Second Republic of Korea

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Republic of Korea

대한민국
大韓民國
1960–1961
{{{coat_alt}}}
Seal
Anthem: 애국가
"Aegukga"
South Korea in green
South Korea in green
CapitalSeoul
Common languagesKorean
GovernmentParliamentary republic
President 
• 1960–1961
Yun Posun
Prime Minister 
• 1960
Heo Jeong
• 1960–1961
Chang Myon
LegislatureNational Assembly
Historical eraCold War
• Established
19 April 1960
16 May 1961
CurrencyHwan (1953–1962)
ISO 3166 codeKR
Preceded by
Succeeded by
First Republic of Korea
Supreme Council for National Reconstruction
Today part of South Korea

The Second Republic of South Korea was the government of South Korea from April 1960 to May 1961.

The Second Republic was founded during the April Revolution mass protests against President Syngman Rhee, succeeding the First Republic and establishing a parliamentary government under President Yun Posun and Prime Minister Chang Myon. The Second Republic ended Rhee's repressive measures but failure to solve political and economic issues led to instability. The Second Republic was overthrown in the May 16 coup after eleven months, and replaced by a military government under the Supreme Council for National Reconstruction led by Chairman Park Chung-hee.

The short-lived Second Republic was the only government under a parliamentary system in the history of Korea.

Establishment[edit]

Proclamation of the Second Republic of Korea. From right: Chang Myon (Prime Minister), Yun Bo-seon (President), Paik Nak-jun (President of the House of Councillors) and Kwak Sang-hoon (President of the Chamber of Deputies).

The First Republic of Korea had existed since 1948 under President Syngman Rhee, who was widely considered to be corrupt and a dictator who abused his presidential powers to maintain his rule and cronyism. Although the First Republic was officially a representative democracy, Rhee adopted a strongly anti-communist position and used the threat of communism to enact a policy of severe repression against all political opposition. Tolerance of Rhee and his Liberal Party-dominated government declined in the mid-to-late 1950s, as the South Korean public were increasingly discontent with the repression and the limited economic and social development. In April 1960, Rhee was overthrown by widespread protests known as the "April Revolution" in response to the discovery of a high school student murdered by police during demonstrations against Rhee and rigged elections in March.

The Second Republic was established during the April Revolution on 19 April and operated under a parliamentary system with the Prime Minister of Korea as the head of government and the President of Korea as the head of state. After Rhee's fall, power was briefly held by a caretaker government headed by Heo Jeong as Prime Minister until a new parliamentary election was held on 29 July 1960.[1] The Democratic Party, which had been in the opposition during the First Republic, easily gained power and Rhee's former opponent Chang Myon became Prime Minister. The new legislature was bicameral, with the National Assembly as the lower house and the House of Councilors as the upper house. The President was elected by both houses of the legislature, and due to the numerous abuses of presidential power by Rhee the position was greatly reduced by the new constitution to an almost entirely ceremonial role. Yun Po Sun was elected as the second President of Korea on 13 August 1960. Real power now rested with the Prime Minister and cabinet, who were both elected by the National Assembly. The Second Republic was the first and the only instance of the South Korean government using a cabinet system instead of a presidential system.

Part of a series on the
History of South Korea
A Taegeuk
Prelude to Division 1919–48
Korean Provisional Government 1919–48
USAMGIK 1945–48
First Republic 1948–60
Korean War 1950–53
Rhee Syng-man government 1948–60
April Revolution 1960
First Interim acting system 1960
Second Republic 1960–61
Gwak Sang-hun acting system 1960
Second Interim acting system 1960
Baek Nak-jun acting system 1960
Yoon Bo-seon government 1960
Jang Myeon cabinet 1960–61
May 16 coup 1961
Constitutional Vacuum 1961–63
SCNR 1961–63
Revolution acting system 1963
Third Republic 1963–72
Park Jeong-hui government 1963–79
October Restoration 1972
Fourth Republic 1972–81
Assassination of Park Chung-hee 1979
Choi Kyu-ha acting system 1979
Crisis Management government 1979–80
December 12 coup 1979
May 17 coup 1980
Gwangju Uprising 1980
CNI 1980
Fifth Republic 1981–88
Jeon Doo-hwan government 1981–87
June Struggle 1987
Sixth Republic 1988–present
Roh Tae-woo government 1988–93
Civilian government 1993–98
National Moratorium 1997–2001
Nations' government 1998–2003
Participation government 2003–2008
Go Geon acting system 2004
Lee Myung-bak government 2008–2013
Park Geun-hye government 2013–2016
Impeachment of Park 2016–2017
Hwang Gyo-an acting system 2016–2017
Moon Jae-in government 2017–present
Flag of South Korea.svg South Korea portal

Politics[edit]

Freedom[edit]

