Second Battle of Fallujah

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Second Battle of Fallujah
Part of the Iraq War
4-14 Marines in Fallujah.jpg
U.S. Marines from Mike Battery, 4th Battalion, 14th Marines, firing an M198 howitzer from Camp Fallujah (November 2004)
Date7 November – 23 December 2004[2][3][4]
(1 month, 2 weeks and 2 days)
Location33°21′N 43°47′E / 33.350°N 43.783°E / 33.350; 43.783Coordinates: 33°21′N 43°47′E / 33.350°N 43.783°E / 33.350; 43.783
Result American-led coalition victory
Belligerents
 United States
Iraq
 United Kingdom
Al-Qaeda in Iraq
Islamic Army in Iraq
Ansar al-Sunnah
1920 Revolution Brigades
Ba'ath Party[1]
Mahdi Army
Chechen Mujahideen
Commanders and leaders
Keith J. Stalder
Richard F. Natonski[5]
James Cowan
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi
Abdullah Shaddad
Omar Hadid 
Abdullah al-Janabi
Abu Ayyub al-Masri
Strength
10,500[6]
2,000[6]
850[7]
≈3,700–4,000[8][9]
Casualties and losses
95 killed, 560 wounded[10] (54 killed, 425 wounded from 7–16 November)[11]
8 killed, 43 wounded[11][12]
4 killed, 10 wounded[13][14]
1,200–2,000 killed[15][12]
1,500 captured[15]
Civilian casualties:
581–670 killed (Iraq Body Count)[16]
800 killed (Red Cross)[17]

The Second Battle of Fallujah, codenamed Operation al-Fajr (Arabic: الفجر, lit.'The Dawn') and Operation Phantom Fury, was an American-led offensive of the Iraq War. Marking the highest point of the conflict against the Iraqi insurgency, it was a joint military effort carried out by the United States, the Iraqi Interim Government, and the United Kingdom. Within the city of Fallujah, the coalition was led by the U.S. Marine Corps and U.S. Army, the battle was later described as "some of the heaviest urban combat U.S. military have been involved in since the Battle of Huế City in Vietnam in 1968".[18][19]

Operation Phantom Fury was the second major coalition effort in Fallujah. Earlier, in April 2004, coalition forces fought the First Battle of Fallujah in an attempt to capture or kill insurgent elements who were considered responsible for the 2004 Fallujah ambush, which resulted in the deaths of four private military contractors of Blackwater. When the coalition fought their way into the centre of the city, the Iraqi Interim Government requested that the city's control be transferred over to an Iraqi-run local security force, which then began stockpiling weapons and building complex defenses across the city through mid-2004.[20] The Second Battle of Fallujah was the bloodiest battle of the entire conflict for American troops,[21] and is notable for being the first major engagement of the Iraq War that was fought solely against insurgents as opposed to the government military forces of the former Ba'athist Iraq.

Background[edit]

In February 2004, control of Fallujah and the surrounding area in the Al Anbar Governorate was transferred from the U.S. 82nd Airborne Division to the 1st Marine Division. Shortly afterward, on 31 March 2004, four American private military contractors from Blackwater – Wesley Batalona, Scott Helvenston, Jerry Zovko, and Michael Teague – were ambushed and killed in the city.[22] Images of their mutilated bodies were broadcast around the world.[23] Journalist Jeremy Scahill later called this incident the Mogadishu moment of the Iraq War (referencing the Battle of Mogadishu, also known as the "Black Hawk Down" incident).[24] Although tactical commanders in Iraq considered these deaths militarily insignificant, U.S. political leaders disapproved of a measured approach targeting the perpetrators and instead requested a larger assault into the city.[25]

Within days, U.S. Marine Corps forces launched Operation Vigilant Resolve (5 April 2004) to take back control of the city from insurgent forces. On 28 April 2004, Operation Vigilant Resolve ended with an agreement where the local population was ordered to keep the insurgents out of the city.[20] The Fallujah Brigade, composed of local Iraqis under the command of a former Ba'athist officer named Muhammed Latif, took control of the city.[26]

