VfGH". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-01.
  137. ^ "Überwachungspaket mit "Bundes-Trojaner" wird Fall für den VfGH". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-01.
  138. ^ "Regierung präsentiert "Digitales Amt"". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-30.
  139. ^ "Regierung stellte das 'Digitale Amt' vor". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-30.
  140. ^ ""Digitales Amt" - Das kann die neue App der Regierung". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-30.
  141. ^ "We have to prevent boats from coming to Europe".
  142. ^ "Minister ziehen positive Bilanz". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  143. ^ "Österreichs EU-Vorsitz: "Sternstunde" oder "Spalter"?". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  144. ^ "Österreichs EU-Vorsitz: 180 Tage auf der großen Bühne". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  145. ^ "Österreich zieht Bilanz des EU-Ratsvorsitzes". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  146. ^ "EU-Vorsitz - Experte: Erwartungen an Österreich waren größer". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  147. ^ "Kassenfusion kostet bis zu 400 Mio. Euro". (in German). Retrieved 2019-07-16.
  148. ^ "Aus 21 Versicherungen werden fünf". (in German). Retrieved 2018-12-19.
  149. ^ "Hartinger-Klein: Selbstverwaltung bei Sozialversicherungen bleibt gewahrt". (in German). Archived from the original on 2018-12-30. Retrieved 2018-12-19.
  150. ^ "Nationalrat beschließt Sozialversicherungsreform". (in German). Retrieved 2018-12-19.
  151. ^ "Sozialversicherungsreform: "Keine Vorteile für Versicherte"". (in German). Archived from the original on 2018-12-30. Retrieved 2018-12-19.
  152. ^ "Krankenkassen können sich gegen Fusion wehren". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  153. ^ "Österreich zieht sich aus globalem UNO-Migrationspakt zurück".
  154. ^ "Die Wahrheit über den Migrationspakt und warum Rechtsextreme Sebastian Kurz bejubeln". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  155. ^ "Das Abkommen, das Österreich vom Rest der Welt trennen dürfte". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  156. ^ "164 Staaten nehmen UN-Migrationspakt feierlich an". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  157. ^ "UN-Migrationspakt: Das sind die 17 Punkte, die Österreich ablehnt". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  158. ^ "Zustimmung vieler Länder zum UN-Migrationspakt ungewiss". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  159. ^ "Nationalrat beschließt Kindergartenausbau samt Kopftuchverbot". (in German).
  160. ^ "Faßmann will einen Gesellschaftsbauplan ohne Kinderkopftuch". (in German).
  161. ^ "Regierung plant Dokumentationsstelle für politischen Islam". (in German).
  162. ^ "Fundamentalismus-Studie: Hohe Werte in Österreich". (in German).
  163. ^ "Austria's Muslims twice as likely as non-Muslims to hold anti-Semitic views". (in German).
  164. ^ "Dokumentationsstelle für politischen Islam: DÖW grundsätzlich dafür".
  165. ^ "Kassenfusion kostet bis zu 400 Mio. Euro". (in German). Retrieved 2019-07-16.
  166. ^ "Aus 21 Versicherungen werden fünf". (in German). Retrieved 2018-12-19.
  167. ^ "Hartinger-Klein: Selbstverwaltung bei Sozialversicherungen bleibt gewahrt". (in German). Archived from the original on 2018-12-30. Retrieved 2018-12-19.
  168. ^ "Nationalrat beschließt Sozialversicherungsreform". (in German). Retrieved 2018-12-19.
  169. ^ "Sozialversicherungsreform: "Keine Vorteile für Versicherte"". (in German). Archived from the original on 2018-12-30. Retrieved 2018-12-19.
  170. ^ "Krankenkassen können sich gegen Fusion wehren". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  171. ^ "Schwarz-Blau kippt absolutes Rauchverbot in der Gastronomie". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-01.
  172. ^ "Österreich hängt an der Zigarette". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-01.
  173. ^ ""Don't Smoke" im Parlament: Alle Experten für Rauchverbot - bis auf einen". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-01.
  174. ^ "Dringliche Anfrage an Hartinger-Klein". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-01.
  175. ^ "Woher die 880,000 Unterschriften für das Rauchverbot-Volksbegehren kommen". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-01.
  176. ^ "Volksbegehren: Die FPÖ will 150.000 Unterschriften als Grenze – und einigt sich mit der ÖVP auf 900.000". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-01.
  177. ^ "Fast 900.000 für "Don't Smoke": ÖVP-Stimmen für Volksentscheid". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-01.
  178. ^ "Hohe Erwartungen an VfGH-Entscheidung zum Rauchverbot". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-01.
  179. ^ "Spannung vor Höchstgericht-Entscheid zu Rauchverbot". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-01.
  180. ^ "13.06.2018 – Ministerrat beschließt Entlastung für Familien mit Familienbonus von 1 500 Euro". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-15.