The Second Republic repealed the severe curbs on political expression that had been in place under the Rhee regime, and as a result, freedom returned and an increase in political activity. Much of this activity was from leftist and student groups, which had been instrumental in the overthrow of the First Republic. Membership of unions and activity grew rapidly during the later months of 1960.[2] Estimates suggest around 2,000 demonstrations were held during eight months of the Second Republic.[3]

Under pressure from the left-wing, the Chang government carried out a series of purges of military and police officials who had been involved in anti-democratic activities or corruption during the First Republic. A special law to this effect was passed on 31 October 1960.[4] Around 40,000 people were placed under investigation; of these, more than 2,200 government officials and 4,000 police officers were purged.[5] In addition, the government considered reducing the size of the Republic of Korea Army by 100,000, although this plan was shelved.[6]

Economy[edit]

The Second Republic government was faced with mounting instability in economic terms as well, seeing unemployment and wholesale prices also rose during this period. The won lost half of its value against the US dollar between fall 1960 and spring 1961.[7] The government formulated a five-year economic plan based around agriculture and light industry to decrease unemployment, although it was unable to act on it prior to being overthrown.[8]

Foreign relations[edit]

Chang's government resumed negotiations for the normalization of diplomatic relations between South Korea and Japan, which had not progressed under the Rhee regime that had existed since the end of Japanese rule. The Second Republic established diplomatic relations with many new countries, with Sohn Won-yil, the first ambassador to West Germany, attending the independence ceremonies of Cameroon, Togo, Guinea, Mali, Nigeria, and Morocco,

Dissolution[edit]

The Second Republic suffered from numerous political, economic, and social issues that were both new and inherited from the First Republic. Failure to properly address the issues caused a growth in political instability as factional fighting within the Democratic Party, combined with the increasing activity from opposition and activist groups, led to a breakdown in South Korean politics.

May 16 coup[edit]

Many high-ranking figures of the South Korean military held animosity for so-called "liberation aristocrats" – the ruling class of conservative politicians involved in the Korean independence movement and United States Army Military Government – that they blamed for the stalling of development in South Korea. Military figures noted how South Korea had been intensively developed under the Japanese colonial system and the "economic miracle" occurring in Japan, in marked contrast to Rhee's presidency which saw little significant effort to develop the economy, which remained stagnant, poor and largely agrarian. The lack of development under Rhee provoked a growing nationalistic intellectual reaction which called for a radical restructuring of society and a thorough political and economic reorganization, rejecting the model being pursued by the governing elite.

Park Chung-hee, a Major General in the Republic of Korea Army with decidedly ambiguous political leanings, was heavily influenced by this unfolding intellectual reaction. Park became the leader of a reformist faction within the military that plotted a coup d'etat against the civilian government of the Second Republic on 12 May 1961. The plot was aborted after being leaked, however, the military attempted another coup four days later on 16 May which was successful, dissolving the Second Republic. They proceeded to broadcast a proclamation outlining the policy objectives of the coup, including anti-communism, strengthening of ties with the United States, the elimination of political corruption, the construction of an autonomous national economy, Korean reunification, and the removal of the present generation of politicians. Park and his supporters subsequently established the Military Revolutionary Committee as a military junta government, later renamed the Supreme Council for National Reconstruction. Park became the de facto dictator of South Korea as the Chairman of the Council, while Yun Posun remained President as a figurehead.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Yonhap (2004, p. 270).
  2. ^ Yang (1999, p. 196); Nam (1996, pp. 410–412); Yonhap (2004, p. 270).
  3. ^ Yang (1999, p. 196). Nam (1996, p. 412) gives "2,000."
  4. ^ Nahm (1996, p. 411).
  5. ^ Nahm (1996, p. 411).
  6. ^ Nahm, loc. cit.
  7. ^ Nahm (1996, p. 412); Yonhap (2004, pp. 270–271).
  8. ^ Nahm (1996, p. 412).

References[edit]

  • Cumings, Bruce (1997). Korea's place in the sun. New York: W.W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-31681-5.
  • Lee, Ki-baek, tr. by E.W. Wagner & E.J. Shultz (1984). A new history of Korea (rev. ed.). Seoul: Ilchogak. ISBN 89-337-0204-0.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Nahm, Andrew C. (1996). Korea: A history of the Korean people (2nd ed.). Seoul: Hollym. ISBN 1-56591-070-2.
  • Yang, Sung Chul (1999). The North and South Korean political systems: A comparative analysis (rev. ed.). Seoul: Hollym. ISBN 1-56591-105-9.
  • Yonhap News Agency (2004). Korea Annual 2004. Seoul: Author. ISBN 89-7433-070-9.

Coordinates: 37°35′N 127°0′E / 37.583°N 127.000°E / 37.583; 127.000