Insurgent strength and control began to grow to such an extent that by 24 September 2004, a senior U.S. official told ABC News that catching Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, said to be in Fallujah, was now "the highest priority," and estimated his troops at 5,000 men, mostly non-Iraqis.[27] However, the stated purpose of the military operation in Fallujah was to weaken the insurgency in preparation for the planned Iraqi elections in January 2005.[28]

Preparations[edit]

Coalition forces[edit]

Before beginning their attack, U.S. and Iraqi forces had established checkpoints around the city to prevent anyone from entering, and to intercept insurgents attempting to flee. In addition, overhead imagery was used to prepare maps of the city for use by the attackers. American units were augmented by Iraqi interpreters to assist them in the planned fight. After weeks of withstanding air strikes and artillery bombardment, the militants in the city appeared to be vulnerable to direct attack.

U.S., Iraqi and British forces totaled about 13,500. The U.S. had gathered some 6,500 Marines and 1,500 Army soldiers that would take part in the assault with about 2,500 Navy personnel in operational and support roles.[6] U.S. troops were grouped in two Regimental Combat Teams: Regimental Combat Team 1 comprised 3rd Battalion/1st Marines, 3rd Battalion/5th Marines, and U.S. Army 2d Battalion/7th Cavalry. Regimental Combat Team 7 comprised the 1st Battalion/8th Marines, 1st Battalion/3d Marines, U.S. Army 2d Battalion/2d Infantry, 2d Battalion/12th Cavalry[29] About 2,000 Iraqi troops assisted with the assault.[6] All were supported by Marine fixed and rotary-winged aircraft, Navy and Air Force fixed-wing aircraft; and USSOCOM Sniper Elements.

The 850-strong 1st Battalion of the Black Watch was ordered to help U.S. and Iraqi forces with the encirclement of Fallujah.[30] As part of Task Force Black, D Squadron of the British SAS prepared to take part in the operation, but British political nervousness about the possible scale of casualties stopped any direct UK involvement in the ground battle.[31]

Insurgent forces[edit]

In April, Fallujah was defended by about 500 "hardcore" and 1,000+ "part time" insurgents. By November, it was estimated that the numbers had doubled.[32] Another estimate put the number of insurgents at 3,000; however, a number of insurgent leaders escaped before the attack.[33]

Fallujah was occupied by virtually every insurgent group in Iraq: al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI), Islamic Army of Iraq (IAI), Ansar al-Sunna, Army of Mohammed (AOM), the Army of the Mujahedeen and the Secret Islamic Army of Iraq. Three groups, (AQI, IAI and the National Islamic Army (1920 Revolution Brigade)) had their nationwide headquarters in Fallujah. An estimated 2,000 insurgents were from the Army of Mohammed (made up of ex Fedayeen Saddam fighters), Ansar al-Sunna and various smaller Iraqi groups.[34]

Unlike what most cities in Iraq saw, the Battle of Fallujah did not have internal disputes between insurgents, The fighters consisted of both Sunnis and Shi'as, Soldiers of the Mahdi army fought alongside Sunni and Ba'athist groups against the United States. [35][36] The Iraqi insurgents and foreign Mujahideen present in the city prepared fortified defenses in advance of the anticipated attack.[20][37] They dug tunnels, trenches, prepared spider holes, and built and hid a wide variety of IEDs.[20][37] In some locations they filled the interiors of darkened homes with large numbers of propane bottles, large drums of gasoline, and ordnance, all wired to a remote trigger that could be set off by an insurgent when troops entered the building. They blocked streets with Jersey barriers and even emplaced them within homes to create strong points behind which they could attack unsuspecting troops entering the building.[38] Insurgents were equipped with a variety of advanced small arms,[39] and had captured a variety of U.S. armament, including M14s, M16s, body armor, uniforms and helmets.[38]