  181. ^ "Sozialhilfe im Nationalrat beschlossen". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-25.
  182. ^ "Nationalrat hat 12-Stunden-Tag beschlossen". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-15.
  183. ^ "Zwölf-Stunden-Tag: Neos ist Zustimmung "nicht leicht gefallen"". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-15.
  184. ^ "Deutschklassen kommen doch nur für Schuleinsteiger". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-06.
  185. ^ "02.05.2018 – Ministerrat: Bildungspaket, Jugendschutz und Indexierung der Familienbeihilfe". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-15.
  186. ^ "Nationalrat stimmt Indexierung der Familienbeihilfe zu". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-15.
  187. ^ "Überwachungspaket: SPÖ verlangt Sondersitzung des Datenschutzrates". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-15.
  188. ^ "Hitzige Debatte im Parlament". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-15.
  189. ^ "Nationalrat: Rauchverbot in Gastronomie ab November fix". (in German). Retrieved 2019-07-03.
  190. ^ "Austrian government plunged into crisis over 'Ibiza affair'". Retrieved 2019-06-04.
  191. ^ "Austria's Nationalist Vice Chancellor Quits Over Video Scandal". Retrieved 2019-06-04.
  192. ^ "Highlights From the Video That Brought Down Austria's Vice Chancellor". Retrieved 2019-06-04.
  193. ^ "Austrian Vice Chancellor Strache resigns over scandal". Retrieved 2019-06-04.
  194. ^ "Austria's far-right Vice Chancellor Strache steps down". Retrieved 2019-06-04.
  195. ^ "Strache erklärt Rücktritt". (in German). Retrieved 2019-06-04.
  196. ^ "Van der Bellen will Vertrauen wiederherstellen". (in German). Retrieved 2019-06-04.
  197. ^ "In Österreich gibt es Neuwahlen". (in German). Retrieved 2019-06-04.
  198. ^ "Austria prepares for fresh elections after Ibiza video scandal". Retrieved 2019-06-04.
  199. ^ "Kurz: 'Kickl kann nicht gegen sich selbst ermitteln'". (in German). Retrieved 2019-06-04.
  200. ^ "Van der Bellen legt sich quer". (in German). Retrieved 2019-06-04.
  201. ^ "Alle FPÖ-Minister verlassen die Regierung". (in German). Retrieved 2019-06-04.
  202. ^ "Pöltner, Hackl, Luif und Ratz als neue Minister bestätigt". (in German). Retrieved 2019-05-22.
  203. ^ "Österreich betritt "Neuland"". (in German). Retrieved 2019-05-22.
  204. ^ "Sondersitzung des Nationalrats findet am 27. Mai statt". (in German). Retrieved 2019-06-04.
  205. ^ "SPÖ bringt Misstrauensantrag gegen Regierung ein". (in German). Retrieved 2019-06-04.
  206. ^ "FPÖ unterstützt SPÖ-Misstrauensantrag gegen Kurz-Regierung". (in German). Retrieved 2019-06-04.
  207. ^ "Kabinett Kurz verliert Misstrauensabstimmung". (in German). Retrieved 2019-05-27.
  208. ^ "Nationalrat spricht gesamter Bundesregierung das Misstrauen aus". (in German). Retrieved 2019-05-27.
  209. ^ "Sebastian Kurz, Austrian Leader, Is Ousted in No-Confidence Vote". Retrieved 2019-05-18.
  210. ^ "Austrian Chancellor Kurz Ousted After Nationalists Turn on Him". Retrieved 2019-05-18.
  211. ^ "Österreichs Kanzler Kurz verliert Misstrauensvotum". (in German). Retrieved 2019-06-04.
  212. ^ "So geht es mit Österreich weiter". (in German). Retrieved 2019-06-04.
  213. ^ "Löger nun Interimskanzler". (in German). Retrieved 2019-05-27.
  214. ^ "Löger soll Kanzler-Geschäfte interimistisch führen". (in German). Retrieved 2019-06-04.
  215. ^ Sarah Dean; Ivana Kottasová. "One of the world's youngest leaders returns in Austria after scandal brought his government down". CNN. Retrieved 2019-10-03.
  216. ^ "Austria conservatives win most votes in snap election while far right suffer losses". 2019-09-29. Retrieved 2019-10-03.
  217. ^ Bachner, Michael (4 October 2019). "Koalition mit Grün? ÖVP will es "ernsthaft versuchen" Am Montag ist es soweit: Bundespräsident Van der Bellen erteilt ÖVP-Chef Kurz Auftrag zur Regierungsbildung". KURIER. Retrieved 5 October 2019.
  218. ^ daniela.kittner,bernhard.gaul. "Kurz: ÖVP einstimmig für Koalitionsgespräche mit den Grünen". (in German). Retrieved 2019-11-11.