They booby-trapped buildings and vehicles, including wiring doors and windows to grenades and other ordnance. Anticipating U.S. tactics to seize the roof of high buildings, they bricked up stairwells to the roofs of many buildings, creating paths into prepared fields of fire which they hoped the troops would enter.[38]

Intelligence briefings given prior to battle reported that coalition forces would encounter Chechen, Filipino, Saudi, Libyan, and Syrian combatants, as well as native Iraqis.[40]

Civilian presence[edit]

Meanwhile, most of Fallujah's civilian population fled the city, which greatly reduced the potential for noncombatant casualties.[38] U.S. military officials estimated that 70–90% of the 300,000 civilians in the city fled before the attack.[33] Yet, not all civilians had the means to leave Fallujah before the battle. Jane Arraf, who was embedded with U.S. troops said that some families wrote "We are family" on the doors of their homes, hoping the Marines would not attack during the battle.[41] Still, the military used leaflets and broadcasts to encourage civilians to leave the city before the assault.[42]

The battle[edit]

US Army Infantryman from TF 2–7 CAV, prepare to enter a building during fighting in Fallujah.

Diversion[edit]

With Navy SEAL and Marine Recon Snipers providing reconnaissance and target marking on the city perimeter, ground operations began on the night of 7 November 2004. Attacking from the west and south, the Iraqi 36th Commando Battalion with their U.S. Army Special Forces advisers, SEAL Sniper Task Elements from Naval Special Warfare Task Group Central and the U.S. Marine Corps Scout Platoon, 1st and 2nd Platoon Charlie Company, Manchu 1st Battalion 9th Infantry Regiment Mechanized, 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 2nd Infantry Division (U.S. Army) served as the main effort on the peninsula and supported by 3rd Platoon Alpha Company 2/72nd Tank Battalion (U.S. Army), and 3rd Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion, reinforced by Bravo Company from the Marine Corps Reserve's 1st Battalion, 23rd Regiment, and supported by Combat Service Support Company 122, from Combat Service Support Battalion 1, captured Fallujah General Hospital, Blackwater Bridge, ING building, and villages opposite of the Euphrates River along Fallujah's western edge.[43] Marines from 1/3 fired 81mm mortars in an operation in south Fallujah. The same unit then moved to the western approaches to the city and secured the Jurf Kas Sukr Bridge.[43] These initial attacks, however, were a diversion intended to distract and confuse insurgents holding the city, preceding the all-out offensive. Two Marines died in the initial attacks when their bulldozer fell into the Euphrates River. 42 insurgents were killed along the Fallujah riverside.

Attack[edit]

Marines from 3rd Battalion 1st Marines and 3rd Battalion 5th Marines during the Second Battle of Fallujah.

After Navy Seabees from I MEF Engineer Group (MEG) interrupted and disabled electrical power at two substations located just northeast and northwest of the city, two Marine Regimental Combat Teams, Regimental Combat Team 1 (RCT-1) and Regimental Combat Team 7 (RCT-7) launched an attack along the northern edge of the city. They were joined by two U.S. Army heavy batallion mechanized units, the 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry Regiment, and Task Force 2nd Battalion, 2nd Infantry Regiment (Mechanized), followed by four Marine infantry battalions tasked with clearing buildings. The Army's mechanized Second Brigade, First Cavalry Division, Marines' Second Reconnaissance Battalion and A. Co 1st Battalion, 5th Infantry Regiment, was tasked with infiltrating the city and destroying any fleeing enemy forces.[44] The British Army's 1st Battalion, The Black Watch, patrolled the main highways to the east. The RCTs were augmented by three 7-man SEAL Sniper Teams from Naval Special Warfare Task Group-Central and one platoon from 1st Recon, who provided advance reconnaissance in the city, Joint Terminal Aircraft Control (JTAC) and unilateral overwatch throughout the operation. The United States Air Force provided close air support for the ground offensive, employing F-15 Strike Eagles, F-16 Fighting Falcons, A-10 Thunderbolt IIs, B-52 Stratofortresses, and AC-130 gunships to carry out close-quarter precision airstrikes against enemy strongholds within the city. The Air Force also employed MQ-1 Predator unmanned aerial vehicles for reconnaissance and precision strikes, and the U-2 Dragon Lady high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft for intelligence collection, surveillance and reconnaissance before, during, and after the battle.

An M1 Abrams fires its main gun into a building to provide suppressive counterfire against insurgents.

The six battalions of U.S. and Iraqi forces, aided by Marine Corps Scout and Target Acquisition, SEAL Sniper, and JTAC elements pre-fire operations, moved into the city under the cover of darkness; and once aligned with the reconnaissance elements, began the assault in the early hours of 8 November 2004, preceded by an intense artillery barrage firing some 2500 155mm projectiles and air attack. This was followed by an attack on the main train station, which was then used as a staging point for follow-on forces. By that afternoon, under the protection of intense air cover, Marines entered the Hay Naib al-Dubat and al-Naziza districts. The Marines were followed by the Navy Seabees of NMCB 4 and NMCB 23 who bulldozed the streets clear of debris from the bombardment that morning. The Seabees used armored bulldozers to plow the streets while remaining safe and protected from enemy fire. Shortly after nightfall on 9 November 2004, Marines had reportedly reached Phase Line Fran at Highway 10 in the center of the city.

An air strike is called in on a suspected insurgent hideout in Fallujah.

While most of the fighting subsided by 13 November 2004, U.S. Marines and Special Operations Forces continued to face determined isolated resistance from insurgents hidden throughout the city. By 16 November 2004, after nine days of fighting, the Marine command described the action as mopping up pockets of resistance. Sporadic fighting continued until 23 December 2004.

By late January 2005, news reports indicated U.S. combat units were leaving the area, and were assisting the local population in returning to the now heavily damaged city.

Recognition[edit]

Staff Sergeant David Bellavia of the Army Task Force 2-2 Infantry was awarded the Medal of Honor.[45]

Nine Marines were awarded the Navy Cross:

Corporal Esquibel refused the award, citing "personal reasons".[54]

The following were awarded the Presidential Unit Citation for actions during the battle:

  • U.S. Army Task Force 2nd Battalion, 2nd Infantry Regiment, 1st Infantry Division
  • U.S. Army Task Force 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division
  • Naval Special Warfare Task Group-Central[55]

Aftermath[edit]

U.S. Army Soldiers rush a wounded soldier to a waiting U.S. Marine CH-46E Sea Knight helicopter during the Second Battle of Fallujah in November 2004.

The battle proved to be the bloodiest of the war and the bloodiest battle involving American troops since the Vietnam War. Comparisons with the Battle of Hue City and the Pacific campaign of World War II were made.[56] Coalition forces suffered a total of 107 killed and 613 wounded during Operation Phantom Fury. U.S. forces had 54 killed and 425 wounded in the initial attack in November.[11] By 23 December when the operation was officially concluded, the casualty number had risen to 95 killed and 560 wounded.[12] British forces had 4 killed and 10 wounded in two separate attacks in the outskirts of Fallujah.[13][14] Iraqi forces suffered 8 killed and 43 wounded.[11] Estimates of insurgent casualties are complicated by a lack of official figures. Most estimates place the number of insurgents killed at around 1,200[57] to 1,500,[15] with some estimations as high as over 2,000 killed.[11][12] Coalition forces also captured approximately 1,500 insurgents during the operation.[15]

The 1st Marine Division fired a total of 5,685 high-explosive 155mm artillery rounds during the battle.[58] The 3rd Marine Air Wing (aviation assets only) expended 318 precision bombs, 391 rockets and missiles, and 93,000 machine gun and cannon rounds.[58]