  219. ^ "Regierung fast fix: In das Winterpalais fahren und als Türkis-Grüne zurückkommen -". DER STANDARD (in German). Retrieved 2020-01-04.
  220. ^ "ÖVP – Grüne: Das steht im Regierungsprogramm". (in German). Retrieved 2018-12-10.
  221. ^ "ÖVP-Vorstand einstimmig für Koalitionspakt". (in German). Retrieved 2020-01-04.
  222. ^ "Grüner Kongress stimmt klar für Koalition". (in German). Retrieved 2020-01-04.
  223. ^
  224. ^ a b "Sebastian Kurz, der "junge Metternich"". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-03.
  225. ^ "Ranking: Sebastian Kurz unter "Gewinnern auf der Weltbühne"". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-03.
  226. ^ "Der Euro-Star". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-03.
  227. ^ "Schwarzer Wunderwuzzi". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-03.
  228. ^ "A New Kind of Statesman". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-03.
  229. ^ "Sebastian Kurz. Macron des Ostens, Macron der Migration". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-03.
  230. ^ a b "Merkel und ihr Schattenmann". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-03.
  231. ^ "Der Meisterdiplomat". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-03.
  232. ^ "Das Paradoxe an Sebastian Kurz". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-03.
  233. ^ "Pressestimmen: "Kurz ähnelt stark Jörg Haider"". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-01.
  234. ^ "Talks with Federal Chancellor of Austria Sebastian Kurz". President of Russia. June 5, 2018. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  235. ^ "Botschaft kontaktierte "Financial Times" wegen Kurz-Artikel". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-03.
  236. ^ ""Far Right" Kurz: Journalist entschuldigte sich nicht". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-03.
  237. ^ "Kurz und Kunasek zu "Sprachwahrern des Jahres" erklärt". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  238. ^ "Jahresvorschau: Wer wird 2019 im Ausland wichtig?". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-03.
  239. ^ "Kanzler Kurz "Werden Digitalsteuer in Österreich einführen"". (in German). Retrieved 2019-04-03.
  240. ^ "Sprachwahrer des Jahres 2018". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  241. ^ "Für gutes Deutsch und gegen Gendersprache: Österreichs Regierung gewinnt Wahl zum Sprachwahrer des Jahres". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-29.
  242. ^ "Unterscheidung zwischen Ehe und eingetragener Partnerschaft verletzt Diskriminierungsverbot". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-31.
  243. ^ "Ehe nun wirklich für alle". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-31.
  244. ^ "Höchstgericht sah Diskriminierung". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-31.
  245. ^ ""Ehe für alle": Regierung prüft VfGH-Erkenntnis immer noch". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-31.
  246. ^ "Urteil kaum zu umgehen". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-31.
  247. ^ "Bauchgefühl auf Österreichisch: Kurz gegen Ehe für alle". (in German). Retrieved 2019-03-31.
  248. ^ "Plutonium, Iran und Atomwaffensperrvertrag". (in German). Retrieved 2019-06-05.
  249. ^ "Kurz fordert Abschaffung von Atomwaffen". (in German). Retrieved 2019-06-05.
  250. ^ "Wiener Konferenz zu den humanitären Auswirkungen von Atomwaffen". (in German). Retrieved 2019-06-05.
  251. ^ a b "Teil eins des Kurz-Programms: Steuern senken, Sozialhilfe für Zuwanderer kürzen". (in German). Retrieved 2019-06-05.
  252. ^ "Kanzler Kurz im TT-Interview: 'Wir werden die Digitalsteuer einführen'". (in German). Retrieved 2019-06-05.
  253. ^ "Operation Gleichklang: Wer für Kurz und Strache die Fäden zieht". (in German). Retrieved 2019-06-05.
  254. ^ "Message Control oder: Bitte keine Fragen". (in German). Retrieved 2019-06-05.
  255. ^ "Pressefreiheit in Österreich – Atmosphäre der Angst". (in German). Retrieved 2019-06-05.
  256. ^ "Sebastian Kurz: Sein Schwanken zwischen Staatsmann und Wahltaktiker". (in German). Retrieved 2019-06-05.
  257. ^ "Sebastian Kurz, der 'junge Metternich'". (in German). Retrieved 2019-06-05.
  258. ^ New-constitution of Advisory Council on Development Policy: Make development cooperation a concern of the broad public Archived 2015-09-06 at the Wayback Machine Austrian Development Agency, press release of 18 February 2015.
  259. ^ Board of Trustees Archived 2017-10-16 at the Wayback Machine, General Settlement Fund for Victims of National Socialism.

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Michael Spindelegger
Minister of Foreign Affairs
Succeeded by
Karin Kneissl
Preceded by
Christian Kern
Chancellor of Austria
Succeeded by
Brigitte Bierlein
Preceded by
Brigitte Bierlein
Chancellor of Austria
Party political offices
Preceded by
Reinhold Mitterlehner
Chairman of the People's Party