Fallujah suffered extensive damage to residences, mosques, city services, and businesses. The city, once referred to as the "City of Mosques", had over 200 pre-battle mosques of which 60 or so were destroyed in the fighting. Many of these mosques had been used as arms caches and weapon strongpoints by Islamist forces. Of the roughly 50,000 buildings in Fallujah, between 7,000 and 10,000 were estimated to have been destroyed in the offensive and from half to two-thirds of the remaining buildings had notable damage.[59][60]

While pre-offensive inhabitant figures are unreliable, the nominal population was assumed to have been 200,000–350,000. One report states that both offensives, Operation Vigilant Resolve and Operation Phantom Fury, created 200,000 internally displaced persons who are still living elsewhere in Iraq.[61] While damage to mosques was heavy, coalition forces reported that 66 out of the city's 133 mosques had been found to be holding significant amounts of insurgent weaponry.[62]

A city street in Fallujah heavily damaged by the fighting.

In mid-December, residents were allowed to return after undergoing biometric identification, provided they wore their ID cards all the time. Reconstruction progressed slowly and mainly consisted of clearing rubble from heavily damaged areas and reestablishing basic utilities. Only 10% of the pre-offensive inhabitants had returned as of mid-January, and only 30% as of the end of March 2005.[63]

Nevertheless, the battle proved to be less than the decisive engagement that the U.S. military had hoped for. Some of the nonlocal insurgents, along with Zarqawi, were believed to have fled before the military assault, leaving mostly local militants behind. Subsequent U.S. military operations against insurgent positions were ineffective at drawing out insurgents into another open battle, and by September 2006, the situation had deteriorated to the point that the Al-Anbar province that contained Fallujah was reported to be in total insurgent control by the U.S. Marine Corps, with the exception of only pacified Fallujah, but now with an insurgent-plagued Ramadi.[64][65]

After the U.S. military operation of November 2004, the number of insurgent attacks gradually increased in and around the city, and although news reports were often few and far between, several reports of IED attacks on Iraqi troops were reported in the press. Most notable of these attacks was a suicide car bomb attack on 23 June 2005 on a convoy that killed 6 Marines. Thirteen other Marines were injured in the attack. However, fourteen months later insurgents were again able to operate in large numbers.

A third push was mounted from September 2006 and lasted until mid-January 2007. Tactics developed in what has been called the "Third Battle of Fallujah," when applied on a larger scale in Ramadi and the surrounding area, led to what became known as "the Great Sunni Awakening." After four years of bitter fighting, Fallujah was turned over to the Iraqi Forces and the Iraqi Provincial Authority during the autumn of 2007.

Al Qaeda-linked Sunni insurgents from the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant subsequently took over Fallujah and parts of Ramadi in early 2014 and the city was reclaimed by the Iraqi Army and Special Operations Units in June 2016.[66]

Order of battle[edit]

American forces[edit]

U.S. Marines take a break while searching the city of Fallujah in November 2004.
U.S. Marines from the 3rd Battalion 5th Marines seize apartments at the edge of Fallujah in November 2004.
U.S. Army Soldiers use a wall and a pillar as a shield while they tactically enter and clear a building in Fallujah in November 2004.

Regimental Combat Team 1 (RCT-1) built around the 1st Marine Regiment:

A Chief Engineering Aide assigned to Naval Mobile Construction Battalion 4 studies an aerial photograph of the streets in Fallujah in November 2004.

Regimental Combat Team 7 (RCT-7) built around the 7th Marine Regiment:

Ninth Air Force (United States Air Forces Central Command) (U.S. Air Force)

U.S. Special Operations Command

Iraqi forces[edit]

British forces[edit]

Controversies[edit]

A four-picture series of photographs. Clockwise from the upper left: A Marine tries dragging a wounded Marine down a city street; a sailor runs over to help him; the rescuing Marine is shot; both Marines lie wounded on the street.
In this series of photographs a Marine and Corpsman from 1st Battalion 8th Marines attempt to recover a Marine wounded by a sniper; an insurgent machine-gunner cuts down one of the would be rescuers.[75]

Despite the Coalition success, the battle was not without controversy as a number of allegations have been made regarding the United States' armed intervention.

Use of white phosphorus[edit]

On November 10, 2004, the Washington Post reported that some U.S. artillery guns fired white phosphorus rounds that created a screen of fire.[76] Insurgents reported being attacked with a substance that melted their skin, a reaction consistent with white phosphorus burns.[76]

On November 9, 2005, the Italian state-run broadcaster Radiotelevisione Italiana S.p.A. aired a documentary titled "Fallujah, The Hidden Massacre", alleging that the United States used white phosphorus as a weapon in Fallujah causing insurgents and civilians to be killed or injured by chemical burns. Included were graphic images of severe and deep chemical burns that penetrated the flesh and bones of men, women, and children. The filmmakers further claimed that the United States used incendiary MK-77 bombs in violation of Protocol III of the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. According to the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, quoted in the documentary, white phosphorus is permitted for use as an illumination device and as a weapon with regard to heat energy, but not permitted as an offensive weapon with regard to its toxic chemical properties.[77][78]

The U.S. military maintains that civilians were not targeted with white phosphorus, but has confirmed its use as an incendiary weapon against enemy combatants.[79] According to the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, white phosphorus is not recognized as a chemical weapon and the Chemical Weapons Convention does not govern its use.[80]

The use of phosphorus was especially controversial in the United Kingdom because British forces were involved in the battle. British law prohibits British forces being present in a theater in which phosphorus is used as an anti-personnel weapon, whether or not the targets are military personnel.[81] On November 16, 2005, BBC News reported that an article published in the March–April 2005 issue of Field Artillery, a U.S. Army magazine, noted that white phosphorus had been used during the battle. According to the article written by a captain, a first lieutenant, and a sergeant, "WP [White Phosphorus] proved to be an effective and versatile munition. We used it for screening missions at two breeches and, later in the fight, as a potent psychological weapon against the insurgents in trench lines and spider holes where we could not get effects on them with HE [High Explosives]. We fired "shake and bake" missions at the insurgents, using WP to flush them out and HE to take them out."[77] BBC News noted that the article had been discovered by bloggers after the U.S. ambassador in London, Robert Holmes Tuttle, stated that U.S. forces do not use napalm or white phosphorus as weapons.[77]

U.S. won't let men flee Fallujah[edit]

The AP news agency reported that military-age males attempting to flee the city were turned back by the U.S. military.[82]

The Guardian reported that:

But we shouldn't forget that the use of chemical weapons was a war crime within a war crime within a war crime. Both the invasion of Iraq and the assault on Falluja were illegal acts of aggression. Before attacking the city, the marines stopped men "of fighting age" from leaving. Many women and children stayed: the Guardian's correspondent estimated that between 30,000 and 50,000 civilians were left. The marines treated Falluja as if its only inhabitants were fighters. They levelled thousands of buildings, illegally denied access to the Iraqi Red Crescent and, according to the UN's special rapporteur, used "hunger and deprivation of water as a weapon of war against the civilian population".[83]

Civilian casualties[edit]

The Red Cross estimated directly following the battle that some 800 civilians had been killed during the offensive.[17][84][85][86] The Iraq Body Count project reported between 581 and 670 civilian deaths resulting from the battle.[16] Mike Marqusee, in a November 2005 article for The Guardian, compared the battle to the Mỹ Lai massacre, the bombing of Guernica, and the Halabja chemical attack[87] and wrote that "The US claims that 2,000 died, most of them fighters. Other sources disagree. When medical teams arrived in January they collected more than 700 bodies in only one third of the city. Iraqi NGOs and medical workers estimate between 4,000 and 6,000 dead, mostly civilians".[87]

Depleted uranium[edit]

US forces used depleted uranium shells as part of their attack on the militants in Fallujah.[88] Depleted uranium shells use radioactive uranium waste, which is highly dense, for effective armor penetration, and ignites spontaneously in contact with air, causing incendiary damage. Years after the battle, medical research teams discovered an increase in infant mortality, cancer, and congenital anomalies or birth defects among children born in Fallujah.[89] A 2005 epidemiology review concluded: "In aggregate the human epidemiological evidence is consistent with increased risk of birth defects in offspring of persons exposed to DU."[90] According to a 2011 study by Alaani et al., depleted uranium exposure from munitions used during the war was either a primary cause or related to the cause of the birth defect and cancer increases.[91] According to a 2012 journal article by Al-Hadithi et al., existing studies and research evidence does not show a "clear increase in birth defects" or a "clear indication of a possible environmental exposure including depleted uranium". The article further states that "there is actually no substantial evidence that genetic defects can arise from parental exposure to DU in any circumstances."[92]

In popular culture[edit]

Demonstration in front of the British parliament against the war and the consequences of the Second Battle of Fallujah.

Documentaries[edit]

  • Occupation: Dreamland, a 2005 documentary film that follows soldiers of the 1/505 of the 82nd Airborne Division in Fallujah, Iraq, in the beginning of 2004.
  • Shootout! – Episode 1: D-Day: Fallujah (UPC: 733961741353), a 2006 A&E History Channel Special detailing various gun battles that occurred during the Second Battle of Fallujah.
  • The Road to Fallujah, a 2009 documentary following the story of Mark Manning, the only westerner to live among the residents of Fallujah following the November 2004 battle.
  • Fear Not the Path of Truth,[93] a 2013 documentary film from a veteran of the 2nd siege of Fallujah who investigates atrocities that he alleges occurred and the legacy of US foreign policy in Fallujah.
  • Fallujah, The Hidden Massacre, a documentary denouncing the use of white phosphorus and the MK-77 by the U.S. Army against civilians in the city.
  • Once Upon a Time in Iraq, a 2020 BBC documentary series, featured the Battle of Fallujah in its third episode.

Films[edit]

Games[edit]

  • Six Days in Fallujah, is a video game that follows a squad of U.S. Marines from 3rd Battalion, 1st Marines over the span of the six bloodiest days in the battle for Fallujah. It was dropped by Konami for the controversy surrounding it and remained in limbo until 2021. The restarted game was announced in 2021 with publishing of Victura and developed by Highwire Games.[95]
  • Close Combat: First to Fight, is a video game that was also designed with input from former and active-duty U.S. Marines from 3rd Battalion, 1st Marines, who had participated in combat around Fallujah, Iraq during Operation Phantom Fury.
  • Phantom Fury: The 2nd Battle for Fallujah, is a solitaire board game based on the actions of 3rd Battalion, 1st Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division in the Jolan district in November 2004.[96]

Music[edit]

  • "In Old Yellowcake", song by Rasputina (2007)
  • "Christmas in Fallujah", song by Jefferson Pepper (2005) (UPC: 669910486467)
  • "Christmas in Fallujah", song by Cass Dillon and Billy Joel (2007) (Digital download, CD single)
  • Fallujah, an opera with music by the Canadian composer Tobin Stokes and libretto by Heather Raffo.[97]
  • "Fallujah" by Serbian roots reggae band FC Apartride Utd, On The Frontline Menu 2006, LP[98][99][100]
  • "Strike, O lions of Fallujah!" - An Iraqi song
  • Fallujah is an American technical death metal band from San Francisco, California, formed in 2007. See Fallujah (band).

Books[edit]

  • No True Glory: A Frontline Account of the Battle for Fallujah[101]
  • My Men are My Heroes: The Brad Kasal Story[102]
  • We Were One: Shoulder to Shoulder with the Marines Who Took Fallujah[103][circular reference]
  • New Dawn: The Battles for Fallujah[104]
  • Operation Phantom Fury: The Assault and Capture of Fallujah, Iraq[105]
  • Sunrise Over Fallujah[106]
  • Fallujah Memoirs: A Grunt's Eye View of the Second Battle of Fallujah[107]
  • Ghosts of Fallujah[108]
  • U.S. Marines in Battle: Fallujah, November-December 2004[109]
  • House to House: An Epic Memoir of War[110][circular reference]
  • Code Red Fallujah: A Doctor's Memoir at War[111]
  • Fallujah, with Honor; First Battalion, Eighth Marine's Role in Operation Phantom Fury; Expanded 2nd Edition[112]
  • All Of Which I Saw[113]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Martin, Guss, The SAGE Encyclopedia of Terrorism, Second Edition, 2011, SAGE Publications ISBN 141298016X ISBN 978-1412980166
  2. ^ Operation Phantom Fury: The Assault and Capture of Fallujah, Iraq. Amazon. Zenith Press. 4 December 2009. Retrieved 4 December 2009.
  3. ^ Tucker (2014), pp. 303
  4. ^ "November, 2004 - Into the hot zone at the Second Battle of Fallujah". Army.mil. Retrieved 13 February 2022.
  5. ^ Rayburn, Joel D.; Sobchak, Frank K.; Godfroy, Jeanne F.; Morton, Matthew D.; Powell, James S.; Zais, Matthew M. (January 2019). The U.S. Army in the Iraq War – Volume 1, Invasion, Insurgency, Civil War, 2003–2006 (PDF). UNITED STATES ARMY WAR COLLEGE PRESS. p. 346. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  6. ^ a b c d Ricks, Thomas E. (2007). Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq. United States: Penguin Books. p. 399. ISBN 978-0-14-303891-7.
  7. ^ "Black Watch ordered to join US cordon for assault on Fallujah". The Independent. London. 22 October 2004. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  8. ^ John Pike. "Operation al-Fajr (Dawn) / Phantom Fury Fallujah, Iraq". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
  9. ^ Karon, Tony (8 November 2004). "The Grim Calculations of Retaking Fallujah". Time. Archived from the original on 11 November 2004. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
  10. ^ [1][dead link]
  11. ^ a b c d e Ricks, Thomas E. (2007). Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq. United States: Penguin Books. p. 400. ISBN 978-0-14-303891-7.
  12. ^ a b c d Mikaberidze, Alexander (2011). Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia. United States: ABC-CLIO. p. 304. ISBN 978-1-59884-336-1.
  13. ^ a b "Dead Black Watch soldiers named". BBC News. 5 November 2004. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
  14. ^ a b "Black Watch pays price for backing Fallujah offensive". The Independent. London. 9 November 2004. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 1 July 2011.
  15. ^ a b c d "From Fallujah to Qaim". Asia Times. 13 May 2005. Archived from the original on 16 January 2006. Retrieved 8 July 2011.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  16. ^ a b "Besieged: Living and Dying in Fallujah :: Iraq Body Count". Iraqbodycount.org. Retrieved 13 February 2022.
  17. ^ a b Singal, Jesse; Jesse Singal, Christine Lim and M.J. Stephey (19 March 2010). "November 2004: Fight in Fallujah – Seven Years in Iraq: An Iraq War Timeline". Time. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
  18. ^ ScanEagle Proves Worth in Fallujah Fight, DefenseLINK News
  19. ^ Ricks, Thomas E. (2007). Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq, 2003–2005. Penguin. p. 399. ISBN 0-14-303891-5.
  20. ^ a b c d Ricks, (2007) pp. 343–346.
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Bibliography[edit]

Tucker, Spencer C. (2014). Battles That Changed American History: 100 of the Greatest Victories and Defeats. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1440828614.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]